Robert Morley

Robert Morley
Palynova UK

PhD

About

105
Publications
76,138
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5,288
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 1992 - July 2015
Azienda per i Servizi Sanitari numero 5 Bassa Friulana
Position
  • Managing Director
July 1992 - July 2015
Palynova
Position
  • Managing Director

Publications

Publications (105)
Article
Full-text available
The Burma Terrane has yielded some of the earliest pieces of evidence for monsoonal rainfall in the Bay of Bengal. However, Burmese ecosystems and their potential monsoonal imprint remain poorly studied. This study focuses on the late Eocene Yaw Formation (23° N) in central Myanmar, which was located near the equator (c. 5° N) during the Eocene. We...
Article
The study of palynology performed on the Oligocene marine sediment of the East Java Sea provides excellent recovery which allows the construction of palynological succession which applies regionally (Lelono et. al., 2011). In fact, this succession is characterized by assemblages that suggest climatic changes. These assemblages are divided into two...
Article
Systematic biostratigraphic analyses have been undertaken on the Oligocene clastic and carbonate Kujung Formation from the East Java Sea, North of Madura. The succession has been examined mainly using cutting samples in two wells, using a combination of foraminiferal, nannofossil and palynological analyses at regular spacing. Nannofossil analysis i...
Article
Full-text available
In the Miocene, a large wetland system extended from the Andean foothills into western Amazonia. This system has no modern analogue and the driving mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Dynamic topography and Andean uplift are thought to have controlled deposition, with allocyclic base level changes driven by eustasy and orbital forcing also pla...
Article
The evolution and diversification of ancient megathermal angiosperm lineages with Africa-India origins in Asian tropical forests is poorly understood because of the lack of reliable fossils. Our palaeobiogeographical analysis of pollen fossils from Africa and India combined with molecular data and fossil amber records suggest a tropical-African ori...
Article
Full-text available
Aim Megathermal rain forests and mangroves are much smaller in extent today than in the early Cenozoic, primarily owing to global cooling and drying trends since the Eocene–Oligocene transition (c. 34 Ma). The general reduction of these biomes is hypothesized to shape the diversity and biogeographical history of tropical plant clades. However, thi...
Chapter
This paper reviews climate and vegetation history for tropical Asia for the last three million years prior to the Holocene, comparing the history for India and Southeast Asia for the later Pliocene, and Pleistocene, paying emphasis to the last glacial maximum. The Pliocene witnessed the demise of humid tropical forests across India, which were repl...
Cover Page
Full-text available
A micrograph (a swamp fern spore 𝙂𝙚𝙢𝙢𝙖𝙩𝙤𝙨𝙥𝙤𝙧𝙞𝙨 𝙜𝙚𝙢𝙢𝙖𝙩𝙤𝙞𝙙𝙚𝙨 with affinity to 𝘾𝙮𝙘𝙡𝙤𝙥𝙝𝙤𝙧𝙪𝙨) in our paper ("𝗔𝘁 𝗮 𝗰𝗿𝗼𝘀𝘀𝗿𝗼𝗮𝗱𝘀: 𝗧𝗵𝗲 𝗹𝗮𝘁𝗲 𝗘𝗼𝗰𝗲𝗻𝗲 𝗳𝗹𝗼𝗿𝗮 𝗼𝗳 𝗰𝗲𝗻𝘁𝗿𝗮𝗹 𝗠𝘆𝗮𝗻𝗺𝗮𝗿 𝗼𝘄𝗲𝘀 𝗶𝘁𝘀 𝗰𝗼𝗺𝗽𝗼𝘀𝗶𝘁𝗶𝗼𝗻 𝘁𝗼 𝗽𝗹𝗮𝘁𝗲 𝗰𝗼𝗹𝗹𝗶𝘀𝗶𝗼𝗻 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝘁𝗿𝗼𝗽𝗶𝗰𝗮𝗹 𝗰𝗹𝗶𝗺𝗮𝘁𝗲", Huang et al. (2021), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.revpalbo.2021.104441) was selected as the cover image on the cover of volume 2...
Article
Medieval Arab traders, bartering for forest products with indigenous tribes along the unending coastlines of the Malesian archipelago were first to recognise the value of the magnificent dipterocarps, for their camphor-bearing resin which they introduced to the Middle east and therefrom to Europe. Knowledge grew, and then value in international tra...
