Robert Muggah

Robert Muggah
Igarapé Institute

PhD

About

103
Publications
59,177
Reads
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2,433
Citations
Citations since 2017
4 Research Items
1293 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
Additional affiliations
January 2009 - December 2010
Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies
Position
  • Lecturer
January 1998 - June 1999
Institute of Development Studies
Position
  • Researcher

Publications

Publications (103)
Article
Focused on Mexico City, this article offers a seminal examination of the relationship between block layout and intentional homicide. The authors applied multilevel random-intercept negative binomial models to assess the contribution of block layout characteristics to homicide counts while controlling for other factors related to the physical enviro...
Article
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The increase in the accessibility of firearms and ammunition represents a key factor of destabilization in many countries. It is also commonly associated with an escalation in intensity and organization of collective and interpersonal violence. In some cases, arms are illegally transferred via diversion from existing stores. In this article, we con...
Article
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The United Nations' 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development recognizes violence as a threat to sustainability. To serve as a context, we provide an overview of the Sustainable Development Goals as they relate to violence prevention by including a summary of key documents informing violence prevention efforts by the World Health Organization (WHO) a...
Article
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There are competing theories of what drives crime in cities and neighbourhoods. Two widely cited theoretical approaches focused on social disorganization and institutional anomie propose different explanations for the causes and dynamics of criminality. Yet these theories are seldom empirically tested, much less acknowledged, outside of North Ameri...
Article
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Stabilisation, as a concept and set of practices, has proliferated over the past two decades and is now implicitly integrated into a range of global frameworks. However, this enthusiasm has at times risked turning this increasingly common, albeit contested, idea into a piece of jargon that discounts its unique facets: a focus on all sorts of violen...
Technical Report
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Gun-related violence has far-reaching adverse impacts on all levels of society. In addition to murder and injury, gun violence can exacerbate cycles of highly localised urban poverty, inequality and vulnerability. India has the second largest number of homicides in the world but the issue is little discussed. In contrast to well-known gun violence...
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In spite of astonishingly high rates of violence, massive public works projects, and repeated natural disasters, surprisingly little is known about the scope and scale of displacement in Brazil. There is a silence in both discourse and practice. The true magnitude of Brazil’s multiple and interlocking displacement crises is still largely invisible....
Article
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After years of shoring up security alliances in Latin America and the Caribbean, Brazil is now looking eastward, asserting its influence across the Atlantic Ocean. Brazil started quietly, providing Africa with technical assistance in science, technology, and professional development. But over the past decade, Brazil has coupled soft-power initiati...
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The process of disarming, demobilizing and reintegrating ex-soldiers at conflict’s end is as old as war itself. The results of these efforts are far from even. Even so, disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) has assumed a central place in the imagination of the peace, security and development communities. It is frequently advanced as a...
Article
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In the decades to come, the city, not the state, will decide stability and development. People around the world have been converging on cities for centuries, and more than half of them live in one today. Western cities have grown so dominant that commentators now speak of “the triumph” of cities and call on mayors to rule the world. The direction...
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An emerging social category - the fragile city - can be described as a discrete metropolitan unit whose governance arrangements exhibit a declining ability and/or willingness to deliver on the social contract. Fragility is thus no longer ascribed by decision makers and analysts exclusively to nation-states and federal institutions. Rather, fragile...
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This HASOW Discussion Paper considers how demographic and socioeconomic factors correlate with homicidal violence in the context of Mexico´s "war on drugs". We draw on Ciudad Juarez as a case study and social disorganization theory as an organizing framework. Social disorganization is expected to produce higher levels of homicidal violence. And whi...
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The volume of firearms sold in USA and trafficked across the US–Mexico border is notoriously difficult to estimate. We consider a unique approach using GIS-generated county-level panel data (1993–1999 and 2010–2012) of Federal Firearms Licenses to sell small arms (FFLs) to estimate the realized demand for firearms based on the distance by road from...
