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Robert Makowsky

Robert Makowsky
Almac · Department of Biostatistics

PhD

About

39
Publications
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Citations

Publications

Publications (39)
Article
A simple bioassay that quantifies feed intake as an estimation of relative attractability of feeds containing different ingredients in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is described. Fish meal (FM), fish protein hydrolysate (FPH), squid meal (SqM) and casein (CN) were assessed at the same dietary level for their relative influence on fe...
Article
Full-text available
Background Controversial findings have been reported in human and animal studies regarding the influence of n–6 (ω-6) to n–3 (ω-3) fatty acid ratios on obesity and health. Two confounding factors may be related to interactions with other dietary lipid components or sex-specific differences in fatty acid metabolism. Objective This study investigate...
Article
Full-text available
We expand a framework for estimating minimum area thresholds to elaborate biogeographic patterns between two groups of snakes (rattlesnakes and colubrid snakes) on islands in the western Gulf of California, Mexico. The minimum area thresholds for supporting single species versus coexistence of two or more species relate to hypotheses of the relativ...
Article
Objectives/background: Sequence variants in HPV16 confer differences in oncogenic potential; however, to date there have not been any HPV sequence studies performed in Nepal. The objective of this study was to characterize HPV16 viral genome sequences from Nepal compared to a reference sequence in order to determine their lineages. Additionally, w...
Article
Juvenile Lytechinus variegatus (ca. 3.95 ± 0.54 g) were fed one of 10 formulated diets with different protein (ranging from 11- 43%) and carbohydrate (12 or 18%; brackets determined from previous studies) levels. Urchins (n = 16 per treatment) were fed a daily sub-satiation ration equivalent to 2.0% of average body weight for 10 weeks. Our objectiv...
Article
Dietary lipids serve as important sources of energy and essential fatty acids for aquatic animals. Sources of animal and plant oils are increasingly limited as well as expensive, and dietary requirements associated with the inclusion of these oils must be carefully evaluated to facilitate sustainable and affordable formulations. In this study, we i...
Article
Darwin recognized the flower's importance for the study of adaptation and emphasized that the flower's functionality reflects the coordinated action of multiple traits. Here we use a multi-trait manipulative approach to quantify the potential role of selection acting on floral trait combinations underlying the divergence and maintenance of three re...
Article
Viviparity, the bearing of live young, has evolved well over 100 times among squamate reptiles. This reproductive strategy is hypothesized to allow maternal control of the fetus’ thermal environment and thereby to increase the fitness of the parents and offspring. Two hypotheses have been posited to explain this phenomenon: (i) the cold-climate hyp...
Article
Bats are important but understudied pollinators in the Palaeotropics, and much about their interactions with night-blooming, bat-pollinated plant species is still unknown. We compared visitation times to flowering and fruiting plant resources by nectarivorous bat species (obligate pollinators) and frugi-nectarivorous bat species (facultative pollin...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Genetic polymorphism along mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) defines population-specific signatures called mtDNA haplogroups. Estimation of mtDNA haplogroup distribution may be prone to errors, notably if the study sample is not drawn from a multicenter cohort. Here, we report on mtDNA diversity in a sample of African American individuals (n = 343...
Article
Growth rates of newly-metamorphosed urchins from a single spawning event (three males and three females) were highly variable, despite being held en masse under identical environmental and nutritional conditions. As individuals reached �5 mm diameter (0.07–0.10 g wet weight), they were placed in growth trials (23 dietary treatments containing vario...
Article
Objective: Kawasaki disease (KD), response to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy, and associated coronary artery disease progression have been associated with genetic polymorphisms in Fc gamma receptor (FcγR) genes. However, it is not known whether the existing gene copy number (GCN) variability relates to KD treatment response, susceptibil...
Article
Full-text available
Land-based aquaculture facilities often utilize additional bicarbonate sources such as commercial sea salts that are designed to boost alkalinity in order to buffer seawater against reductions in pH. Despite these preventative measures, many facilities are likely to face occasional reductions in pH and corresponding reductions in carbonate saturati...
Data
Land-based aquaculture facilities often utilize additional bicarbonate sources such as commercial sea salts that are designed to boost alkalinity in order to buffer seawater against reductions in pH. Despite these preventative measures, many facilities are likely to face occasional reductions in pH and corresponding reductions in carbonate saturati...