Article
Full-text available
Myanmar was shaped by the India–Asia collision, fusion of the Burma Terrane (BT) with Asia, and mountain building. Throughout this process new elevational gradients and habitats were formed, which affected the regional climate, but also forged new dispersal routes into Asia and India. In spite of its importance, the vegetation history of Myanmar is...
Article
Full-text available
Aim Forest composition and distribution are determined by a myriad of factors, including climate. As models of tropical rain forest, palms are often used as indicator taxa, particularly the Mauritiinae. We question, what characterizes the Mauritiinae pollen in the global fossil record? And when did the Mauritiinae become endemic to South America?...
Data
Supporting Information 1 (Figs. S1-S8 & Appendices S1-S2) for Bogotá-Ángel et al. (2021)
Article
Full-text available
The Cenozoic sedimentary succession of the Song Hong Basin, offshore North Vietnam is poor in marine microfossils, especially in the early Miocene and Oligocene and subsequently is poorly dated. However, it is rich in terrestrially derived pollen, spores, and freshwater algae. Biostratigraphic assemblages from two wells, termed Well A and B, have b...
Article
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A 2 m thick bed of smectite‐rich clay within a sequence of distal deep water turbidites and marine mudstones of the Temburong Formation on the island of Labuan, Sabah, North West Borneo, is an altered, re‐sedimented pyroclastic tuff which is geochemically of rhyolite‐dacite composition. The tuff bed was deposited in deep water, although probably <1...
Article
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This paper reviews quantitative biostratigraphic data from 101 petroleum exploration wells from the Malay, Sarawak and Sabah basins, and places the stratigraphy of each area into a precise chronostratigraphic framework comprising 41 transgressive-regressive depositional packages which are fully defined here. Each package is ‘fingerprinted’ by foram...
Article
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In the Palaeogene, pollen assemblages at low and mid latitudes are characterized by abundant palm and palm-like (PPL) taxa. Although these taxa have been widely reported, their occurrence in the Palaeogene of Myanmar remains poorly documented. Here we report on the morphology of PPL pollen along a middle to upper Eocene sedimentary sequence in cent...
Presentation
Full-text available
This is a Webinar prepared for FOSI IAGI in Indonesia, covering the following topics: 1 What is palynology? 2 Naming and describing fossil pollen 3 Modern pollen rain and pollen transport 4 Pollen sums and data presentation 5 Late Quaternary studies Late Quaternary climate history and impact of man on vegetation Peat swamps Coastal ecosystems Mari...
Article
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To determine the vegetation and landscape experienced by Homo erectus populations which first inhabited Java. Perning, near Mojokerto, East Java, the 1936 discovery locality of a fossil child's skull widely attributed to H. erectus, and laterally equivalent sediments at Jetis. Terrestrial, mangrove and aquatic plants. A comprehensive suite of sampl...
Article
Full-text available
Unraveling the origins of Malesia's once vast, hyperdiverse rainforests is a perennial challenge. Major contributions to rainforest assembly came from floristic elements carried on the Indian Plate and montane elements from the Australian Plate (Sahul). The Sahul component is now understood to include substantial two-way exchanges with Sunda inclus...
Conference Paper
Fossil palm pollen referred to genera such as Longapertites, Spinizonocolpites, Palmaepollenites, and Dicolpopollis, and the palm-like Proxapertites had a very widespread distribution during the Paleogene. Here we investigate the fossil palm pollen within the composition of the latest middle to earliest late Eocene Yaw Formation in the Kalewa regio...
Article
The chronostratigraphy of the Cuu Long Basin, offshore Vietnam to the south of the Mekong Delta, is poorly understood, especially for the Palaeogene succession. This paper utilises a comprehensive biostratigraphic database from 46 exploration wells to establish a high-resolution sequence biostratigraphic framework for the Oligocene and upper Eocene...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The paper identifies repeated, climate-driven depositional cycles through the Oligocene and Eocene, that can be tied to 406 ka 'heartbeat of the Oligocene' eccentricity cycles, allowing the age of each cycle, and of multiple unconformities, to be accurately determined in a Southeast Asian basin for the first time. The extent of uncomformities throu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Cenozoic sediments from tropical Southeast Asia often contain common pollen of Laurasian conifers and temperate deciduous angiosperms. Their occurrence can be explained by derivation from nearby uplands and thus provide an additional tool to the geologist for the determination of palaeoaltitudes (Morley 2000, 2018). Palynological analyses have now...
