Robert-Paul Juster

Robert-Paul Juster
Université de Montréal | UdeM · Department of Psychiatry & Addiction

PhD

About

170
Publications
89,407
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5,464
Citations
Citations since 2017
113 Research Items
4105 Citations
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Introduction
I am a neuroscientist that assesses stress and resilience in diverse populations using transdisciplinary methods. My current work focuses on sex, gender, and sexual orientation in relation to stress physiology and mental health across the lifespan. My research team and I form the Centre d’études sur le sexe*genre, l'allostasie, et la résilience (CESAR) based at the Centre de recherche de l'Institut universitaire en santé mentale de Montréal. Email: robert-paul.juster@umontreal.ca
Additional affiliations
August 2008 - December 2015
Institute universitaire en santé mentale de Montréal
Position
  • Research Assistant
June 2005 - May 2007
Concordia University Montreal
Position
  • Research Assistant
May 2005 - October 2008
Douglas Mental Health University Institute
Position
  • Research Assistant
Education
January 2010 - September 2015
McGill University
Field of study
  • Integrated Program in Neuroscience
January 2007 - December 2009
McGill University
Field of study
  • Graduate Program in Neurological Sciences
September 2002 - April 2006
Concordia University Montreal
Field of study
  • Specialization in Psychology

Publications

Publications (170)
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Sexually polymorphic cognition (SPC) results from the interaction between biological (birth-assigned sex (BAS), sex hormones) and sociocultural (gender identity, gender roles, sexual orientation) factors. The literature remains quite mixed regarding the magnitude of the effects of these variables. This project used a battery of classic...
Article
Objectives: Using national data from the Health and Retirement Study, this study examined interpartner associations of allostatic load (AL) among 2,338 different-sex couples (N = 4,676 individuals) over a four-year period among older American couples from a dyadic approach. Methods: AL was indexed by immune (c-reactive protein), metabolic (high-...
Article
Sex/gender differences in cognitive sciences are riddled by conflicting perspectives. At the center of debates are clinical, social, and political perspectives. Front and center, evolutionary and biological perspectives have often focused on 'nature' arguments, while feminist and constructivist views have often focused on 'nurture arguments regardi...
Article
Background Various lifestyle and physiological dementia risk factors have been identified. However, little is still known about the role of stress‐related risk factors. Chronic psychological stress affects several systems, such as the immune and cardiovascular systems, and increases the risk for physical, behavioral and mental disorders and reduced...
Poster
Full-text available
Cette étude fournit une base solide pour comprendre la CSP au-delà du sexe binaire et souligne l'existence de différentes voies d'implication des facteurs liés au sexe et au genre selon la fonction cognitive observée.
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Stress, depression, and anxiety symptoms have been reported during the pandemic, with important inter-individual differences. Past cross-sectional studies have found that sex and gender roles may contribute to the modulation of one's vulnerability to develop such symptoms. This longitudinal study aimed to examine the interaction of s...
Poster
Full-text available
Poster presentation explaining sex and gender factor's impact on cognitive functioning over and above binary sex. This transdisciplinary research explored sex and gender through a biopsychosocial perspective.
Article
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Specific concerns have been raised for those suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) during the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly those suffering from contamination fear. Investigation in non-clinical and OCD samples have reported an increase in contamination symptoms in association with the severity of the COVID-19 pandemic. In particular...
Article
Background Child protection workers (CPWs) are regularly exposed to potentially traumatic events (PTEs), especially, aggressive behaviors from the service users. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a peer support program on the mental health and work functioning of CPWs exposed to a PTE, while considering the moderating effect o...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Eating disorders (EDs) have long been considered conditions exclusively affecting women, and studies in the ED field regularly exclude men. Research efforts are needed to better understand the role of gender and sex in EDs. This review describes the role of gender and sex in the development of EDs from a biopsychosocial perspective....
Article
Full-text available
Background: Allostatic load (AL) is defined as the cumulative dysregulation of neuroendocrine, immunological, metabolic, and cardiovascular systems that increases the susceptibility to stress-related health problems. Several dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk factors have been identified, yet little is known about the role of AL and its as...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction The cumulative burden of chronic stress and life events has been termed allostatic load. Elevated allostatic load indices are associated with different mental health conditions in adulthood. To date, however, the association between elevated allostatic load in childhood and later development of mental health conditions has not been inv...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Social isolation and reduced access to public life in response to SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) challenges health and well-being for many. Marginalized communities, including transgender and gender diverse (TGD) people, have been disproportionally impacted. Experiences of TGD people should be centered in pandemic-related research to better inf...
