Robert G. Lord

Robert G. Lord
University of Akron · Department of Psychology

About

56
Publications
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9,949
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Publications

Publications (56)
Article
We investigated the status of leadership theory integration by reviewing 14 years of published research (2000 through 2013) in 10 top journals (864 articles). The authors of these articles examined 49 leadership approaches/theories, and in 293 articles, 3 or more of these leadership approaches were included in their investigations. Focusing on thes...
Article
Full-text available
Prevailing perspectives on time and change are often grounded in underlying assumptions regarding the forward-movement of time and the relative stability of attributes. In combination, these assumptions foster theories of organizational evolution as a linear progression of a past that moves to the present to the future. While useful in many respect...
Article
In this article, we provide a brief review of the current and past research on leadership perceptions and performance. We then describe four principles that have emerged from many decades of research, which can provide new directions for future leadership theory and research.
Article
Scholarly research on the topic of leadership has witnessed a dramatic increase over the last decade, resulting in the development of diverse leadership theories. To take stock of established and developing theories since the beginning of the new millennium, we conducted an extensive qualitative review of leadership theory across 10 top-tier academ...
Chapter
This chapter reviews and integrates recent empirical findings from neuropsychological research and the cognitive sciences to develop an information processing model that explores how symbolic, connectionist, emotional, and embodied architectures dynamically influence leadership perception and information processing. The authors begin by conceptuali...
Article
In this article, we identify five disparate themes that guide the processing of ethical judgment and behavior on the basis of current research drawn from multiple disciplinary fields. We then suggest directions for integrative research that consider ethical judgment and behavior as emergent outcomes of dynamic processing systems.
Article
Scholarly research on the topic of leadership has witnessed a dramatic increase over the last decade, resulting in the development of diverse leadership theories. To take stock of established and developing theories since the beginning of the new millennium, we conducted an extensive qualitative review of leadership theory across 10 top-tier academ...
Article
After reviewing key findings regarding leadership categorization theory, we develop new perspectives regarding the design of behavioral measures of leadership and the implications of shared leadership and complex adaptive leadership conceptualizations of leadership. In particular, by applying recent developments in cognitive science, we explain how...
Article
Our purpose was to develop a new method of questionnaire administration that better captures the role of affect and embodied cognitions in leadership ratings. Study 1 participants visualized their current work supervisor or a neutral stimulus and provided ratings of their work supervisor. Study 2 participants viewed a leadership event and made rati...
Article
The authors provide one of the first tests of whether justice has effects at implicit or subconscious levels. By manipulating justice in a laboratory experiment, they found that the activation of interdependent and individual self-identities were higher when people experienced fairness and unfairness, respectively. Although these effects occurred a...
Article
Adopting a control theory framework, the authors tested a dynamic perspective which suggests that satisfaction and motivation during goal-striving depends not only on discrepancies (i.e., differences between current and desired states) but also on velocities (i.e., rates at which discrepancies change over time). Two studies with different approache...
Article
Self-regulation at work is conceived in terms of within-person processes that occur over time. These processes are proposed to occur within a hierarchical framework of negative feedback systems that operate at different levels of abstraction and with different time cycles. Negative feedback systems respond to discrepancies in a manner that reduces...
Chapter
This commentary on Kenny and Livi (2009) expands on aspects of leadership categorization theory that are consistent with the application of the social relations model (SRM). It critically considers limits to the generalization of the variance components analysis results described in Kenny and Livi's first example, and briefly summarizes results of...
Chapter
Connectionist Model of Schema ActivationAnalytic IssuesLeadership and PerceptionsLeadership BehaviorSocial InfluenceComparison of Leadership Perceptions, Behavior, and InfluenceConclusions
Chapter
Neural Networks and Statistical ModelingNeural Networks and Psychological ProcessesCatastrophe Theory and Dynamic SystemsFinal CommentsNotesReferences
Article
In 2 studies, this research demonstrated the existence of leader transference, a cognitive process whereby mental representations of previous leaders are activated and used for evaluation when new, similar leaders are encountered. The 1st study demonstrated that exposure to a new leader who was similar to a past leader led to erroneous generalizati...
Article
We use principles from multilevel theory, complexity theory, and connectionist theory to integrate existing gender bias explanations into a comprehensive model of gender bias in leadership, one that can be used to examine and understand how throughout the leadership process gender bias occurs and can affect women negatively. The synthesis of connec...
Article
In 1994, R. G. Lord and P. E. Levy proposed a variant of control theory that incorporated human information processing principles. The current article evaluates the empirical evidence for their propositions and updates the theory by considering contemporary research on information processing. Considerable support drawing from diverse literatures wa...
Article
In two studies, we examined the joint effects of employed participants’ self-concept levels and perceptions of fairness on organizational attitudes and citizenship behavior intentions. We examined the effects of chronic self-concept activation in Study 1, whereas we primed the working self-concept in Study 2. Combining the results of both studies,...