Article
Full-text available
The main phases of plant dispersal into, and out of the South-East Asian region are discussed in relation to plate tectonics and changing climates. The South-East Asian area was a backwater of angiosperm evolution until the collision of the Indian Plate with Asia during the early Cenozoic. The Late Cretaceous remains poorly understood, but the Pale...
Chapter
The Cenozoic history of uplift and denudation of mountain regions across Southeast Asia and Eastern Indonesia is complex, paralleling the complex nature of the geological history of the region. Mountain ranges form as a result of plate collisions and rifting. The Eocene collision of India with Asia resulted in formation of mountain ranges in Indoch...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Sequence biostratigraphy allows high resolution mapping of the Neogene across the Southeast Asian region. The evaluation of VIM* depositional cycles from around 200 well sections across SE Asia, from the Gulf of Thailand to the Makassar Straits, allows sedimentation rates to be calculated and compared in approximately 0.4 Ma time slices across the...
Conference Paper
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The palaeogeography of the Sunda region has been subject to dramatic change during the Cenozoic. These changes have been driven by tectonic events and by fluctuations in sea level and climate. After the Mesozoic assembly of the broad area from microplates derived from Gondwana, widespread rifting took place across the region following the initial c...
Article
Full-text available
Biotic interchange after the connection of previously independently evolving floras and faunas is thought to be one of the key factors that shaped global biodiversity as we see it today. However, it was not known how biotic interchange develops over longer time periods of several million years following the secondary contact of different biotas. He...
Data
Supplementary Figures 1-4, Supplementary Table 1, Supplementary Notes 1 and Supplementary References
Conference Paper
Full-text available
An evaluation of regional Neogene sedimentation rates across the Sunda region, together with improved regional palaeoenvironment mapping, has permitted comparison of the major delta and fan depositional systems across the region. This has enabled a reassessment of the palaeogeography of the area through the positioning of the main river systems and...
Conference Paper
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The Meratus Complex, located in SE Kalimantan, records accretion and collision along the Sundaland margin during the mid-Cretaceous. Several authors have suggested that the resultant suture continues northwards beneath the Kutai Basin, possibly extending as far north as Sabah, where ophiolitic and arc-type rocks are well documented. Prominent featu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Cenozoic sedimentary successions of the interconnected basins which stretch from the Gulf of Thailand to Nam Con Son and the successions of Sarawak and Sabah present major problems with respect to the determination of age and environments of deposition due to the sporadic occurrence of marine index microfossils, seemingly anomalous assemblages...
Article
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Borneo’s geologic and paleontological history remains poorly understood because of the lack of outcrops and difficulties with dating. Urban development around the city of Samarinda has produced over four kilometers of well-exposed stratigraphy depicting the progradation of the ancient Mahakam river delta across the Samarinda area, which includes sl...
Conference Paper
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Thailand's offshore Tertiary basins have yielded nearly five BBOE. Exploration initiated in the 1970s and peaked by mid 1990s. Volumetrically the discoveries are dominantly gas (∼80%). Some important discoveries within the northern Pattani Basin have significant oil reserves e.g. Jasmine 60 MMBO. Basins offshore Thailand consist of Eocene-Oligocene...
Article
Full-text available
Tropical Southeast Asia harbors extraordinary species richness and in its entirety comprises four of the Earth's 34 biodiversity hotspots. Here, we examine the assembly of the Southeast Asian biota through time and space. We conduct meta-analyses of geological, climatic and biological (including 61 phylogenetic) datasets to test which areas have be...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Barito and Asem-Asem Basins occupy the southeastern corner of Borneo, and are separated by the Meratus Mountains – an accretionary collision complex that records the suturing of East Java-West Sulawesi to Sundaland in the mid-Cretaceous. The basins contain comparable sedimentary successions of Middle Eocene to Pleistocene age, that suggest they...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Barito and Asem-Asem Basins occupy the southeastern corner of Borneo, and are separated by the Meratus Mountains – an accretionary collision complex that records the suturing of East Java-West Sulawesi to Sundaland in the mid-Cretaceous. The basins contain comparable sedimentary successions of Middle Eocene to Pleistocene age, that suggest they...
