Robert Kirshner

Robert Kirshner
Breakthrough Prize Laureate
Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics · Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

PhD

About

1,301
Publications
50,053
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69,314
Citations
Citations since 2017
80 Research Items
25963 Citations
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201720182019202020212022202301,0002,0003,0004,0005,000
201720182019202020212022202301,0002,0003,0004,0005,000

Publications

Publications (1,301)
Article
Full-text available
Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are more precise standardizable candles when measured in the near-infrared (NIR) than in the optical. With this motivation, from 2012 to 2017 we embarked on the RAISIN program with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to obtain rest-frame NIR light curves for a cosmologically distant sample of 37 SNe Ia (0.2 ≲ z ≲ 0.6) disco...
Preprint
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We present constraints on cosmological parameters from the Pantheon+ analysis of 1701 light curves of 1550 distinct Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) ranging in redshift from $z=0.001$ to 2.26. This work features an increased sample size, increased redshift span, and improved treatment of systematic uncertainties in comparison to the original Pantheon an...
Article
Full-text available
Type Iax supernovae (SNe Iax) represent the largest class of peculiar white dwarf supernovae. The type Iax SN 2012Z in NGC 1309 is the only white dwarf supernova with a detected progenitor system in pre-explosion observations. Deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images taken before SN 2012Z show a luminous, blue source that we have interpreted as a h...
Preprint
Full-text available
Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) are more nearly standard candles when measured in the near-infrared (NIR) than in the optical. With this motivation, from 2012-2017 we embarked on the RAISIN program with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to obtain rest-frame NIR light curves for a cosmologically distant sample of 37 SN Ia ($0.2<z<0.7$) discovered by Pan-S...
Article
Full-text available
We present spectroscopy of the ejecta of SN 1987A in 2017 and 2018 from the Hubble Space Telescope and the Very Large Telescope, covering the wavelength range between 1150 and 10 000 Å. At 31 years, this is the first epoch with coverage over the ultraviolet-to-near-infrared range since 1995. We create velocity maps of the ejecta in the Hα, Mg ii λλ...
Preprint
We present spectroscopy of the ejecta of SN 1987A in 2017 and 2018 from the Hubble Space Telescope and the Very Large Telescope, covering the wavelength range between $1150$ and $10000$ {\AA}. At 31 years, this is the first epoch with coverage over the ultraviolet-to-near-infrared range since 1995. We create velocity maps of the ejecta in the H$\al...
Preprint
Here we present 1701 light curves of spectroscopically confirmed Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) that will be used to infer cosmological parameters as part of the Pantheon+ SN analysis and the SH0ES (Supernovae and H0 for the Equation of State of dark energy) distance-ladder analysis. This effort is one part of a series of works that perform an extensi...
Article
We present a multiwavelength photometric and spectroscopic analysis of 13 super-Chandrasekhar-mass/2003fg-like Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Nine of these objects were observed by the Carnegie Supernova Project. The 2003fg-like SNe have slowly declining light curves (Δ m 15 ( B ) < 1.3 mag), and peak absolute B -band magnitudes of −19 < M B < −21 ma...
Article
Full-text available
The ejecta velocities of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), as measured by the Si ii λ 6355 line, have been shown to correlate with other supernova properties, including color and standardized luminosity. We investigate these results using the Foundation Supernova Survey, with a spectroscopic data release presented here, and photometry analyzed with the...
Preprint
This note presents an initial survey design for the Nancy Grace Roman High-latitude Time Domain Survey. This is not meant to be a final or exhaustive list of all the survey strategy choices, but instead presents a viable path towards achieving the desired precision and accuracy of dark energy measurements using Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). We descr...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present 75 near-infrared (NIR; 0.8$-$2.5 $\mu$m) spectra of 34 stripped-envelope core-collapse supernovae (SESNe) obtained by the Carnegie Supernova Project-II (CSP-II), encompassing optical spectroscopic Types IIb, Ib, Ic, and Ic-BL. The spectra range in phase from pre-maximum to 80 days past maximum. This unique data set constitutes the larges...
Article
Full-text available
We present 75 near-infrared (NIR; 0.8−2.5 μm) spectra of 34 stripped-envelope core-collapse supernovae (SESNe) obtained by the Carnegie Supernova Project-II (CSP-II), encompassing optical spectroscopic Types IIb, Ib, Ic, and Ic-BL. The spectra range in phase from pre-maximum to 80 days past maximum. This unique data set constitutes the largest NIR...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of the 03fg-like type Ia supernova (SN Ia) ASASSN-15hy from the ultraviolet (UV) to the near-infrared (NIR). ASASSN-15hy shares many of the hallmark characteristics of 03fg-like SNe Ia, previously referred to as "super-Chandrasekhar" SNe Ia. It is bright in the UV and NIR, lacks a clear i-band s...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present a multi-wavelength photometric and spectroscopic analysis of thirteen ``Super-Chandrasekhar Mass"/2003fg-like type Ia Supernova (SNe Ia). Nine of these objects were observed by the Carnegie Supernova Project. 2003fg-like SNe have slowly declining light curves ($\Delta m_{15}$(B) $<$1.3 mag), and peak absolute B-band magnitudes between -1...
