Robert J Passey

Robert J Passey
UNSW Sydney | UNSW · Centre for Energy and Environmental Markets (CEEM) & School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering (SPREE)

About

90
Publications
9,661
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
1,252
Citations
Citations since 2016
23 Research Items
566 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100
Additional affiliations
February 2005 - present
UNSW Sydney
Position
  • Research Associate

Publications

Publications (90)
Article
Distributed generation is being deployed at increasing levels of penetration on electricity grids worldwide. It can have positive impacts on the network, but also negative impacts if integration is not properly managed. This is especially true of photovoltaics, in part because it's output fluctuates significantly and in part because it is being rap...
Article
Full-text available
The global climate policy environment is currently characterised by a small number of national or regional ‘flagship’ emissions trading schemes and a very large number of smaller more targeted ‘flotilla’ policies. We use an assessment framework to identify the characteristics of policies that affect their likelihood of introduction and alteration d...
Article
Full-text available
There is growing policy and regulatory interest in better aligning electricity tariffs with the cost of providing network services to customers: to provide a better price signal for economically efficient use of the network, and reduce cross subsidies between different customers. Given that network costs are significantly driven by peak capacity re...
Article
This paper presents an analysis of the potential impact of integrating photovoltaics (PV) into the Western Australian electricity networks. It uses real-time load and Australian Bureau of Meteorology climate data to assess PV's ability to reduce peak generation requirements, defer network augmentation, reduce line losses and reduce the cost of conv...
Article
The significant growth in the number of distributed photovoltaic (PV) systems installed behind the customers' meter in the last decade has provided financial savings for customers and reduced the greenhouse gas emissions of the electricity sector. However, at high penetrations, PV electricity exported to the grid may result in reverse power flows t...
Article
Over the last decade, the electricity sector has seen a significant increase in the number of residential battery systems, as well as increasing interest in using them to reduce demand during network peaks. Although there is an abundance of literature assessing this ability using modelled residential batteries, there is a lack of detailed assessmen...
Article
The penetration of distributed battery energy storage systems in electricity grids globally is forecast to grow rapidly over the next 10 years. These systems can provide benefits for the customers that install them, but also introduce new opportunities and challenges for distribution network operators. This paper presents an algorithm that optimise...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Energy Security Board commissioned the Centre for Energy and Environmental Markets at the University of New South Wales to undertake analysis of voltage on the LV networks within the NEM, as well as distributed PV’s influence on that voltage. This work used a unique dataset of maximum and minimum voltage measurements over 12,000 sites in the LV...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports on a case study of the community group Zero Emissions Noosa, whose goal is for 100% renewable electricity in the Noosa Shire (Queensland, Australia) by 2026. Described within this paper are the processes used by Zero Emissions Noosa to set up their zero emissions plan, involving community engagement and the use of an external con...
Chapter
Full-text available
The authors are Australia-based energy researchers who view a close link between access to energy data and the country's transition to a sustainable and just community-based energy future, which they argue is currently hampered by some major incumbent energy sector businesses and politicians. Rooftop solar (PV) panels are popular additions to Aust...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The shift to low-emissions energy production has gained significant traction in Australia and around the world. Community Renewable Energy (CORE) projects are on the rise, reflecting the desire of communities to take control of their own energy goals, and embedded networks (ENs) are emerging as part of the CORE movement. An EN is operated by an EN...
Article
Increasingly, there are calls for the owners of photovoltaic (PV) systems to pay additional charges on the basis that they are not contributing their fair share to network revenue. Air conditioners (A/Cs) are even more widespread than distributed PV systems, and their use has increased demand peaks and the size of networks required to meet them, th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Local electricity sharing schemes have the potential to play an increased role in the Australian National Electricity Market as the penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs) continues to grow. These models allow participants to share energy between separately owned and operated DERs, however are largely untested. While embedded networks ha...
Article
Full-text available
Increasingly, there are calls for the owners of photovoltaic (PV) systems to pay additional charges on the basis that they are not contributing their fair share to network revenue. Air conditioners (A/Cs) are even more widespread than distributed PV systems, and their use has increased demand peaks and the size of networks required to meet them, th...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This document introduces the Tariff Design and Analysis (TDA) tool, developed by Centre for Energy and Environmental Markets (CEEM), at the University of New South Wales with support from the Australian PV Institute (APVI). The TDA project was supported by Energy Consumers Australia. The open source TDA tool aims to assist stakeholders, including c...
Article
Full-text available