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New information technologies can help unpack the relationships and tendencies that persist in complex networks. We present an interactive, web-based visualization that captures interlocking networks related to the Mouvement du 23 Mars (M23) rebel group in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) to demonstrate the utility of visually summarizing...
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This article considers the extent to which specific demographic and socioeconomic factors correlate with homicidal violence in the context of Mexico’s “war” on organized crime. We draw on Ciudad Juarez as a case study and social disorganization theory as an organizing framework. Social disorganization is expected to generate higher levels of homici...
Chapter
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http://books.google.com.br/books?id=8C4kAgAAQBAJ&pg=PR4&lpg=PR4&dq=routledge+Controlling+Small+Arms:+Consolidation,+Innovation+and+Relevance+in+Research+Policy&source=bl&ots=OkbC5HDKxV&sig=fMGvpQB5fBSrEEFt5-NVnmxZONY&hl=en&sa=X&ei=sR_YU-2GH9LhsAS35YKwCg&ved=0CDMQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=routledge%20Controlling%20Small%20Arms%3A%20Consolidation%2C%20Innov...
Article
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http://igarape.org.br/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/AE-07-Changes-in-the-Neighborhood_10th_march.pdf
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http://www.peacebuilding.no/Regions/Latin-America-and-the-Caribbean/Publications/Mapping-citizen-security-interventions-in-Latin-America-reviewing-the-evidence
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Latin America is one of the world’s most digitally connected regions, and also its most violent. Some governments and civil societies are evolving innovative and dynamic approaches to address the challenges of violence by taking advantage of expanding connectivity. New information and communication technologies (ICTs) are being mobilized to strengt...
Article
Over the past decade small arms and light weapons availability has been singled out as one of sub-Saharan Africa's highest profile challenges. Yet the construction of the threat of arms availability as one of authorised trade and illicit trafficking across international borders has resulted in a narrow focus on regulating lawful exports and imports...
Article
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Disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR) are considered a mainstay of peace and stability operations. Yet, there is surprisingly limited critical examination of how they are negotiated in peace processes or grafted into peace agreements. Given the growing criticism over the design and effectiveness of DDR, it is important to take account...
Article
Featuring a stable democracy and dizzying economic growth, Brazil is fast on the way to acquiring global power status. The country is investing in enhanced multilateral and bilateral relationships as a means of leveraging trade and reducing vulnerability abroad and on the domestic front. This chapter demonstrates how Brazil has increasingly aligned...
Book
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This edited volume provides a critical overview of the new stabilization agenda in international relations.
Chapter
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http://books.google.com.br/books?id=mzDtEmio_xIC&pg=PA369&lpg=PA369&dq=The+Political+Economy+of+Statebuilding+in+Fragile+States+power+after+peace+oxford&source=bl&ots=Q0vttk4BBZ&sig=zSh99NTSsL2K3N-HZTFqvCqWtJE&hl=en&sa=X&ei=XyDYU62NBrjIsAS8uoCoCQ&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=The%20Political%20Economy%20of%20Statebuilding%20in%20Fragile%20States%20po...
Chapter
Full-text available
http://books.google.com.br/books?id=UV2cpQ414XgC&pg=PA315&lpg=PA315&dq=Rethinking+Stabilization+and+Humanitarian+Action+in+the+Fragile+City&source=bl&ots=mVouY_7pnJ&sig=IBqjLG7HvG5GhpsTgF8BIAfT03s&hl=en&sa=X&ei=lCDYU5aGBcu_sQTawIL4Aw&ved=0CEAQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=Rethinking%20Stabilization%20and%20Humanitarian%20Action%20in%20the%20Fragile%20City&f=f...
Article
Full-text available
The international policy community is preoccupied by a purported rise in fragility, conflict, and violence around the world. The World Bank's 2011 World Development Report cast a spotlight on the many ways collective violence undermines governance and socio-economic development. Likewise, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (...
Article
Full-text available
Preventive diplomacy, conflict prevention and other forms of preventive action intended to stop armed conflicts before they escalate to widespread violence are the subject of intense debate. And despite their elevation to a norm in the United Nations, where they have been debated in the General Assembly and addressed in prominent reports from the S...
Article
Jouissant d’une démocratie stable et d’une croissance économique vertigineuse, le Brésil est en passe de devenir une puissance mondiale. Le pays s’attelle aujourd’hui à renforcer ses relations multilatérales et bilatérales en vue de promouvoir le commerce et de réduire sa vulnérabilité à l’étranger et au niveau national. Cet article montre comment...
Article
"There are uncanny similarities between Rio de Janeiro's pacification strategy and ongoing counterinsurgency operations in Afghanistan and elsewhere."
Patent
An award-winning WebGL app visualizing the global small arms and ammunition trade: http://en.igarape.org.br/mapping-arms-data/
Article
