Robert F Leeman

Robert F Leeman
University of Florida | UF · Department of Health Education and Behaviour

Ph.D.

About

142
Publications
14,195
Reads
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3,371
Citations
Introduction
Skills and Expertise
Additional affiliations
September 2005 - August 2015
Yale University
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
September 2001 - August 2005
University of Pennsylvania
Position
  • PhD Student

Publications

Publications (142)
Article
Full-text available
The Sexual Delay Discounting Task (SDDT; Johnson & Bruner, 2012) is a behavioral economic task that assesses sexual risk-taking by measuring likelihood of immediate and delayed condom use. The SDDT is ecologically valid and has been used to test effects of various substances on sexual risk-taking. However, considerable variety in implementation, an...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Alcohol misuse is highly prevalent in the U.S. and results in a great financial and public health burden. Current alcohol reduction treatments are underutilized and there is a critical need for innovation in the field. Transdermal alcohol biosensors measure alcohol use passively and continuously and may be helpful tools in alcohol interv...
Article
Full-text available
Alcohol use is associated with poor outcomes among people living with HIV (PLWH), but it remains unclear which alcohol use measures best predict future HIV viral non-suppression over time. This study aimed to compare the ability of five alcohol use measures to predict risk of suboptimal HIV viral load trajectories over 36 months. We analyzed data f...
Article
Men who have sex with men (MSM) account for two-thirds of new HIV diagnoses. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), a highly efficacious HIV preventive medication, is underutilized. Identifying correlates of PrEP awareness and attitudes may help increase PrEP use. Thus, we evaluated (1) PrEP awareness; (2) differences in awareness related to substance us...
Article
Objective Naltrexone is an effective treatment for heavy drinking among young adults, and laboratory-based studies have shown that naltrexone dampens the subjective response to alcohol and craving. However, few studies have tested naltrexone’s dynamic, within-person effects on subjective response and craving among young adults in natural drinking...
Article
Full-text available
Alcohol-using Black MSM (Men who have sex with men) are disproportionately impacted by HIV in the U.S.—particularly in the southern U.S.—despite the availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART). The purpose of this study was to summarize the current evidence on alcohol use and ART adherence among Black MSM in the U.S. and in the South and to identi...
Article
Objective: Innovative strategies are needed to reduce young adult drinking. Real-time feedback via mobile health (mHealth) technology (e.g., smartphone devices/apps) may facilitate moderate drinking, yet requires evidence of feasibility, acceptability, and usability. Method: Young adults reporting frequent heavy drinking (N = 99, Mage = 23, 51%...
Article
Recent studies have extended the acquired preparedness model to experimental data, finding that impulsivity predicts subjective alcohol response, a related yet distinct construct from expectancies. However, studies have not tested whether specific facets of impulsivity predict subjective response, or whether impulsivity indirectly predicts alcohol...
Article
Background Transdermal alcohol biosensors can objectively monitor alcohol use by measuring transdermal alcohol concentration (TAC). However, it is unclear how sociodemographic and clinical factors that influence alcohol metabolism are associated with TAC. The main aim of this study was to examine how sociodemographic factors (sex, age, race/ethnici...
Article
Introduction: Among people living with HIV (PLWH), alcohol use can have negative impacts beyond HIV-related outcomes. The objectives of this study are to identify the most common alcohol-related consequences among PLWH in Florida and describe factors associated with experiencing more alcohol-related consequences. Methods: Data were collected from P...
Article
Wrist-worn alcohol biosensor technology has developed rapidly in recent years. These devices are light, easy to wear, relatively inexpensive, and resemble commercial fitness trackers. As a result, they may be more suitable for a wide range of clinical and research applications. In this paper, we describe three pilot projects examining the associati...
Article
Aims Theory‐driven, exploratory study to: (1) identify a reward drinking phenotype in young adults, (2) evaluate this phenotype as a predictor of naltrexone response, and (3) examine mechanisms of naltrexone in reward drinkers. Design Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Setting USA. Participants 128 young adult (ages 18‐25) heav...
Chapter
Neurobiological and clinical data indicate that maladaptive engagement in certain behaviors warrants consideration as “behavioral” or non-substance addictions. This chapter reviews existing neurobiological and genetic/family history evidence for behavioral addictions involving gambling, internet use, video-gaming, sex, eating, and shopping. At a ne...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Impulsivity is a hallmark feature of self-regulation failures that lead to poor health decisions and outcomes, making understanding and treating impulsivity one of the most important constructs to tackle in building a culture of health. Despite a large literature base, impulsivity measurement remains difficult due to the multi-dimensiona...
Article
Full-text available
Background The classic Marshmallow Test, where children were offered a choice between one small but immediate reward (eg, one marshmallow) or a larger reward (eg, two marshmallows) if they waited for a period of time, instigated a wealth of research on the relationships among impulsive responding, self-regulation, and clinical and life outcomes. Im...
Article
Self-Discrepancy Theory (Higgins, 1987) predicts that the difference between the ideal and the actual self will be associated with impaired-control-over-drinking (IC; dysregulated drinking beyond one's own limits) as well as alcohol-related-problems. According to Slaney et al. (2001) perfectionism is a multi-faceted personality trait which represen...
Article
Full-text available