Australia has likely the world's highest residential PV system penetration. In this paper, the impact of distributed PV on peak demand at different distribution network zone substations (ZSs) is assessed by upscaling 15 minute PV generation data from 270 distributed PV systems across Sydney, Australia and comparing it with load data from around 138...
Presentation
Full-text available
Historical generation data from thousands of distributed PV systems in Australia have been used to estimate the average performance of distributed PV in DNSPs’ zone substations (ZS) and the availability of PV during peak demand periods.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Currently in Australia there is a strong movement of communities seeking to live more sustainably. This is giving rise to the development of community owned and operated micro-grids which incorporate large amounts of renewable energy technology. While this is an emerging movement in Australia, there are still questions surrounding how these micro-g...
Conference Paper
Pacific Islands are at the forefront of the trend towards high or even 100% renewable energy penetration of their electricity grids. Many have been highly or totally reliant on imported diesel fuel, with associated price uncertainties and GDP impacts. Countries like Fiji are highly reliant on hydro power and become vulnerable in periods of low rain...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Network tariffs in the Australian National Electricity Market (NEM) have received growing attention in recent years as the main contributor to rapidly rising electricity bills for residential and small business customers. A number of government enquiries in 2012 and 2013 found significant overspending by networks, and a need to review regulations t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Community-owned Renewable Energy (CORE) in Australia is still in its infancy, but has grown rapidly in recent years, particularly in rural areas; allowing the benefits from renewable energy projects to be widely shared. However, significant barriers stand in the way of many projects getting off the ground: such as finding suitable sites and getting...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Solar Photovoltaic (PV) system installations are enjoying a continued and remarkable growth in Australia. Currently there are over a million PV systems installed in the country with an installed capacity of over 3.5GW, the majority of which are small grid-connected rooftop systems of less than 10kW capacity. Australian conditions can be very harsh,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In Australia, PV uptake has increased rapidly, with around 20% of households now owning a system, and Electric vehicle (EV) deployment may increase markedly over the coming decade. While there is growing discussion of the implications of these developments, the focus has generally been on the impacts on households deploying these options, not on th...
Conference Paper
Although in many areas, only electricity industry approvals are required for PV installations, in others, Development Applications (DAs) through local Councils are required. In the latter case, the PV industry, and hence customers, may experience delays, application costs, additional insurance and solar access uncertainties when trying to install e...
Article
This paper presents a methodology for estimating the net marginal societal value of distributed residential PV systems within the Australian National Electricity Market. It includes PV’s potential direct marginal energy value including avoided losses, and marginal environmental value with respect to regional air pollutants and greenhouse gas emissi...
Article
In this chapter we describe the underlying theory, rationale, and mixed performance to date of policy measures that establish a trading market in “energy savings.” Such approaches, under names that include White Certificates, Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standards, Energy Savings, and Energy Efficiency Certificate Trading, are receiving growing poli...
Conference Paper
Since 2009, three energy efficiency obligation schemes have been operating in three states across Australia. As with other schemes operating around the world, the choice of design ele- ments such as the type of target, sectors and fuels covered, and eligible activities differs in many cases across the three schemes. The aim of this paper is to prov...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In Australia, as electricity prices have increased, driven mainly by increases in peak demand, electricity use has decreased every year since 2008/09. The factors most responsible for these decreases include increased electricity costs, energy efficiency, solar water heaters and photovoltaics. Further increases in electricity prices and uptake of t...
Conference Paper
Policy measures that establish a trading market in ‘energy savings’, going under names including White Certificates, Energy Efficiency Targets, Energy Savings Schemes and Energy Efficiency Certificate Trading, are receiving growing policy attention and have been implemented in jurisdictions including Europe, the United States and Australia. They ar...
Article
In April 2010, Prime Minister Kevin Rudd announced the deferral of his flagship climate-change policy, the Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme, after it twice failed to gain the support of the Australian Senate. The decision contributed to the curtailment of Rudd's premiership and confirmed climate change as one of the most toxic issues in Australian...
Conference Paper
Although policy is ultimately set by government, it arises via a complex social process involving interactions between a number of different groups. The final policy design is altered according to the aims of the various groups involved and how well each manages to influence the process. Governments can employ various strategies to navigate this pr...
Article
Full-text available
An Additional Action Reserve (AAR) is proposed as a mechanism to allow for initiatives by government and voluntary private interests to make additional emissions reductions beyond a nationally set cap. The key idea of the AAR is to annually set aside a proportion of the Australian Emission Units (AEUs) which can then be retired if state or local go...
Conference Paper
