Robert E Larzelere

Robert E Larzelere
Oklahoma State University - Stillwater | Oklahoma State · Department of Human Development and Family Science

Ph.D.

About

127
Publications
57,038
Reads
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5,128
Citations
Introduction
I got into parenting research to improve how research can help children maximize their full potential. Why should other areas, such as medical practice and technological progress, benefit from the best research while children's welfare gets left behind? More specifically, the major research questions guiding my work for the past 3 decades include: (1) What disciplinary tactics should we tell parents to use to replace spanking when we tell them not to spank their children? (2) Can spanking be used in optimal ways to enhance child outcomes, perhaps by enforcing milder disciplinary tactics so that parents can use them more effectively? (2) How can research methods go beyond correlational evidence to clarify what is causing what without the benefits of conclusive randomized studies?
Additional affiliations
August 2006 - present
Oklahoma State University - Stillwater
Position
  • Professor (Full)
April 1998 - July 2006
University of Nebraska Medical Center
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Education
September 1974 - March 1979
Penn State University
Field of study
  • Human Development & Family Studies

Publications

Publications (127)
Article
Assessing teaching styles with a valid and reliable instrument would assist in the measurement of an important variable that affects children's socio-emotional and cognitive development. Evaluation of teaching style in the early childhood classroom is difficult, as collecting data from the early childhood classroom often lies in the reliance on sec...
Article
Objective To examine the psychometric properties of Snyder's Children's Hope Scale (CHS) with first- and second-generation Latino immigrant youth, using item response theory, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, and measurement invariance tests. Background Stress experienced by youth in 2020 has heightened interest in resilience factors s...
Preprint
The reputation of psychological science depends on the adequacy of the science underlying its policy recommendations. This commentary raises concerns about the science used by Heilman et al. (2021) in their recent narrative (not meta-analytic) review that encourages spanking bans worldwide. By reviewing controlled longitudinal studies, Heilmann et...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we make the case for Shared Language Erosion as a potential explanation for the negative outcomes described in the immigrant paradox for second- and third- generation immigrants (e.g., declines in physical, mental, and behavioral health). While not negating the important role of cultural adaptation, we posit that parent-child communic...
Article
Full-text available
Scotland is apparently going to enforce their recent spanking ban as vigorously as Sweden did. How then can they avoid the 5-fold to 11-fold increases in criminal assaults against children that occurred there, according to Swedish criminal records? This article recommends timeout enforced by a brief room isolation as the most effective alternatives...
Article
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Introduction: Valid causal inferences are necessary to use developmental research to improve adolescent outcomes. What type of change should be analyzed to approximate causal inferences from longitudinal data? Difference-score and ANCOVA-type analyses often produce contradictory results, a problem known as Lord’s paradox. This study investigates 2-...
Poster
Full-text available
Physical child abuse increases after spanking bans; decreases after a limited spanking law. Effective replacements for mild spanking are needed to stop parents' escalating frustration with defiant children
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Physical child abuse increases after spanking bans; decreases after a limited spanking law. Effective replacements for mild spanking are needed to stop parents’ escalating frustration with defiant children.
Article
Full-text available
Objectives The purpose of this study is to explore how momentary parenting goals vary by discipline episode-related factors, including type of child noncompliance, mothers’ attributions, maternal negative affect, episode duration, and disciplinary practices used.Methods This is a study of 105 mothers and their 17- to 31-month-old toddlers. Most mot...
Article
Full-text available
In our initial article (Larzelere et al., 2017) we raised concerns about a paradigm we called “Exclusively Positive Parenting” (EPP). This paradigm opposes all negative disciplinary consequences, including timeout and privilege removal. We argued that the empirical support for EPP was insufficient. Researchers should not rely on insufficient causal...
Article
In our initial article we raised concerns about a paradigm we called “Exclusively Positive Parenting” (EPP). This paradigm opposes all negative disciplinary consequences, including timeout and privilege removal. We argued that the empirical support for EPP was insufficient. Researchers should not rely on insufficient causal evidence to replace well...
