Robert-Paul Juster

Robert-Paul Juster
Université de Montréal | UdeM · Department of Psychiatry & Addiction

PhD

About

147
Publications
75,677
Reads
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4,358
Citations
Introduction
I am a neuroscientist that assesses stress and resilience in diverse populations using transdisciplinary methods. My current work focuses on sex, gender, and sexual orientation in relation to stress physiology and mental health across the lifespan. My research team and I form the Centre d’études sur le sexe*genre, l'allostasie, et la résilience (CESAR) based at the Centre de recherche de l'Institut universitaire en santé mentale de Montréal. Email: robert-paul.juster@umontreal.ca
Additional affiliations
August 2008 - December 2015
Institute universitaire en santé mentale de Montréal
Position
  • Research Assistant
June 2005 - May 2007
Concordia University Montreal
Position
  • Research Assistant
May 2005 - October 2008
Douglas Mental Health University Institute
Position
  • Research Assistant
Education
January 2010 - September 2015
McGill University
Field of study
  • Integrated Program in Neuroscience
January 2007 - December 2009
McGill University
Field of study
  • Graduate Program in Neurological Sciences
September 2002 - April 2006
Concordia University Montreal
Field of study
  • Specialization in Psychology

Publications

Publications (147)
Article
There are opportunities to improve neuroscience that includes lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people. In this commentary, we briefly describe how the history of LGBT people in psychiatry has influenced neuroimaging approaches, how these attitudes have shifted over time, and what we can do to ensure that our future work is rigorous, e...
Article
People who have a uterus but are not cisgender women may carry pregnancies. Unfortunately, to date, academic language surrounding pregnancy remains largely (cis) woman-centric. The exclusion of gender-diverse people in the language of pregnancy research in English is pervasive. In reviewing a random sample of 500 recent articles on pregnancy or pre...
Article
Background: Transgender and gender diverse people face significant stigma that can adversely affect their physical and mental health. However, the psychobiological link between lived experience and health has been underexplored in this population. We thus examine perceived distress, mental health, and physiological 'wear and tear' by indexing allo...
Article
There is increased interest in inclusion, diversity and representativeness in epidemiological and community health research. Despite this progress, misunderstanding and conflation of sex and gender have precluded both the accurate description of sex and gender as sample demographics and their inclusion in scientific enquiry aiming to distinguish he...
Poster
Full-text available
Several studies have shown that transgender people report significantly higher rates of anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation than cisgender people. However, very little research has been done to assess trans and/or non-binary and/or gender-diverse (TNBGD) people's coping strategies and resilience, and their specific health and wellness needs....
Poster
Full-text available
Un large éventail de recherches met en évidence les différences sexuelles dans les fonctions cognitives. La littérature reste toutefois mitigée concernant l'ampleur des effets du sexe et du genre sur les capacités cognitives et la santé mentale. L’étude vise à mieux comprendre la façon dont la cognition est influencée par les différences sexuelles...
Article
Full-text available
Treatment resistant depression is challenging because patients who fail their initial treatments often do not respond to subsequent trials and their course of illness is frequently marked by chronic depression. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a well-established treatment alternative, but there are several limitations that dec...
Article
Mitochondria play vital roles in the production of energy and sex hormones. To date, little is known about how sex and gender influence mitochondrial biology in humans. Here, we first explore available evidence of sex differences across domains of mitochondrial biology. The existing literature largely approach sex as a binary construct (i.e., femal...
Article
Purpose: Sexual and gender minority (SGM) people are at increased risk for psychological distress compared with cisgender heterosexual people. Specific SGM subgroups include lesbian, gay, bisexual, gender diverse, and asexual people who each experience unique psychosocial challenges that can result in different mental health outcomes. The coronavir...
Article
Full-text available
Environmental disasters, pandemics, and other major traumatic events such as the Covid-19 pandemic or war contribute to psychosocial stress which manifests in a wide range of mental and physical consequences. The increasing frequency and severity of such events suggest that the adverse effects of toxic stress are likely to become more widespread an...