There has been much discussion about the impact of the Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme (CPRS) on the additionality of GreenPower as well as on other voluntary actions to reduce emissions. The basic argument is that by reducing emissions, voluntary action will free up emission permits that can then be used by others, and as a result, there will be...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The PV Rebate Program (now the Solar Homes and Communities Program) operated from 2000 to mid 2009. Over this time, more than 40,000 PV systems were installed, about half of which were installed in the first half of 2009, and about a quarter of which were in NSW. This paper presents analysis of the characteristics of NSW PV rebate recipients, using...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Australia leads the world in some areas of photovoltaic technology development, yet current innovation system limitations have seen local innovation overtaken by more rapid international development, or local product development moving offshore for commercialisation. Innovation is traditionally viewed as a linear progression through phases of early...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A common focus of policy approaches to drive uptake of energy efficiency is reliance on a combination of price signals and information. These types of approaches rest on the underlying assumption that, if exposed to appropriate price signals and provided with access to relevant information, end users will make rational decisions regarding energy us...
Article
Full-text available
White Certificate schemes are currently being implemented or proposed in a growing number of jurisdictions as a means to drive greater energy efficiency uptake. After briefly discussing some of the strengths and weaknesses of such schemes, this paper outlines a proposed alternative approach--the use of Energy Sales Targets. This approach essentiall...
Article
The New South Wales (NSW) Greenhouse Gas Reduction Scheme (GGAS) in Australia is a baseline and credit emissions trading scheme with the stated aim of reducing the per-capita greenhouse emissions associated with electricity consumption in the state of NSW. Here we provide a detailed assessment of the GGAS design and operation, with a particular emp...
Article
Australia has had an active photovoltaic device research and development program for the past 30 years, with more sporadic interest shown in photovoltaic systems, components and markets. Exciting new developments continue to come out of Australian research laboratories, yet many are commercialized elsewhere and local deployment now lags behind that...
Article
There is considerable debate regarding the potential role of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technologies in reducing Australia's greenhouse emissions. The latest climate change science suggests that major (60% or more by 2050), rapid (peaking within 20 years) cuts in global emissions may be required to avoid dangerous climate change. There are a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The level of interest in nuclear power has significantly increased over the last few years, both internationally and more recently, in Australia. The Prime Minister announced the establishment of a Prime Ministerial Taskforce to undertake an objective, scientific and comprehensive review into uranium mining, processing and the contribution of nucle...
Article
Full-text available
Over 6 MW of grid-connected PV has now been installed in Australia. Most of this is on individual homes across the country and purchased directly by the home owners or, in cases such as the Newington Solar Village, pre-installed as part of the house design. This paper reports on consumer experiences, costs and actual PV performance from several res...
Article
Full-text available
S100A8 (A8) has roles in inflammation, differentiation and development and is associated with oxidative defense. Murine A8 (mA8) is up-regulated in macrophages, fibroblasts, and microvascular endothelial cells by LPS. Glucocorticoids (GCs) amplified LPS-induced mA8 in these cells. Relative to stimulation by LPS, GCs increased mA8 gene transcription...
Article
Full-text available
Greenhouse emissions from Australia's electricity sector are projected to increase and inequitably contribute to global climate change emissions. Development of a least-cost abatement portfolio of technologies on both the supply and demand sides is necessary to reduce emissions. On the supply side, this portfolio will include a diverse range of tec...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change has become a key driver for technology innovation in the electricity industry. A 50% global reduction in greenhouse emissions over this century appears necessary to avoid dangerous global warming. This will require a far-reaching transformation of our current, primarily fossil-fuel based, energy sector. Present technology options for...
Article
Full-text available
The major cause of death in cystic fibrosis (CF) is chronic lung disease associated with persistent infection by the bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. S100A8, an S-100 calcium-binding protein with chemotactic activity, is constitutively expressed in the lungs and serum of CF patients. Levels of S100A8 mRNA were found to be three to four times high...
Article
The parent pyridine nucleotide NAD is the end product of oxidative tryptophan catabolism via the kynurenine pathway. Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase, the rate-limiting enzyme for this pathway, is induced by the proinflammatory cytokine interferon-gamma. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of interferon-gamma treatment on intracellular...
Article
Full-text available
The functional importance of members of the S100 Ca2+-binding protein family is becoming apparent. Murine (m)S100A8 (initially named CP-10) is a potent chemoattractant (10(-13) to 10(-11) M) for myeloid cells and the chemotactic activity of other S100s has since been reported, suggesting a new class of chemoattractants. Murine S100A8 has been assoc...
Article
Full-text available
S100A8 (also known as CP10 or MRP8) was the first member of the S100 family of calcium-binding proteins shown to be chemotactic for myeloid cells. The gene is expressed together with its dimerization partner S100A9 during myelopoiesis in the fetal liver and in adult bone marrow as well as in mature granulocytes. In this paper we show that S100A8 mR...