Article
Full-text available
Overview of Cenozoic biostratigraphy and biofacies interpretation of SE Asia. Principal microfossil groups used in region are foraminifera, calcareous nannofossils and palynology. Also brief reviews of work done on ostracodes, diatoms and radiolaria.
Article
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Tropical peat swamps are more widespread in Sundaland than in any other equatorial region. Also, Cenozoic deposits from the area are rich in coals. The developmental pattern of present day peat swamps from the region has often been used to help clarify that of coals in the geological record. This paper initially reviews the ecology of present day o...
Article
Full-text available
Sunda region was the scene of widespread rifting during the mid-Cenozoic, resulting in the development of numerous large lake-filled rifts, analogous in scale to the rift valley system of East Africa. The Tonle Sap in Cambodia forms the closest modern analogue for these lakes in the Southeast Asian region. Many of the palaeolakes were long lived, c...
Book
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This publication combines the interpretations of two major sets of data. One is the geophysical data that is used to interpret the position of the tectonic plates through geologic time. The other is based on a long-time search of the geological literature to find, record and evaluate the lithologic descriptions of countless reports around the globe...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The structure and stratigraphy for many of the rift basins in the Gulf of Thailand and southern Vietnam shelf are individually well understood. However, the understanding of the region as a whole, and the relationships from one basin to another, is less clear. Regional paleogeography maps help portray the structural and stratigraphic evolution of t...
Article
Full-text available
The Barito Basin in southeast Kalimantan contains a thick, and well exposed Cenozoic sedimentary succession. The Tanjung Formation represents the oldest part of the succession, and was deposited in a largely terrestrial setting followed by a transgression to shallow marine deposition. The formation is well exposed along the eastern margin of the ba...
Article
Full-text available
The marked biogeographic difference between western (Malay Peninsula and Sumatra) and eastern (Borneo) Sundaland is surprising given the long time that these areas have formed a single landmass. A dispersal barrier in the form of a dry savanna corridor during glacial maxima has been proposed to explain this disparity. However, the short duration of...
Chapter
The history of megathermal (currently ‘‘tropical’’) rainforests over the last 30 kyr is now becoming relatively well-understood, as demonstrated by the many contributions in this volume. However, our perception of their longer-term history remains highly fragmentary. There is a real need for a better understanding of rainforest history on an evolut...
Article
The Neogene climate history of the Makassar Straits has been assessed by combining palynological studies of two Late Quaternary cores from the ocean floor with analyses of petroleum exploration wells from the Makassar Straits, Indonesia, penetrating the Early Pleistocene to Middle Miocene. The two Late Quaternary cores span 30 ka, located offshore...
Article
Full-text available
Rich palynomorph assemblages have been obtained through a marine Oligocene succession from the East Java Sea (Indonesia) and provide the first instance of an independently dated Oligocene succession from SE Asia that has yielded a good quality palynological record. The succession has been independently dated by nannofossils and foraminifera. The pa...
Article
In a recent analysis of the historical biogeography of Melastomataceae, Renner, Clausing, and Meyer (2001; American Journal of Botany 88(7): 1290???1300) rejected the hypothesis of a Gondwana origin. Using a fossil-calibrated chloroplast DNA (ndhF) phylogeny, they placed the early diversification of Melastomataceae in Laurasia at the Paleocene/Eoce...
Article
Full-text available
The paleoecology of tropical Podocarpaceae is reviewed for Africa and Southeast Asia. The family first appeared in the Triassic of Gondwana, after which it diversified through the Cretaceous and earliest Tertiary, and although some North-ern Hemisphere Jurassic records are known, it has essentially remained a southern or southern-derived family unt...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Neogene climate history of the broad Makassar Straits region has been assessed by combining palynological studies of two well dated Late Quaternary cores from the ocean floor with analyses of cuttings samples from shelf and slope exploration wells from the Makassar Straits, emphasising the Attaka region. The wells penetrate the Early Pleistocen...