The international policy community is preoccupied by a purported rise in fragility, conflict, and violence around the world. The World Bank´s 2011 World Development Report cast a spotlight on the many ways collective violence undermines governance and socio-economic development. Likewise, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (...
Article
Full-text available
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the prior permission in writing of the Small Arms Survey, or as expressly permitted by law, or under terms agreed with the appropriate reprographics rights organization. Enquiries concerning reproduc...
Article
Full-text available
Armed violence is a significant public health problem. It results in fatal and non-fatal injuries and disrupts social and economic processes that are essential to the health of individuals and communities. We argue that an agent-vector-host-environment model can be helpful in understanding and describing the availability and misuse of small arms an...
Article
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Robert Muggah discusses the costs of war and a new analysis published in PLoS Medicine by Madelyn Hsiao-Rei Hicks and colleagues that documents the number of Iraqi civilian violent deaths during 2003-2008.
Conference Paper
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Haiti, the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, has a long history of poverty and violence which was only compounded by the 12 January 2010 earthquake. Using Random GPS Coordinate Sampling (RGCS) 1800 households in the Port-au-Prince metropolitan areas were surveyed in summer 2009 as part of the University of Michigan Haiti Violence Assessmen...
Article
This paper explores the evolution of international stabilisation agendas and their significance for humanitarian action. Stabilisation includes a combination of military, humanitarian, political and economic activities to control, contain and manage areas affected by armed conflict and complex emergencies. Encompassing narrow security objectives an...
Article
Haiti is routinely characterised as an archetypical fragile state. In spite of considerable donor investment in security promotion, real and perceived safety have proven frustratingly elusive. In the years before the devastating earthquake of 12 January 2010, the country's capital, Port-au-Prince, was also the site of considerable experimentation t...
Article
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On 12 January 2010 an earthquake measuring 7.0 on the Richter Scale struck Haiti, causing unprecedented death, injury and destruction for an event of this magnitude. Our aim was to generate a rapid assessment of the primary consequences for the population of the metropolitan area of Port-au-Prince, the national capital. During the summer of 2009 we...
Article
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Policy-makers and practitioners concerned with small arms control have traditionally focused narrowly on ‘supply-side’ forms of regulation and containment. Concerned that excessive arms availability might destabilise fragile and post-war countries, they typically advance a host of activities such as weapons embargoes, export and import controls, di...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Over the past decade, multilateral and bilateral agencies have periodically registered concern over acute outbreaks of collective violence in Dili, the capital of Timor-Leste. But the experience of urban violence in Dili is not restricted to the recent independence period. Rather, the incidence of conflict can be situated on a historical continuum...
Chapter
Introduction The presence of refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) are amongst the clearest expressions of a state's failure to protect its civilian population. Although a range of normative mechanisms were developed since the 1950s to guarantee the rights of those forced to cross international borders, many of these are not adequately e...
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The scale and ferocity of post-war violence regularly confounds the expectations of security and development specialists. When left unchecked, mutating violence can tip ‘fragile’ societies back into all out warfare. In the context of formal peace support operations, conventional security promotion efforts are routinely advanced to prevent this from...
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Urban violence is a major preoccupation of policymakers, planners and development practitioners in cities around the world. Public authorities routinely seek to contain such violence through repression, as well as through its exportation to and containment at the periphery of metropolitan centres. Yet, urban violence is a highly heterogeneous pheno...
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Gangs are popularly considered to be the major security threat facing the Central American region. In focusing on the origins and dynamics of gangs in the region, this article seeks to broaden conceptualizations of non-state armed groups by expanding the theoretical optic from a narrow focus on war and post-war contexts to a wider spectrum of setti...
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This article highlights how the instruments for addressing the presumed source(s) of armed violence need to be sharpened and extended to address the heterogeneous character of armed violence present in many post-conflict situations. These extensions require the development of practical armed violence prevention and reduction programmes that draw up...
Article
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1 Too often, the development community has treated states blighted by fragility and conflict simply as harder cases of development. Yet these situations require looking beyond the analytics of development to a different framework of building legitimacy, governance and the economy. This is not security or development as usual. Nor is it about what w...