Article
Full-text available
Sexual minority women (SMW) are at high risk of experiencing stigma, mental health problems, and being victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). This vulnerability can be explained by the sexual and gender minority stress model, stating that sexual and gender minority people suffer from specific stress factors added to general stressors, leading...
Article
Full-text available
Sexual minority women (SMW) are at high risk of experiencing stigma, mental health problems, and being victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). This vulnerability can be explained by the sexual and gender minority stress model, stating that sexual and gender minority people suffer from specific stress factors added to general stressors, leading...
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND Major depressive disorder (MDD) is now the first cause of disability worldwide. So far, no validated and scalable biomarker has been identified to help with response prediction to antidepressant treatment. Cardiac biomarkers such as heart rate variability (HRV) have been studied in MDD, but few studies have examined its potential use for...
Article
The correlates of cognitive sex differences are yet to be fully understood. Many biological and psychosocial factors modulate these cognitive abilities leading to mixed results in the scientific literature. The current study aims to explore the different parameters potentially influencing cognitive abilities acting in synergy. Sex and gender correl...
Article
Full-text available
Early-life psychosocial stress primes a number of health risk behaviors, and contributes to the development of various mental and somatic disorders in adulthood. It has been reported that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and low socioeconomic status (SES) might be associated with allostatic load (AL) in adulthood. In turn, elevated AL index has...
Article
Objective: Depression and anxiety symptoms are commonly observed among clinical populations, especially among women and maltreated individuals. Few investigations have, however, assessed the existence of distinct symptoms trajectories among clinical populations and how these relate to childhood maltreatment, sex differences, and stress physiology...
Preprint
Full-text available
Individuals who have a uterus but are not cisgender women may carry pregnancies; however, academic language around pregnancy remains largely (cis-)woman-centric. There is a dearth of data on the use of (cis-)woman-centric and gender-inclusive language alternatives in research on pregnancy. Furthermore, while the need to include trans, non-binary an...
Article
Full-text available
Background: A paradoxical profile of greater elevated sympathetic vasoconstriction (increased total peripheral resistance, TPR) and increased vagally-mediated heart rate variability (HRV) -the so-called Cardiovascular Conundrum- has been reported in African Americans (AAs) both at rest and in response to orthostasis. Whereas some authors have attri...
Article
Masculine and feminine gender roles influence stressor appraisals and coping in everyday life, but their effect on stress response systems like the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis is unclear. Accordingly, the present study tested the association between gender roles and cortisol responses to repeated stress as part of secondary analyses...
Article
Full-text available
LGBTQ+ people are anywhere from 1.5 to 4 times more likely than heterosexual people to report depression, anxiety, suicidal behaviors, substance abuse, eating disorders, risky sexual behaviors, homelessness, and victimization. Objective The purpose is to describe the development of a mobile application for LGBTQ youth and their family. This article...
Article
Introduction Adolescence is a sensitive period during which many changes occur and may have the potential to affect an individual's cognitive and psychosocial development. It is also during this period that the most abrupt increase in mental health problems is noted. Several initiatives seek to prevent the onset or deterioration of these disorders...
Article
Full-text available
Background A large body of research provides evidence for sex differences in cognitive abilities. These sex differences stem from the interplay between biological sex (e.g., birth-assigned sex, sex hormones) and psychosocial gender (e.g., gender identity, gender-roles, sexual orientation). Literature remains rather mixed with regards to the magnitu...
Article
Early adversity (EA) modulates stress hormone secretion in mixed directions. The Accumulation Model suggests that the number of EA predicts patterns of cortisol dysregulations, while the Life Cycle Model of Stress highlights the importance of considering the timing at which EA began, given that brain regions sensitive to stress hormones follow dist...
Article
Full-text available
Allostatic load is commonly operationalized using a sum-score of high-risk biomarkers. However, this method implies that biomarkers contribute equally to allostatic load, as each is given equal weight. Our goal in this methodological paper is to evaluate this, and complementarily, to identify biomarkers that are most informative and least informati...
Chapter
Bipolar disorder is a severe and chronic mental illness that is a leading cause of disability worldwide. It is associated with cognitive impairments and metabolic comorbidities such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The model of allostasis and allostatic load proposes that internal and environmental stressors solicit adaptive biolog...