Preprint
Type Iax supernovae represent the largest class of peculiar white-dwarf supernovae. The type Iax SN 2012Z in NGC 1309 is the only white dwarf supernova with a detected progenitor system in pre-explosion observations. Deep Hubble Space Telescope images taken before SN 2012Z show a luminous, blue source that we have interpreted as a helium-star compa...
Article
Full-text available
We present a study of the optical and near-infrared (NIR) spectra of SN 2013ai along with its light curves. These data range from discovery until 380 days after explosion. SN 2013ai is a fast declining Type II supernova (SN II) with an unusually long rise time, 18.9 ± 2.7 days in the V-band, and a bright V-band peak absolute magnitude of -18.7 ± 0....
Preprint
Full-text available
The ejecta velocities of type-Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), as measured by the Si II $\lambda 6355$ line, have been shown to correlate with other supernova properties, including color and standardized luminosity. We investigate these results using the Foundation Supernova Survey, with a spectroscopic data release presented here, and photometry analyzed w...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present a study of optical and near-infrared (NIR) spectra along with the light curves of SN 2013ai. These data range from discovery until 380 days after explosion. SN 2013ai is a fast declining type II supernova (SN II) with an unusually long rise time; $18.9\pm2.7$d in $V$ band and a bright $V$ band peak absolute magnitude of $-18.7\pm0.06$ ma...
Article
Automated classification of supernovae (SNe) based on optical photometric light-curve information is essential in the upcoming era of wide-field time domain surveys, such as the Legacy Survey of Space and Time (LSST) conducted by the Rubin Observatory. Photometric classification can enable real-time identification of interesting events for extended...
Article
The classification of supernovae (SNe) and its impact on our understanding of explosion physics and progenitors have traditionally been based on the presence or absence of certain spectral features. However, current and upcoming wide-field time-domain surveys have increased the transient discovery rate far beyond our capacity to obtain even a singl...
Preprint
Full-text available
Unburned carbon is potentially a powerful probe of Type Ia supernova (SN) explosion mechanisms. We present comprehensive optical and near-infrared (NIR) data on the "transitional" Type Ia SN 2015bp. An early NIR spectrum ($t = -$9.9 days with respect to B-band maximum) displays a striking C I $\lambda1.0693\,\mu \rm{m}$ line at $11.9 \times 10^3$~k...
Article
Full-text available
We present details on the observing strategy, data-processing techniques, and spectroscopic targeting algorithms for the first three years of operation for the Dark Energy Survey Supernova Program (DES-SN). This five-year program using the Dark Energy Camera mounted on the 4 m Blanco telescope in Chile was designed to discover and follow supernovae...
Preprint
The classification of supernovae (SNe) and its impact on our understanding of the explosion physics and progenitors have traditionally been based on the presence or absence of certain spectral features. However, current and upcoming wide-field time-domain surveys have increased the transient discovery rate far beyond our capacity to obtain even a s...
Preprint
Automated classification of supernovae (SNe) based on optical photometric light curve information is essential in the upcoming era of wide-field time domain surveys, such as the Legacy Survey of Space and Time (LSST) conducted by the Rubin Observatory. Photometric classification can enable real-time identification of interesting events for extended...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of SN 2013aa and SN 2017cbv, two nearly identical type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in the host galaxy NGC 5643. The optical photometry has been obtained using the same telescope and instruments used by the Carnegie Supernova Project. This eliminates most instrumental systematics and provides light cu...
Article
Full-text available
We analyze a set of 89 type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) that have both optical and near-infrared (NIR) photometry to derive distances and construct low-redshift ( z ≤ 0.04) Hubble diagrams. We construct mean light curve (LC) templates using a hierarchical Bayesian model. We explore both Gaussian process (GP) and template methods for fitting the LCs and...
Article
Full-text available
We present 81 near-infrared (NIR) spectra of 30 Type II supernovae (SNe II) from the Carnegie Supernova Project-II (CSP-II), the largest such dataset published to date. We identify a number of NIR features and characterize their evolution over time. The NIR spectroscopic properties of SNe II fall into two distinct groups. This classification is fir...
Preprint