Article
Objective: Early childhood weight predicts later weight, so there is need for longitudinal research to identify key factors in the development of childhood obesity, especially among vulnerable populations. Design: This study examines the links between parenting styles and child obesity across three waves (Mages = 6.90, 7.34, and 8.28 years) and the...
Article
This article memorializes Diana Blumberg Baumrind (1927-2018). In her illustrious career at the Institute of Human Development at UCB, Diana largely focused on understanding the parent-child relationship. Diana was the lifelong director of the Family Socialization and Developmental Competence Project at UCB, where she undertook her longitudinal pro...
Article
Gershoff et al. (2018) recently summarized the scientific evidence against disciplinary spanking, using epidemiological and psychological criteria for causal validity. Unfortunately, the evidence they cited would make most actions to correct serious problems appear to be harmful, whether implemented by parents (e.g., timeout) or professionals. The...
Preprint
Full-text available
Prevalence of spanking in selected countries with spanking bans. How the application of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child for efforts to ban spanking have changed in recent decades.
Preprint
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This paper summarizes the prevalence of physical punishment in 10 Euro-centric counties well after they banned spanking (Mean = 46%, 12 years after their spanking bans, on average). It also summarizes the history of how the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child was intended to apply to physical discipline by parents and how that intention was ch...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Note: The American Psychological Association (APA) and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recently came out publicly against all disciplinary spanking, relying primarily on only one of three statistical summaries of relevant scientific studies published since 2004. This analysis compares the conclusions of all three summaries and now adds mor...
Article
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SCIENTIFIC Corrective actions are inherently confounded with the problems they are intended to correct. Adverse outcomes of a corrective action are therefore due to an unknown combination of the poor prognosis of the original problem and the effect of the corrective action in modifying that prognosis for better or for worse. Early evaluations of He...
Cover Page
Full-text available
A bibliography of publications and presentations on parental discipline research including parental discipline in general, physical punishment specifically, and research methods for making more accurate research conclusions.
Book
Full-text available
Durrant (1999) and Larzelere and Johnson (1999) published contrasting evaluations of Sweden's 1979 spanking ban. This booklet updates a posting on a listserv of child maltreatment researchers that compared and contrasted their conclusions, often based on the same data. Issues included apparent effects of that spanking ban on (1) attitudes about spa...
Article
Objective. To clarify when the disciplinary recommendations of positive parenting and behavioral parent training apply, this study investigated how the effectiveness of seven disciplinary tactics varies by type of toddler noncompliance, using methods to improve the validity of causal inferences. Design. Multilevel modeling and hierarchical longitud...
Article
Full-text available
To evaluate and improve the validity of causal inferences from meta‐analyses of longitudinal studies, two adjustments for Time‐1 outcome scores and a temporally backwards test are demonstrated. Causal inferences would be supported by robust results across both adjustment methods, distinct from results run backwards. A systematic strategy for evalua...
Article
High parental involvement has consistently been shown to enhance academic achievement among Latino youth. Still, some youth continue to thrive academically despite low parental involvement. The Theory of Rationality suggests that the impact of even potentially negative behaviors depends on how the behavior is interpreted. To test the application of...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background. Although rarely studied, negative affect while disciplining a child is important for understanding escalations within discipline episodes. A few studies have been done, showing parental negative emotions associated with adverse child outcomes (Isley, O'Neil, & Parke, 1996; Rudy & Grusec, 2006). This study investigates the associations o...
Chapter
This entry summarizes scientific information about three aspects of parental discipline: nurturance as a foundation for discipline, preventive strategies, and appropriate responses to misbehavior. A conditional sequence model integrates contradictory recommendations about disciplinary responses into a comprehensive overview consistent with an autho...
Article
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This article critiques the empirical evidence for the emerging view in nonclinical parenting research and in popular books that parents should use only positive methods of parenting and rarely resort to any disciplinary consequences. Four methodological fallacies pervade research used to support this viewpoint: the correlational fallacy (inferring...