Article
Chronic psychosocial stress increases disease risk and mortality, but the underlying mechanism remain largely unclear. Here we outline an energy-based model for the transduction of chronic stress into disease over time. The energetic model of allostatic load (EMAL) emphasizes the energetic cost of allostasis and allostatic load, where the “load” is...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Introduction/Background * LGBTQIA2S+ people are anywhere from 1.5 to 4 times more likely than cisgender heterosexual people to report depression, anxiety, suicidal behaviors, substance abuse, eating disorders, risky sexual behaviors, homelessness, and victimization. LGBTQIA2S+ youth face unique stressors both publicly (e.g., victimization) as well...
Article
Understood largely from a minority stress framework, sexual minorities (SM) are hypothesized to suffer more physical and mental health burdens compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Several studies have used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in the United States to assess SM health disparities and the ‘we...
Article
Cardiovascular diseases are leading causes of mortality and morbidity in adults worldwide. Multiple studies suggest that there are clinically relevant sex differences in cardiovascular disease. Women and men differ substantially in terms of prevalence, presentation, management, and outcomes of cardiovascular disease. To date, however, little is kno...
Poster
Full-text available
Trans, non-binary, and gender diverse (TNBGD) people face unique conditions of stress and violence in multiple aspects of their lives (individual, interpersonal, systemic). They are more vulnerable to psychosocial stressors and adverse health outcomes. In response to stigma, discrimination and victimization, they may develop diverse coping and resi...
Article
There are opportunities to improve neuroscience that includes lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people. In this commentary, we briefly describe how the history of LGBT people in psychiatry has influenced neuroimaging approaches, how these attitudes have shifted over time, and what we can do to ensure that our future work is rigorous, e...
Article
Full-text available
Informed by minority stress and intersectionality frameworks, we examined 1) associations of sexual identity and race/ethnicity with probable diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD-PD) among sexual minority women (SMW; e.g. lesbian, bisexual) and 2) potential additive and interactive associations of minority stressors (discrimination, st...
Article
People who have a uterus but are not cisgender women may carry pregnancies. Unfortunately, to date, academic language surrounding pregnancy remains largely (cis) woman-centric. The exclusion of gender-diverse people in the language of pregnancy research in English is pervasive. In reviewing a random sample of 500 recent articles on pregnancy or pre...
Article
Background: Transgender and gender diverse people face significant stigma that can adversely affect their physical and mental health. However, the psychobiological link between lived experience and health has been underexplored in this population. We thus examine perceived distress, mental health, and physiological 'wear and tear' by indexing allo...
Article
There is increased interest in inclusion, diversity and representativeness in epidemiological and community health research. Despite this progress, misunderstanding and conflation of sex and gender have precluded both the accurate description of sex and gender as sample demographics and their inclusion in scientific enquiry aiming to distinguish he...
Poster
Full-text available
Several studies have shown that transgender people report significantly higher rates of anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation than cisgender people. However, very little research has been done to assess trans and/or non-binary and/or gender-diverse (TNBGD) people's coping strategies and resilience, and their specific health and wellness needs....
Poster
Full-text available
Un large éventail de recherches met en évidence les différences sexuelles dans les fonctions cognitives. La littérature reste toutefois mitigée concernant l'ampleur des effets du sexe et du genre sur les capacités cognitives et la santé mentale. L’étude vise à mieux comprendre la façon dont la cognition est influencée par les différences sexuelles...
Article
Full-text available
Treatment resistant depression is challenging because patients who fail their initial treatments often do not respond to subsequent trials and their course of illness is frequently marked by chronic depression. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a well-established treatment alternative, but there are several limitations that dec...
Article
Mitochondria play vital roles in the production of energy and sex hormones. To date, little is known about how sex and gender influence mitochondrial biology in humans. Here, we first explore available evidence of sex differences across domains of mitochondrial biology. The existing literature largely approach sex as a binary construct (i.e., femal...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Sexual and gender minority (SGM) people are at increased risk for psychological distress compared with cisgender heterosexual people. Specific SGM subgroups include lesbian, gay, bisexual, gender diverse, and asexual people who each experience unique psychosocial challenges that can result in different mental health outcomes. The coronavir...
Article
Full-text available
Environmental disasters, pandemics, and other major traumatic events such as the Covid-19 pandemic or war contribute to psychosocial stress which manifests in a wide range of mental and physical consequences. The increasing frequency and severity of such events suggest that the adverse effects of toxic stress are likely to become more widespread an...
Article
Full-text available
Sexual minority women (SMW) are at high risk of experiencing stigma, mental health problems, and being victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). This vulnerability can be explained by the sexual and gender minority stress model, stating that sexual and gender minority people suffer from specific stress factors added to general stressors, leading...