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Guided by the health belief model and social identity theory, we aim to identify socio-cultural and psychological factors that influence rural tobacco users a) participation in research and b) quitting tobacco use. We also explore how citizen scientists are perceived as disseminators of messages. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In Phase...
Article
Background: Alcohol consistently impairs response inhibition in the lab, and alcohol impairment of response inhibition may lead to excess consumption or increases in intoxicated risk behavior, both of which contribute to risk for alcohol-related problems. To our knowledge, no prior studies have examined relations between alcohol-impairment of resp...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Two thirds of adults experience at least one lifetime traumatic incident. Specifically, childhood traumas (physical neglect, emotional neglect, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and sexual abuse) are associated with increased alcohol use. According to the self-medication hypothesis, alcohol is used to alleviate upsetting thoughts and memor...
Article
Full-text available
Background Little is known about designing research recruitment campaigns that connect with underserved, geographically isolated rural populations. A theoretically informed process is needed to assist research teams and practitioners in their evaluation of Facebook’s feasibility as a recruitment tool and development of online materials for recruiti...
Article
Genetically modified foods (GMFs) have met with strong opposition for most of their existence. According to one account—the consequence-based perspective (CP)—lay people oppose GMFs because they deem them unsafe as well as of dubious value. The CP is backed by the data and offers a clear solution for easing GMF opposition. However, several scholars...
Article
Objective: Marijuana and nonprescription opioids remain the two most commonly used illicit substances in the United States. They have commonalities, yet the use of both at the same time may have a greater impact on psychological and health outcomes. Research is needed to determine whether dual-use is associated with more negative outcomes than ind...
Article
Impulsivity and subjective response (SR) to alcohol (i.e., individual differences in sensitivity to pharmacologic alcohol effects) are both empirically supported risk factors for alcohol use disorder; however, these constructs have been infrequently studied as related risk factors. The present investigation examined a self-report measure of impulsi...
Article
Background: Morbidity and mortality attributed to prescription opioids are a crisis in the US and spreading globally. Sex differences related to these conditions have not been adequately assessed. Methods: Through our community engagement program, data on demographics, health status, and substance use, including prescription opioids (e.g., Vicod...
Poster
Full-text available
Study Aim: Examine the effect of alcohol self-administration on APT demand indices in a human laboratory paradigm.
Article
Devaluing or diminishing the worth of others is how many individuals destroy their relationships, such as by drinking beyond limits at inappropriate times and letting others down. Impaired control over drinking (IC) reflects consuming alcohol beyond predetermined limits. This investigation sought to determine whether facets of vulnerable narcissism...
Article
Full-text available
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Our overarching theoretical framework is the health belief model (HBM). Guided by HBM, we aim to identify rural adults’ perceived barriers and motivations to participating in research. Specifically, our research questions are listed below. RQ1: What socio-cultural factors influence rural tobacco users’ intentions to a) par...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Cocaine use is increasing and many cocaine users engage in polysubstance use. Within polysubstance use, relationships among use of individual substances are necessarily complex. To address this complexity, we used latent class analysis (LCA) to identify patterns of polysubstance use among lifetime cocaine users and examine associations...
Article
Aims: Subjective response to alcohol and impulsivity are both independent predictors of alcohol use and may be related risk factors for alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Recent findings suggest that more impulsive individuals may experience higher risk subjective response patterns at moderate-to-high doses of alcohol. However, whether these relationshi...
Article
Impulsivity's relationships to addictive and sexual behaviours raise questions regarding the extent impulsivity may constitute a vulnerability factor for subsequent addictive and sexual behaviours and/or results from each of these. Here, we systematically reviewed empirical support for impulsivity as a precipitating factor or a consequence of addic...
Article
Background: Positive alcohol expectancy (AE) contributes to excessive drinking. Many imaging studies have examined cerebral responses to alcohol cues and how these regional processes related to problem drinking. However, it remains unclear how AE relates to cue response and whether AE mediates the relationship between cue response and problem drin...
Article
Background: Social Learning Theory suggests how one conceptualizes time will be passed from parent to child (Bandura & Walters, 1963). Through the lens of Behavioral Economics Theory (Vuchinich & Simpson, 1998), impaired control may be characterized as consuming alcohol as a form of immediate gratification as a choice over more distal rewards. Bec...
Article
Scott, Inbar and Rozin (2016) presented evidence that trait disgust predicts opposition to genetically modified food (GMF). Royzman, Cusimano, and Leeman (2017) argued that these authors did not appropriately measure trait disgust (disgust qua oral inhibition or OI) and that, once appropriately measured, the hypothesized association between disgust...
Article
Objective: Drinking goals set at treatment onset predict treatment outcome in patients with alcohol use disorders. Yet the cognitive constructs of goal setting and goal attainment are understudied in young adult drinkers. This study sought to examine how the interplay of goal setting and goal attainment during treatment impacts treatment outcome i...
Article