Article
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Considering the strong influence of social media on internet users, it is important to understand its role for hotel businesses, particularly the online aspect of lodging operations. Although several social media studies have been done, very few studies have focused on travelers’ needs and the specific gratifications they seek when using embedded s...
Article
Recruitment issues are common in couple relationship education (CRE). Hence, learning more about factors shaping attitudes toward CRE could aid with these efforts. This study used dyadic data techniques to assess how common recruitment barriers are associated with attitudes toward CRE. The study also investigated differences by gender and income in...
Article
Full-text available
Numerous studies have focused on the intergenerational transmission of poverty, financial stress, and family functioning. Other research has shown how financial stressors can predict various family processes, including parent–child interactions, family conflict, and couple communication, and relationship outcomes, including marital stability and sa...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The main purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of embedded social media channels and determine whether the embedded social media channels enhance the overall experience of travelers using the hotel Web sites. Design/methodology/approach A true-experimental, between-group and post-test-only design was used to address the pr...
Article
Although direct replications are ideal for randomized studies, areas of psychological science that lack randomized studies should incorporate Rosenbaum's (2001) distinction between trivial and nontrivial replications, relabeled herein as exact and critical replications. If exact replications merely repeat systematic biases, they cannot enhance cumu...
Article
The current study explored the role of parents’ negative and positive affect in adolescent respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity during a parent-adolescent conflict discussion task, and the moderating effects of adolescent sex and age. Questionnaire data were collected from 206 adolescents (10-18 years of age, Mage = 13.37 years) and their...
Article
The current study examined associations between adolescent respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) during an angry event discussion task and adolescents’ emotion regulation and adjustment. Data were collected from 206 adolescents (10-18 years old, M age = 13.37). Electrocardiogram (ECG) and respiration data were collected from adolescents, and RSA value...
Article
This special issue presents interdisciplinary and innovative perspectives on family and individual resilience. In this introductory paper, we will provide an overview of this collection of conceptual and empirical articles that is organized by four categories: families as contexts, families as systems, intervention and policy implications, and meth...
Article
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Background The purpose of this study was to examine parent report of conversations about difference and disability in families of adolescents with intellectual disability. Materials and Methods Participants included 50 parents (44 mothers, four fathers, and two other caregivers) and their adolescents with intellectual disability (M age = 15.9). Par...
Article
As a result of an inherent selection bias, most longitudinal analyses are biased against corrective actions that parents use to address perceived child problems. This bias can lead to unjustified or even counterproductive recommendations about corrective parental actions. To overcome this bias, this article summarizes current scholarship on improvi...
Article
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This study applies psychological ownership theory (J. L. Pierce, T. Kostova, & K. Dirks, 2003) in an attempt to explain the complexity of factors influencing students’ satisfaction and commitments toward their programs. The proposed framework evaluates psychological ownership through the following antecedents: perceived control, sense of belonging,...
Article
For years observational techniques along with other methods have sought to explore the relationships of couple interactional exchanges to marital quality and longevity. However, many of the previous methodological procedures used might be inadequate at capturing the influential micro-dimensional nuances of interpartner couple affective stability an...
Article
Full-text available
This study uses Swedish trends in alleged criminal assaults against minors to investigate whether societal violence has decreased since their spanking ban in 1979. The rates of all assaults increased dramatically. Compared to 1981, criminal statistics in 2010 included about 22 times as many cases of physical child abuse, 24 times as many assaults b...
Article
Although the intergenerational transmission of trauma has been well documented, the pathways by which trauma symptoms are passed between parents and children remain unclear. This study examined the mediating role of parenting styles in the transmission of maternal trauma to children. Participants were a sample of 105 mothers of toddlers (18–30 mont...
Book
Full-text available
Psychologist Diana Baumrind's revolutionary prototype of parenting, called authoritative parenting, combines the best of various parenting styles. In contrast to previous emphases on parental responsiveness alone (permissive parenting) or on demandingness alone (authoritarian parenting), authoritative parenting combines high levels of both responsi...