Article
This study took a unique approach to the study of anticipatory injustice by differentiating between implicit and explicit justice judgments when participants were faced with a manager of similar or dissimilar race. Automatic, implicit justice expectations were assessed using reaction time in addition to the more traditional paper and pencil measure...
Article
Full-text available
Although there is a large decrement in central episodic memory processes as adults age, there is no appreciable decrement in central semantic memory processes (Allen et al., Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 57B, P173-P186, 2002; Allen et al., Experimental Aging Research, 28, 111-142, 2002; Mitchell, Journal of Experimental Psychology...
Article
A theory of leadership development is advanced, suggesting that changes in leadership skills may be viewed from the perspective of a general theory of learning and expertise, with consideration of the associated changes in information processing and underlying knowledge structures that occur as skill develops. More specifically, we propose that lea...
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Full-text available
Reports an error in "Integrating neural networks into decision-making and motivational theory: Rethinking VIE theory" by Robert G. Lord, Paul J. Hanges and Ellen G. Godfrey (Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne, 2003[Feb], Vol 44[1], 21-38). The paper by Lord, Henges and Godfrey, referred to in some of the commentaries (this issue), was accep...
Article
Full-text available
[Correction Notice: An erratum for this article was reported in Vol 44(3) of Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne (see record 2007-16858-001). The paper by Lord, Henges and Godfrey, referred to in some of the commentaries (this issue), was accepted as part of the Special Section on psychology without boundaries. However, it was inadvertentl...
Article
A recent meta-analysis by Brown (1996) concluded that job involvement was unrelated to job performance. The present investigation proposed that the null findings reported in this meta-analysis stem from the choice of performance criteria and the use of job involvement measures that are confounded with work centrality in the primary studies included...
Article
It has become increasingly evident that no single prototype or style of leadership applies to all situations. In fact, we argue that definitions of leadership depend upon innumerable situational and contextual factors related both to the leader being perceived and to the broader external environment. To date, however, there is no theoretical framew...
Article
Literature on leadership and literature on culture are each rich and deep, but the two were largely unrelated during the first several decades of their development. In more recent years, many researchers have explored relationships between these two literatures. In this chapter, we identify four developments or trends in the last 25 years of cross-...
Article
This article discusses two means by which leaders can impact on subordinate self-regulatory processes — making particular patterns of values salient and activating specific subordinate self-concepts. Research indicating compatible structures among values and self-identities is discussed, and it is suggested that such structures are automatically re...
Article
Un mode`le de la relation entre la culture et le leadership est pre´sente´ dans cet article; ce mode`le est centre´ sur le traitement de l’information. Nous estimons qu’un re´seau connectionniste s’impose pour une bonne compre´hension de la faµon dont la culture et le leadership influencent les re´actions et la comprotement du suiveur, ce qui nous...
Article
Full-text available
Follower and leader cognitions play critical roles in many organizational phenomena. In this review, we report and reflect on a decade of cognitive leadership research. Following a brief introduction, the review is divided into two sections—one devoted to individual and dyadic cognition, and the other to collective cognition. We identified three ce...
Article
Researchers and organizations have become increasingly interested in transformational/charismatic leadership theories. These authors argue that many reviewers and editors of organizational journals appear to be biased against experimental laboratory research in this area but that the primary empirical approach used to accumulate knowledge so far ha...
Article
Based on R. G. Lord and P. E. Levy (1994), this study investigated the roles of conscious and unconscious suppression processes in self-regulation. As hypothesized, both action-state orientation (reflecting conscious suppression processes) and negative priming (reflecting unconscious suppression processes) had significant positive relationships wit...
Article
The information-processing and person perception literatures imply that leadership perceptions will be based on both affective and cognitive processing strategies. We propose that both affective and cognitive information-processing mechanisms may work at a variety of levels (individual, dyad, and group) to determine followers' perceptions of leader...
Article
Summarizes and comments on works on individual differences in leadership that have appeared in the 3 previous issues of Leadership Quarterly. Four broad themes link the articles: leadership as a creative problem-solving endeavor, the role of experience in determining leader behavior, further development of a rationale for the effects of intelligen...
Article
Our purpose is to understand more fully the role of managerial cognition in organizations. As such, we adopted an experimental approach in studying the use of expert processing in the categorization of organizational problems. We compared the problem categories of 38 chief executive officers (CEOs) in the machine tool industry (experts) with those...
Article
Full-text available
It is argued that the question over whether top-level leadership significantly affects organizationalperformance can be clarified by properly interpreting the results of executive succession studies that have used economic aspects of organizational performance as criteria. When several methodological concerns are addressed, it is evident that execu...
Article