Article
Full-text available
Sexual minority women (SMW) are at high risk of experiencing stigma, mental health problems, and being victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). This vulnerability can be explained by the sexual and gender minority stress model, stating that sexual and gender minority people suffer from specific stress factors added to general stressors, leading...
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND Major depressive disorder (MDD) is now the first cause of disability worldwide. So far, no validated and scalable biomarker has been identified to help with response prediction to antidepressant treatment. Cardiac biomarkers such as heart rate variability (HRV) have been studied in MDD, but few studies have examined its potential use for...
Article
The correlates of cognitive sex differences are yet to be fully understood. Many biological and psychosocial factors modulate these cognitive abilities leading to mixed results in the scientific literature. The current study aims to explore the different parameters potentially influencing cognitive abilities acting in synergy. Sex and gender correl...
Article
Full-text available
Early-life psychosocial stress primes a number of health risk behaviors, and contributes to the development of various mental and somatic disorders in adulthood. It has been reported that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and low socioeconomic status (SES) might be associated with allostatic load (AL) in adulthood. In turn, elevated AL index has...
Article
Objective: Depression and anxiety symptoms are commonly observed among clinical populations, especially among women and maltreated individuals. Few investigations have, however, assessed the existence of distinct symptoms trajectories among clinical populations and how these relate to childhood maltreatment, sex differences, and stress physiology...
Article
Les personnes LGBTQ+ sont 1,5 à 4 fois plus à risque que les personnes hétérosexuelles de souffrir de troubles de santé mentale (p. ex. dépression, anxiété, comportements suicidaires). Objectif L’objectif est de décrire le processus de développement d’une application mobile pour les jeunes LGBTQ+ et leur famille. L’article fait partie d’un programm...
Article
Introduction L’adolescence est une période sensible pendant laquelle plusieurs changements ont le potentiel d’affecter le développement cognitif et psychosocial de l’individu. C’est aussi au cours de cette période que l’on note la plus forte augmentation des troubles de santé mentale. Plusieurs initiatives cherchent à prévenir l’émergence ou la dét...
Preprint
Full-text available
People who have a uterus but are not cisgender women may carry pregnancies. Unfortunately to date, academic language surrounding pregnancy remains largely (cis )woman-centric. The exclusion of gender-diverse people in the language of pregnancy research in English is pervasive. In reviewing a random sample of 500 recent articles on pregnancy or preg...
Article
Full-text available
Background: A paradoxical profile of greater elevated sympathetic vasoconstriction (increased total peripheral resistance, TPR) and increased vagally-mediated heart rate variability (HRV) -the so-called Cardiovascular Conundrum- has been reported in African Americans (AAs) both at rest and in response to orthostasis. Whereas some authors have attri...
Article
Masculine and feminine gender roles influence stressor appraisals and coping in everyday life, but their effect on stress response systems like the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis is unclear. Accordingly, the present study tested the association between gender roles and cortisol responses to repeated stress as part of secondary analyses...
Article
Full-text available
LGBTQ+ people are anywhere from 1.5 to 4 times more likely than heterosexual people to report depression, anxiety, suicidal behaviors, substance abuse, eating disorders, risky sexual behaviors, homelessness, and victimization. Objective The purpose is to describe the development of a mobile application for LGBTQ youth and their family. This article...
Article
Introduction Adolescence is a sensitive period during which many changes occur and may have the potential to affect an individual's cognitive and psychosocial development. It is also during this period that the most abrupt increase in mental health problems is noted. Several initiatives seek to prevent the onset or deterioration of these disorders...
Article
Full-text available
Background A large body of research provides evidence for sex differences in cognitive abilities. These sex differences stem from the interplay between biological sex (e.g., birth-assigned sex, sex hormones) and psychosocial gender (e.g., gender identity, gender-roles, sexual orientation). Literature remains rather mixed with regards to the magnitu...
Article
Early adversity (EA) modulates stress hormone secretion in mixed directions. The Accumulation Model suggests that the number of EA predicts patterns of cortisol dysregulations, while the Life Cycle Model of Stress highlights the importance of considering the timing at which EA began, given that brain regions sensitive to stress hormones follow dist...
Article
Full-text available
Allostatic load is commonly operationalized using a sum-score of high-risk biomarkers. However, this method implies that biomarkers contribute equally to allostatic load, as each is given equal weight. Our goal in this methodological paper is to evaluate this, and complementarily, to identify biomarkers that are most informative and least informati...
Chapter
Bipolar disorder is a severe and chronic mental illness that is a leading cause of disability worldwide. It is associated with cognitive impairments and metabolic comorbidities such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The model of allostasis and allostatic load proposes that internal and environmental stressors solicit adaptive biolog...