Wearable alcohol biosensors have emerged as a valuable tool for noninvasive, objective and continuous monitoring of alcohol consumption. However, to date their research and clinical applications have been limited by several factors including large size, high cost, and social stigma. In contrast, recently developed wrist-worn alcohol biosensors are...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Addressing nicotine dependence is key to effective smoking cessation. While self-report measures of nicotine dependence are often challenged for their reliability and validity, there is a lack of non-invasive and inexpensive objective measures of nicotine dependence. In this study, we aimed to explore the potential of using video-assis...
Article
Full-text available
Mild traumatic brain injury, commonly known as a concussion, has gained widespread public attention. Approximately 1.1 to 1.9 million children ≤18 years old suffer sport/recreation-related concussions in the U.S. annually. The purpose of this review was to assess research articles examining concussion knowledge of youth sport athletes, coaches and...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Anxiety sensitivity (AS) reflects an individual's belief that experiencing anxiety will cause illness or embarrassment, and may be a reason individuals self-medicate with alcohol. Harsh or indulgent parenting could contribute to the development of AS. We examined the direct and indirect associations between parenting styles and alcohol...
Article
Background: Young adult heavy drinking is an important public health concern. Current interventions have efficacy but with only modest effects, thus novel interventions are needed. In prior studies, heavy drinkers, including young adults, have demonstrated stronger automatically triggered approach tendencies to alcohol-related stimuli than lighter...
Article
Tension Reduction Theory (Kushner, Sher, Wood, & Wood, 1994) suggests alcohol is used as a means to alleviate negative affect (NA) such as shame and guilt. Shame is an internalized response in which blame is placed on the self, while guilt is not internalized and the blame is placed on the situation (Dearing, Stuewig, & Tangney, 2005). This study a...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Impulsivity and subjective response to alcohol are predictors of alcohol use disorder. The purpose of this study was to replicate and extend prior research examining relationships between impulsivity and subjective response patterns. In addition, impulsivity and initial subjective response patterns were examined in relation to current h...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction The proliferation of electronic devices, such as vape-pens, has provided alternative means for cannabis use. Research has found cannabis-vaping (i.e., vape-pen use) is associated with lower perceived risks and higher cannabis use. Knowledge of these products may increase likelihood of subsequent use. As policies for cannabis shift, bel...
Article
In line with earlier research, a multi-phase study found a significant positive association between a widely used measure of trait disgust and people’s tendency to favor absolutist (non-consequentialist) restrictions on genetically modified food (GMF). However, a more nuanced high-granularity approach showed that it was individual sensitivity to fe...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose of review: This review investigates effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent drinking. Prior reviews focused on behavioral outcomes and long-term effects. In contrast, the present review focuses on subgroups with greater exposure to alcohol advertising, research methods to study alcohol advertising, potential mechanisms underlying rela...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Drawing on constructs from the trauma literature, the current study evaluated perceptions of safety and controllability of events as potential markers of risk for marijuana use. In addition, we characterized these perceptions in relation to individual level substance abuse risk factors (marijuana expectancies, impulsivity, depression, and...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Young adults with higher trait urgency (i.e., a tendency to act rashly in response to heightened affect) may be especially vulnerable to heavy drinking. The current study examined 1) the influence of urgency on daily relations between affect and drinking to intoxication, and 2) whether urgency influenced the effectiveness of naltrexone...
Article
Full-text available
Heavy drinking among young adults is a serious public health problem. Naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, has been shown to reduce drinking in young adults compared to placebo and can be taken on a targeted (i.e., as needed) basis. Understanding risk factors for drinking and naltrexone effects within-person in young adults may help to optimize the us...
Article
Objective: Tertiary Health Research Intervention via Email (THRIVE), a very brief, freely available, multicomponent Web-based alcohol intervention originally developed and tested among students in Australia and New Zealand, was tested in the United States. We also evaluated effects of systematically varying the protective behavioral strategies (PB...
Article
Background: Cocaine and opioid co-use is a notable public health concern, but little is known about correlates of this behavior. Most prior findings come from treatment samples and concern cocaine and heroin. Findings from a nationally representative sample involving primarily prescription opioid misuse would expand knowledge. Methods: Past-12-m...
Article
Objective: Behavioral interventions for young adults show limited effects 1-year posttreatment. Few studies have examined the longitudinal outcomes of pharmacotherapy trials to reduce heavy drinking. This study examined the posttreatment, longitudinal effects of the first placebo-controlled trial of naltrexone in young adult heavy drinkers. Metho...
Article
Full-text available
Very-brief, web-based alcohol interventions have great potential due to their convenience, ease of dissemination, and college students' stated preference for this intervention modality. To address the efficacy of these interventions, we conducted a review of the literature to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Fifteen published reports w...
Article
The paper critically reexamines the well-known “Julie and Mark” vignette, a stylized account of two college-age siblings opting to engage in protected sex while vacationing abroad (e.g., Haidt, 2001). Since its inception, the story has been viewed as a rhetorically powerful validation of Hume’s “sentimentalist” dictum that moral judgments are not r...