The relation between two different types of schematic processing and memory for events or leader behavior were investigated in a sample of 120 student observers who viewed the videotaped interaction of a five-person board meeting. It was hypothesized that two experimental factors, observational purpose and observers' knowledge about group goals, wo...
Article
In this paper, a control theory model of human motivation is described. The basic units of this model (goals, sensor, comparator, decision mechanism, and effector mechanism) are explained, system states and boundary conditions are specified, and propositions based on the model are developed. The consequences of controlling different parameters are...
Article
Reexamines, via meta-analysis, the relation between personality traits and leadership perceptions or extent of leader emergence, arguing that prior research on trait theories and leadership has been misinterpreted as applying to a leader's effect on performance when it actually pertains to the relation of leadership traits to leadership emergence....
Article
The accuracy of leadership questionnaires has been the subject of considerable debate in recent years. Although research has demonstrated that such measures can often be systematically biased indices of leader behavior, the issues surrounding the appropriate use of questionnaires are far from resolved. To help clarify some of these concerns, the pr...
Article
This study examined the validity of four alternative information processing models which specify how interaction behavior related to social perceptions in a small group problem-solving experiment. Results indicated that leadership and social power perceptions were based on relative, as opposed to absolute, frequency of behaviors and that this relat...
Article
This paper reports results from a series of studies designed to directly test a categorization-based model of leadership perceptions in three areas: specifying the internal structure of leadership categories, investigating the accessibility and importance of various individual behaviors in making leadership judgments, and explaining leadership perc...
Article
Most of the research on goal setting has focused on the relationship between goals and subsequent performance. Much less research has been directed at explaining why goal setting works or at integrating it with other motivational theories. In this paper a control systems model of motivation is developed in which a goal is considered a referent or d...
Article
Investigated the relationship between leadership prototypes and memory for leadership behavior in 128 student observers who viewed a videotaped interaction of a 4-person problem-solving group. After viewing the tape, Ss were provided with bogus performance information and then completed a specially constructed descriptive leadership questionnaire t...
Article
Tested a categorization-based model of leadership perception in 2 studies on political leadership. The impact on leader description both of labeling someone as a leader and of the extent to which traits are seen as being prototypical of leaders was investigated. In the 1st study, 120 undergraduates rated the prototypicality of 17 items taken from a...
Article
The potential importance of causal ascriptions in determining perceptions of leadership were investigated. Observer—subjects (N = 128) viewed one of two videotapes of the same four-person problem solving group with the salience of the group's leader, the existence of alternative causal explanations for performance, and the group's performance being...
Article
Individual and organizational correlates of employees who refuse seniority-based promotions in union lines of progression are examined. The sample consisted of 313 production employees of a large manufacturing complex. Correlational and discriminant analyses revealed that age, being female, and number of employees in the department related positive...
Article
Assigned 144 college student observers to a 2 × 3 × 2 factorial design in which leader behavior, bogus performance information, and time of rating were manipulated. Although results indicate that the delay in rating led to a marginal increased reliance of bogus performance information for leadership descriptions, the behavioral effect on the rating...
Article
This study focused on the role of member familiarity and the nature of performance cues as determinants of the relation between performance information and group process ratings. Specifically, groups performed three 1-hr experimental tasks on separate days and were given bogus performance feedback indicating either poor, poor, poor; poor, good, poo...
Article
The contributions of rater sex and personality to perceptions of emergent leadership, influence, and social power were investigated in 96 undergraduates comprising 24 4-person groups that performed 4 tasks varying in process and output interdependence. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that rater sex, locus of control (Rotter's Internal–Ex...
Article
The effects on intrinsic motivation of pay contingencies and amounts of competence information were investigated using a 2 × 2 factorial design with 56 male undergraduates performing a computer-simulated lunar landing task. As predicted, the pay contingency manipulation significantly affected attributions of causality due to financial rewards. It h...
Article
Three situational variables, task interdependence, temporal phase, and cognitive heterogeneity were hypothesized to affect the occurrence of leadership behavior and to moderate the relation between leadership behavior and performance. Results from a laboratory study of problem solving in four-person groups indicated that leadership behaviors which...
Article
It has been suggested that questionnaire-based measures of leadership behavior reflect not only ratee behavior, but also a systematic bias introduced by the perceptual-memory processes of raters (Rush, M. C., Thomas, J. C., & Lord, R. G. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 1977, 20, 93–110). This study experimentally manipulated both sti...
Article
The effect of implicit leadership theories on consideration and initiating structure ratings from the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (XII) was investigated. Factor loadings obtained from students under a limited information condition were compared with those from reported field data. The consideration factors were found to be highly cong...

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