Article
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A robust literature suggests religiosity protects against substance use by youth. Less clear is how religiosity influences substance use. This study uses a cross-sectional design with a sample of 1,815 Venezuelan youth to examine whether associations with deviant peers or the perceived risk of harm from using drugs mediates the effect of religiosit...
Article
This study documents the initial reliability and validity of the Child Suicide Risk Assessment (CSRA) for children under the age of 13. The revised CSRA retained 18 of 20 original items based on item-specific psychometric data from 140 pre-adolescents in out-of-home treatment programs. The CSRA demonstrated adequate internal consistency (x = .69) f...
Article
Full-text available
Objective. The authors investigated the effects of preschool patterns of parental authority on adolescent competence and emotional health and differentiated between confrontive and coercive power-assertive practices which accounted partially for differential long-term effects of the preschool patterns. Design. Participants were 87 families initiall...
Article
Full-text available
This study estimates the causal effects of six corrective actions for children's problem behaviors, comparing four types of longitudinal analyses that correct for pre-existing differences in a cohort of 1,464 4- and 5-year-olds from Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY) data. Analyses of residualized gain scores found...
Article
Full-text available
Are Spanking Injunctions Scientifically Supported? Robert E. Larzelere and Diana Baumrind Abstract This article summarizes the scientific evidence against spanking bans from the conditional spanking perspective, to contrast with other articles in this special issue of Law and Contemporary Problems that use scientific evidence to support a spanki...
Article
Full-text available
The strongest causal evidence that customary spanking increases antisocial behavior is based on prospective studies that control statistically for initial antisocial differences. None of those studies have investigated alternative disciplinary tactics that parents could use instead of spanking, however. Further, the small effects in those studies c...
Preprint
Full-text available
This is the final draft of my Dissenting (minority) view, submitted to the American Psychological Association (APA) as part of the final report of the 2nd Task Force on Physical Punishment (2005-09), which was sponsored by the Child Maltreatment Section of Division 37 of the APA. Perhaps because of this dissenting report, the APA Science Directorat...
Article
The Dyadic Trust Scale, previously adapted for a range of applications in organizational research, was translated into Turkish in this study and evaluated with a sample of 117 service employees (69 men and 48 women), whose mean age was 21.5 yr. (SD = 1.8). The internal consistency of the Turkish version was estimated with a Cronbach alpha of .90. T...
Article
Full-text available
The association of spanking with externalizing behavior problems varies by ethnicity in many studies comparing Black and White Americans. This study investigates whether the outcomes of other disciplinary enforcements also varies by ethnicity in 7-to 11-year-olds. Ethnic interactions were found for spanking, privilege removal, grounding, and, margi...
Article
This study evaluated the effects of HeadsUp! Reading (HUR), a professional development literacy workshop series, with and without supplementary mentoring on early childhood educators’ (ECEs) practices and its subsequent effect on preschool children's literacy skills. ECEs who served children in high poverty communities participated in a 15-week sat...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the topic of corporal punishment of children from a behavioral-theory and behavior-therapy perspective. Basic principles of learning theory are presented, followed by information based upon the work of behavioral clinicians. The goal is to address the question of how we can better understand the causes and consequences of cor...
Article
Full-text available
This meta-analysis investigates differences between the effect sizes of physical punishment and alternative disciplinary tactics for child outcomes in 26 qualifying studies. Analyzing differences in effect sizes reduces systematic biases and emphasizes direct comparisons between the disciplinary tactics that parents have to select among. The result...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This paper summarizes scientific knowledge about two aspects of violence toward children in the family, namely physical child abuse and milder forms of traditional physical discipline of children. There is universal consensus that physical child abuse is abhorrent and that efforts should be made to reduce such violence against children. Some forms...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This paper summarizes scientific knowledge about two aspects of violence toward children in the family, namely physical child abuse and milder forms of traditional physical discipline of children. There is universal consensus that physical child abuse is abhorrent and that efforts should be made to reduce such violence against children. Some forms...