Article
Objectives: Gendered inequalities in workplace stress are linked to sex-specific health trajectories that are poorly understood. Measuring gendered inequalities is challenging but necessary to better explain individual differences in occupational health. The aim of this exploratory, retrospective study was to create a measure of occupational gender...
Article
Objectives: Gendered inequalities in workplace stress are linked to sex-specific health trajectories that are poorly understood. Measuring gendered inequalities is challenging but necessary to better explain individual differences in occupational health. The aim of this exploratory, retrospective study was to create a measure of occupational gender...
Article
Full-text available
Transgender and gender diverse (TGD) people are increasingly visible in U.S. communities and in national media. With this increased visibility, access to gender affirming healthcare is also on the rise, particularly for urban youth. Political backlash and entrenchment in a gender binary, however, continue to marginalize TGD people, increasing risk...
Article
Full-text available
Importance Mental health problems are common during the transition from adolescence to young adulthood. Although perceived social support and mental health problems have been shown to be concurrently associated, longitudinal studies are lacking to document the directionality of this association, especially in emerging adulthood (late teens to late...
Article
Exposure to workplace violence puts child protection workers at risk for adverse occupational outcomes. While previous studies have identified protective and risk factors, individual differences in gender roles have yet to be explored. Moving beyond sex, the present study aims to examine the ways in which gender roles influence exposure to workplac...
Poster
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically changed the social and economic activities of the world. Social distancing measures put in place by public health authorities have indirectly increased the level of stress and reduced the number and quality of social interactions maintained by individuals. Because biological sex and socio-cultural gender are i...
Article
Allostatic load represents the ‘wear and tear’ of chronic stress on the brain and body that may differ between men and women. A small but growing number of studies are assessing allostatic load in relation to mental health. The objective of this systematic review was to (1) assess sex differences in allostatic load and (2) identify allostatic load...
Preprint
BACKGROUND In times of pandemics, social distancing, isolation and quarantine have precipitated depression, anxiety and substance misuse. Scientific literature suggests that patients living with mental health problems or illnesses (MHPIs) who interact with Peer Support Workers (PSWs) will not only feel the empathy and connectedness that comes from...
Article
Full-text available
Mental health problems related to chronic stress in workers appear to be sex-specific. Psychosocial factors related to work–life balance partly explain these sex differences. In addition, physiological markers of stress can provide critical information on the mechanisms explaining how chronic stress gets “under the skull” to increase vulnerability...
Article
Background and objectives: Anxiety and depression are prevalent psychopathologies that affect twice as many women than men. Although the role of biological factors has been investigated, it has been argued that gender roles – defined by the feminine and masculine characteristics that society attributes to men and women – should also be considered....
Article
Previous studies have reported a positive association between mobile phone use and psychological stress. However, the reasons why stressed out individuals use their cell phones more are not clear. To gain further insight on this relationship, we performed secondary analyses on a database of 87 healthy young adults aged 18‐35 years who self‐categori...
Article
Full-text available
Background Black and Latina transgender women (TW) experience a disparate burden of HIV and related comorbidities, including poor mental health and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks. Pervasive multilevel stigma and discrimination operate as psychosocial stressors for TW living with HIV and shape health disparities for this population. Gender-affir...
Poster
Full-text available
Stress-related problems are common in the LGBTQ+ community. Sexual and gender minorities face a stressful environment on a daily basis with numerous social stressors like stigma or bullying. Studies have shown that physiological stress reactivity of LGBTQ+ people is also different compared to heterosexual and cisgender people. However, reasearch an...
Poster
Full-text available
Les groupes marginalisés, dont les minorités sexuelles et de genres, sont à risque de plusieurs conséquences négatives sur leur santé physique et mentale, démontrant des disparités en comparaison à la population générale. Les politiques préjudiciables, la stigmatisation sociale et la discrimination des personnes trans et issues de la diversité de g...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: The aim of this narrative review was to demonstrate how the notion of allostatic load (AL) relates directly to the mental health disparities observed between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. We also endeavored to synthesise the results of the limited number of studies examining stress and AL in Indigenous Australians in order...
Article
Living in the past, the present, or the future can affect stress and health. Our group has shown that acute stress (cortisol reactivity) is modulated by time perspectives, the ways we psychologically relate to time. Here, we expand this research with a comprehensive measure of multi-systemic chronic stress (allostatic load). Among 204 healthy adult...
Article
To avoid methodological biases, psychoneuroendocrine studies have generally excluded psychotropic medication users. In workplace stress research, this has limited our ability to understand how psychotropic medication use affects many stress-related measures of interest. In this exploratory study, the effects of psychotropic medication use on stress...