Book
Full-text available
This book provides a critical analysis of the changing discourse and practice of post-conflict security-promoting interventions since the Cold War, such as disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR), and security-sector reform (SSR) Although the international aid and security sectors exhibit an expanding appetite for peace-support operatio...
Chapter
Full-text available
http://ebooks.cambridge.org/chapter.jsf?bid=CBO9780511808371&cid=CBO9780511808371A016
Chapter
http://www.palgrave.com/page/detail/?sf1=id_product&st1=279069
Article
Development projects and war regularly lead to the internal displacement and involuntary resettlement of tens of millions of people each year. Though most “internally displaced people” settle spontaneously, a significant proportion is involuntarily resettled into planned “camps” and “settlements”. This article is primarily concerned with a relative...
Article
Full-text available
The end of war does not necessarily signal a return to peace. The organization of a ceasefire or peace agreement, or even the implementation of processes such as disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) or weapons reduction, does not necessarily guarantee improvements in the safety of either civilians or former combatants. In fact, many...
Article
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This article attempts to tease out whether human security has been integrated in institutional discourses and practices, beyond its obviously limited currency in UN Security Council debates and resolutions. It starts from the observation that the underlying priorities of a human security approach - promoting physical safety, violence reduction, hum...
Technical Report
Full-text available
'This manual provides a simple set of guidelines for estimating the economic costs of injuries due to interpersonal and self-directed violence. It is hoped that this guid-ance will support a growing number of scientific analyses of the economic impacts of violence, and ultimately result in additional prevention programmes and lives saved.' (PDF)...
Chapter
There is growing optimism in development and humanitarian quarters that an international regime is emerging to promote and safeguard the rights and needs of internally displaced people. Human rights advocates are adamant that it is not so much an expansion of the existing refugee regime as something radically different. They contend that the new re...
Chapter
http://www.amazon.ca/International-Law-Relations-Bridging-Practice/dp/toc/0415400767
Article
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This essay presents a theory of small arms demand and provides initial evidence from ongoing case studies in the Solomon Islands, Papua New Guinea, South Africa and Brazil. The theory revolves around the motivations and means to acquire arms, addressing issues such as contrasting acquirers and possessors and differentiating between acquirers and no...
Article
Firearms have played a significant role in exacerbating invidious forms of violence in Papua New Guinea. Victimisation rates in the National Capital District (NCD) are amongst the highest in the world. Port Moresby, the country's largest and fastest growing urban centre, accounts for some 34 per cent of all nationally reported crimes, despite accou...
Article
Full-text available
UNHCR's community development approach (CDA) consists of a disparate set of guidelines designed to strengthen the self-reliance of refugees during protracted displacement. It envisions refugees as agents of their own development, and aims to prepare them for a durable solution. But in the absence of basic standards and benchmarks, the CDA is being...
Article
Full-text available
The end of war does not necessarily signal a return to security. The introduction of a ceasefire, peace agreement or even discrete interventions seeking to disarm warring parties, does not necessarily guarantee improvements in the safety of either civilians or former combatants. In fact, many so-called 'post-conflict' environments yield even more d...
Article
Full-text available
This analysis begins with a general account of the political and humanitarian context of the Republic of Congo (RoC) before and after the signing of the Ceasefire Accords in 1999. In laying out the general context of the violence, it also briefly describes a number of interventions undertaken by the Government of Congo (GoC) and the international c...
Article
Summaries There is a growing awareness across many sectors that small arms represent a serious risk to human and global security. Partly as a result of the growing awareness of the problem, the analytical appraisal of their effects has diversified. But the field is undergoing a process of self-definition. This article attempts to trace the broadeni...
Article
The following article was generated out of an urgent need to document new and innovative ways of addressing conflict-induced displacement (CID) in a politicised forum of increasing violence and incremental policy change. Drawn from interviews and field visits in three states of Colombia, the article elaborates a provisional model that systematises...
Article
In this article, conflict-induced displacement (CID) and ‘involuntary resettlement’ are explored through the prism of Cernea's (1997) ‘impoverishment risk and livelihood reconstruction’ model (IRLR) a framework originally conceived to assess development-induced displacement (DID) and resettlement. The paper tests the viability and utility of Cernea...

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