Article
This study documents the initial reliability and validity of the Child Suicide Risk Assessment (CSRA) for children under the age of 13. The revised CSRA retained 18 of 20 original items based on item-specific psychometric data from 140 pre-adolescents in out-of-home treatment programs. The CSRA demonstrated adequate internal consistency (alpha=.69)...
Article
Objective. This study examines ethnic group differences in the relation between parents' use of physical discipline and children's externalizing behavior problems in younger children and assesses both same-source and distinct-source data. Design. One hundred and twelve mothers of African American (N = 63) and European American (N = 49) children wer...
Article
Full-text available
Selection bias can be the most important threat to internal validity in intervention research, but is often insufficiently recognized and controlled. The bias is illustrated in research on parental interventions (punishment, homework assistance); medical interventions (hospitalization); and psychological interventions for suicide risk, sex offendin...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of 2 behavior rating scales (1 describing child behavior and the other describing parent behavior) in predicting child behavior during dental treatment. Participants consisted of 52 children, ages 3 to 12 years, and their parents. Parents completed the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory and t...
Article
Growing numbers of medical students complete clerkships in community private practice (CPP) settings instead of the more traditional university-based clinics, yet few empirical studies have evaluated how setting type impacts clinical experiences, skill development, and student satisfaction. This study compared the pediatric patient encounters seen...
Article
Full-text available
E. T. Gershoff (2002) reviewed processes that might mediate and contexts that might moderate the associations between corporal punishment (CP) and child behaviors and provided an account of the methodological weaknesses of the research reviewed in her meta-analyses. In this examination of Gershoff, the authors argue that the biases and confounds in...
Article
E. T. Gershoff (2002) reviewed processes that might mediate and contexts that might moderate the associations between corporal punishment (CP) and child behaviors and provided an account of the methodological weaknesses of the research reviewed in her meta-analyses. In this examination of Gershoff, the authors argue that the biases and confounds in...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the efficacy of a computerized injection device (Wand) on reducing pain behavior during injections with preschool-aged children. Subjects consisted of 40 patients between the ages of 2 and 5 requiring local anesthesia for dental restorations in the maxilla. Patients were randomly assigned to either...
Article
Girls and Boys Town approach uses ongoing outcome measures.
Article
Editor,—Dr Elliman is noted for his careful methodological analysis of vaccination studies,1 but is not so careful in his recent analysis of physical punishment.2 The American Academy of Pediatrics's co-sponsored scientific consensus conference on corporal punishment used a more scientific approach than the Elliman-Lynch summary. First, it carefu...
Article
Pre-treatment and post-treatment data was collected from adolescent clients of a new residential treatment center at Girls and Boys Town. Youth who received treatment improved significantly on the Child Behavior Checklist and the Children's Global Assessment Scale and were maintaining their treatment gains at follow-up. Ten months following dischar...
Article
Youth discharged from a short-term residential facility and reunified with their parents were contacted between I and 3 years after discharge to determine whether or not the youth had a subsequent placement following reunification. Of the 148 youth who reunified with their parents, 110 (74%) were contacted. Risk factors were identified by using sur...
Article
This article updates the only previous systematic literature review of child outcomes of nonabusive and customary physical punishment by parents. The outcomes differ by methodologic, child, and subcultural factors as well as by how the physical punishment was used. All six studies that used clinical samples (including four randomized clinical studi...
Article
We administered the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC) two times to a group of youth (222 boys, 147 girls) entering residential care, once at their time of entry and once 1 year later. We then compared their DISC outcomes on Conduct Disorder (CD) and Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) against changes in independent direct observatio...
Article
Comments on the article by R. W. Robins et al (see record 1999-00297-003) which examines trends in the prominence of 4 major schools of psychology by examining citation index trends and the content of articles in mainstream journals and dissertations. The authors argue that behaviorism is quite healthy and discuss the validity of Robins et al's met...