Article
Full-text available
Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have become a standard approach for discovering and validating genomic polymorphisms putatively associated with phenotypes of interest. Accounting for population structure in GWA studies is critical to attain unbiased parameter measurements and control Type I error. One common approach to accounting for populat...
Article
Adult Lytechinus variegatus were fed eight formulated diets with different protein (ranging from 12 to 36%) and carbohydrate (ranging from 21 to 39%) levels. Each sea urchin (n = 8 per treatment) was fed a daily sub-satiation ration of 1.5% of average body weight for 9 weeks. Akaike information criterion analysis was used to compare six different h...
Article
Small, adult (19.50 ± 2.01g wet weight) Lytechinus variegatus (Lamarck, 1816) were fed 8 formulated diets with different protein (12–36% dry weight as fed) and carbohydrate (21–39% dry weight) levels. Each sea urchin (n ¼ 8 per treatment) was fed a daily ration of 1.5% of the average body weight of all individuals for 9 wk. Akaike information crite...
Article
Full-text available
Several authors have acknowledged that testing mediational hypotheses between treatments, genes, physiological measures, and behaviors may substantially advance our understanding of how these associations operate. In psychiatric research, the costs of measuring the putative mediator or the outcome can be prohibitive. Extreme sampling designs have b...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Based on expectations from number of mainland source species, islands in the Sea of Cortes are disproportionately occupied by populations of viperid snakes (rattlesnakes) when compared with colubrid snakes. Rattlesnakes are viviparous, produce toxic venoms for consumption of large prey, and have lower mass-specific meta...
Data
R-squared between predicted and observed values () estimated using different number of SNPs with different numbers of relatives in the training populations averaged across validation designs. (DOC)
Article
Full-text available
Despite rapid advances in genomic technology, our ability to account for phenotypic variation using genetic information remains limited for many traits. This has unfortunately resulted in limited application of genetic data towards preventive and personalized medicine, one of the primary impetuses of genome-wide association studies. Recently, a lar...
Article
Insulin resistance has been associated with the accumulation of fat within skeletal muscle fibers as intramyocellular lipid (IMCL). Here, we have examined in a cross-sectional study the interrelationships among IMCL, insulin sensitivity, and adiposity in European Americans (EAs) and African Americans (AAs). In 43 EA and 43 AA subjects, we measured...
Article
Determining the appropriate gene for phylogeny reconstruction can be a difficult process. Rapidly evolving genes tend to resolve recent relationships, but suffer from alignment issues and increased homoplasy among distantly related species. Conversely, slowly evolving genes generally perform best for deeper relationships, but lack sufficient variat...
Article
Full-text available
The phylogenetic relationships and species boundaries of the diurnal geckos of the genus Gonatodes in the Guayana region are examined. Seven species of Gonatodes are recognized for the region, six of which are endemic to this region and form a monophyletic group together with G. hasemani from the southern part of the Amazon Basin. Two of the six sp...
Article
Full-text available
An effective human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine will likely need to reduce mucosal transmission and, if infection occurs, control virus replication. To determine whether our best simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) vaccine can achieve these lofty goals, we vaccinated eight Indian rhesus macaques with SIVmac239Delta nef and challenged them i...
Article
Sexual dimorphism is common in vertebrates that exhibit male-male combat. The Eastern Hellbender, Cryptobranchus a alleganiensis, exhibits such combat and sexual dimorphism has been reported. The most easily discernable dimorphic character, swelling around the cloaca in males, is detectable only during and around the autumn breeding season. We used...
Article
Species that exhibit geographically defined phenotypic variation traditionally have been divided into subspecies. Subspecies based on phenotypic features may not comprise monophyletic groups due to selection, gene flow, and/or convergent evolution. In many taxonomic groups the number of species once designated as widespread is dwindling rapidly, an...
Article
Full-text available
We examine phylogeographic structure across a wide-ranging microhylid frog (Gastrophryne carolinensis) using both mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear (AFLP) data. Species with similar ecological characteristics such as large range size, low vagility, or existence across known biogeographic barriers, often are comprised of multiple, cryptic lineages....

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