Article
Objectives: Gendered inequalities in workplace stress are linked to sex-specific health trajectories that are poorly understood. Measuring gendered inequalities is challenging but necessary to better explain individual differences in occupational health. The aim of this exploratory, retrospective study was to create a measure of occupational gender...
Article
Objectives: Gendered inequalities in workplace stress are linked to sex-specific health trajectories that are poorly understood. Measuring gendered inequalities is challenging but necessary to better explain individual differences in occupational health. The aim of this exploratory, retrospective study was to create a measure of occupational gender...
Article
Full-text available
Transgender and gender diverse (TGD) people are increasingly visible in U.S. communities and in national media. With this increased visibility, access to gender affirming healthcare is also on the rise, particularly for urban youth. Political backlash and entrenchment in a gender binary, however, continue to marginalize TGD people, increasing risk...
Article
Full-text available
Importance Mental health problems are common during the transition from adolescence to young adulthood. Although perceived social support and mental health problems have been shown to be concurrently associated, longitudinal studies are lacking to document the directionality of this association, especially in emerging adulthood (late teens to late...
Article
Exposure to workplace violence puts child protection workers at risk for adverse occupational outcomes. While previous studies have identified protective and risk factors, individual differences in gender roles have yet to be explored. Moving beyond sex, the present study aims to examine the ways in which gender roles influence exposure to workplac...
Poster
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically changed the social and economic activities of the world. Social distancing measures put in place by public health authorities have indirectly increased the level of stress and reduced the number and quality of social interactions maintained by individuals. Because biological sex and socio-cultural gender are i...
Article
Allostatic load represents the ‘wear and tear’ of chronic stress on the brain and body that may differ between men and women. A small but growing number of studies are assessing allostatic load in relation to mental health. The objective of this systematic review was to (1) assess sex differences in allostatic load and (2) identify allostatic load...
Preprint
BACKGROUND In times of pandemics, social distancing, isolation and quarantine have precipitated depression, anxiety and substance misuse. Scientific literature suggests that patients living with mental health problems or illnesses (MHPIs) who interact with Peer Support Workers (PSWs) will not only feel the empathy and connectedness that comes from...
Article
Full-text available
Mental health problems related to chronic stress in workers appear to be sex-specific. Psychosocial factors related to work–life balance partly explain these sex differences. In addition, physiological markers of stress can provide critical information on the mechanisms explaining how chronic stress gets “under the skull” to increase vulnerability...
Article
Background and objectives: Anxiety and depression are prevalent psychopathologies that affect twice as many women than men. Although the role of biological factors has been investigated, it has been argued that gender roles – defined by the feminine and masculine characteristics that society attributes to men and women – should also be considered....
Article
Previous studies have reported a positive association between mobile phone use and psychological stress. However, the reasons why stressed out individuals use their cell phones more are not clear. To gain further insight on this relationship, we performed secondary analyses on a database of 87 healthy young adults aged 18‐35 years who self‐categori...
Article
Full-text available
Background Black and Latina transgender women (TW) experience a disparate burden of HIV and related comorbidities, including poor mental health and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks. Pervasive multilevel stigma and discrimination operate as psychosocial stressors for TW living with HIV and shape health disparities for this population. Gender-affir...
Poster
Full-text available
Stress-related problems are common in the LGBTQ+ community. Sexual and gender minorities face a stressful environment on a daily basis with numerous social stressors like stigma or bullying. Studies have shown that physiological stress reactivity of LGBTQ+ people is also different compared to heterosexual and cisgender people. However, reasearch an...
Poster
Full-text available
Les groupes marginalisés, dont les minorités sexuelles et de genres, sont à risque de plusieurs conséquences négatives sur leur santé physique et mentale, démontrant des disparités en comparaison à la population générale. Les politiques préjudiciables, la stigmatisation sociale et la discrimination des personnes trans et issues de la diversité de g...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: The aim of this narrative review was to demonstrate how the notion of allostatic load (AL) relates directly to the mental health disparities observed between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. We also endeavored to synthesise the results of the limited number of studies examining stress and AL in Indigenous Australians in order...
Article
Living in the past, the present, or the future can affect stress and health. Our group has shown that acute stress (cortisol reactivity) is modulated by time perspectives, the ways we psychologically relate to time. Here, we expand this research with a comprehensive measure of multi-systemic chronic stress (allostatic load). Among 204 healthy adult...
Article
To avoid methodological biases, psychoneuroendocrine studies have generally excluded psychotropic medication users. In workplace stress research, this has limited our ability to understand how psychotropic medication use affects many stress-related measures of interest. In this exploratory study, the effects of psychotropic medication use on stress...
Article
Health risk behaviours (HRB) across the lifespan have been associated with higher cumulative physiological burden as measured by allostatic load (AL). This study examines the contribution of HRB and their effects on multisystem biological risk associated with morbidity and early mortality. We systematically reviewed the literature to assess the lin...
Poster
Full-text available
The burden of psychiatric disorders experienced by Indigenous Australians contributes significantly to the vast health disparities observed between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. The prolonged activation of the biological stress response through various population-specific psychosocial stressors is likely a large contributor to the deve...
Article
Full-text available
Measuring biological sex differences and socio-cultural gender diversity provides insights into individual variation in stress physiology and the development of “sex-specific” diseases. Purpose of Review In this selective review, we summarize recent findings that assess sex and gender in relation to the stress hormone cortisol and multi-systemic p...
Article
Context: Limited research has been done to examine osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) effects on modulating a compilation of allostatic load (AL) biomarkers that work to measure the body's multisystem response to homeostatic deviation. Objective: To examine the efficacy of OMT on graduate students' overall health through an objective index...
Article
This article reviews a growing body of research that examines sleep among lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) populations. An extensive search of the literature was conducted using multiple medical and psychological search engine platforms. In total, this search yielded 31 reports that included sleep data collected from sexual and gender...
Article
Full-text available
In this selective review, emerging literature linking biological sex, sociocultural gender, and sexual orientation to stress hormone functioning and multisystemic physiological dysregulations are summarized. Beyond sex as a binary biological variable, continuums of sex hormones, gender roles, gender identity, and sexual orientation each uniquely he...
Article
Full-text available
Background: People differ in their ability to regulate their physiological stress response. Individual differences in emotion regulation strategies such as suppression and reappraisal may explain this differential response to stress. Objective: The aim of the current study was to assess whether daily use of suppression and reappraisal as well as...
Poster
Transgender and gender diverse (TGD) people have become increasingly visible and access to transition-related care is rising, particularly for youth. Political backlash and entrenchment in a gender binary, however, continue to marginalize TGD people, increasing risk for stress-related health disparities. Nonetheless, research use of biomarkers amon...
Article
Although a majority of people will be exposed to a traumatic event over the course of their lifespan, only a minority will develop post-traumatic stress disorder. Better understanding the factors contributing to the development of this psychopathology is of high importance and could significantly reduce the societal and human costs associated with...
Article
Stigma may strain the heart health of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals. To date, however, LGB-related differences in cardiovascular diagnosis, risk factors, and basal biomarkers are inconsistently reported. Using a laboratory-based stress paradigm, the current study assessed whether cardiovascular stress reactivity differs as a function...
Article
Oral contraceptive (OC) is the most common type of contraceptive method used in industrialized countries. A recent epidemiological study showed that OC use was associated with the onset of depression in young women. Mind wandering, a cognitive process associated with spontaneous thoughts unrelated to the task at-hand, has previously been associated...
Article
Objective: Individuals requiring psychiatric emergency services are often highly distressed and intoxicated. To provide an objective and comprehensive measure of their stress-related physiological dysregulations, we indexed allostatic load with 14 biomarkers collected within 24 hours of patients’ admission to the largest psychiatric hospital in the...
Article
Cognitive impairments constitute a core feature of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders (ADHD), but are infrequently assessed in the clinical setting. We have previously demonstrated the ability of an objective cognitive battery, the Screen for Cognitive Impairment in Psychiatry (SCIP), to differentiate adult ADHD patients from healthy con...