The nearby SN 1987A offers a spatially resolved view of the evolution of a young supernova remnant. Here we precent recent Hubble Space Telescope imaging observations of SN 1987A, which we use to study the evolution of the ejecta, the circumstellar equatorial ring (ER) and the increasing emission from material outside the ER. We find that the inner...
Preprint
We present observations and modeling of SN 2016hnk, a Ca-rich supernova (SN) that is consistent with being the result of a He-shell double-detonation explosion of a C/O white dwarf. We find that SN 2016hnk is intrinsically red relative to typical thermonuclear SNe and has a relatively low peak luminosity ($M_B = -15.4$ mag), setting it apart from l...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present $81$ near-infrared (NIR) spectra of $30$ Type II supernovae (SNe~II) from the \textit{Carnegie Supernova Project-II} (CSP-II), the largest such dataset published to date. We identify a number of NIR features and characterize their evolution over time. The NIR spectroscopic properties of SNe II fall into two distinct groups. This classifi...
Article
Full-text available
Measurements of the dark energy equation-of-state parameter, w , have been limited by uncertainty in the selection effects and photometric calibration of z < 0.1 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). The Foundation Supernova Survey is designed to lower these uncertainties by creating a new sample of z < 0.1 SNe Ia observed on the Pan-STARRS system. Here we...
Preprint
Photometric classification of supernovae (SNe) is imperative as recent and upcoming optical time-domain surveys, such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), overwhelm the available resources for spectrosopic follow-up. Here we develop a range of light curve classification pipelines, trained on 518 spectroscopically-classified SNe from the P...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present comprehensive observations and analysis of the energetic H-stripped SN 2016coi (a.k.a. ASASSN-16fp), spanning the $\gamma$-ray through optical and radio wavelengths, acquired within the first hours to $\sim$420 days post explosion. Our campaign confirms the identification of He in the SN ejecta, which we interpret to be caused by a large...
Article
We describe catalogue-level simulations of Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) light curves in the Dark Energy Survey Supernova Program (DES-SN) and in low-redshift samples from the Center for Astrophysics (CfA) and the Carnegie Supernova Project (CSP). These simulations are used to model biases from selection effects and light-curve analysis and to determin...
Article
Full-text available
We present the analysis underpinning the measurement of cosmological parameters from 207 spectroscopically classified SNe Ia from the first 3 years of the Dark Energy Survey Supernova Program (DES-SN), spanning a redshift range of 0.017 < z < 0.849. We combine the DES-SN sample with an external sample of 122 low-redshift (z < 0.1) SNe Ia, resulting...
Preprint
Full-text available
Our recent work demonstrates a correlation between the high-velocity blue edge, $v_{edge}$, of the iron-peak Fe/Co/Ni $H$-band emission feature and the optical light curve shape of normal, transitional and sub-luminous type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia). We explain this correlation in terms of SN Ia physics. $v_{edge}$ corresponds to the sharp transition...
Preprint
Full-text available
Astrophysical transients have been observed for millennia and have shaped our most basic assumptions about the Universe. In the last century, systematic searches have grown from detecting handfuls of transients per year to over 7000 in 2018 alone. As these searches have matured, we have discovered both large samples of "normal" classes and new, rar...
Preprint
Full-text available
As of today, we have directly detected exactly one source in both gravitational waves (GWs) and electromagnetic (EM) radiation, the binary neutron star merger GW170817, its associated gamma-ray burst GRB170817A, and the subsequent kilonova SSS17a/AT 2017gfo. Within ten years, we will detect hundreds of events, including new classes of events such a...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present the $H$-band wavelength region of thirty post-maximum light near-infrared (NIR) spectra of fourteen transitional and sub-luminous type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), extending from $+$5d to +20d relative to the epoch of $B$-band maximum. We introduce a new observable, the blue-edge velocity, $v_{edge}$, of the prominent Fe/Co/Ni-peak $H$-band e...
Article
We present the first cosmological parameter constraints using measurements of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) from the Dark Energy Survey Supernova Program (DES-SN). The analysis uses a subsample of 207 spectroscopically confirmed SNe Ia from the first three years of DES-SN, combined with a low-redshift sample of 122 SNe from the literature. Our "DES-S...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) is a 2.4m space telescope with a 0.281 deg^2 field of view for near-IR imaging and slitless spectroscopy and a coronagraph designed for > 10^8 starlight suppresion. As background information for Astro2020 white papers, this article summarizes the current design and anticipated performance of WFIRST....
Preprint
Full-text available
We analyze a set of 89 Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) that have both optical and near-infrared (NIR) photometry to derive distances and construct low redshift ($z < 0.04$) Hubble diagrams. We construct mean light curve (LC) templates using a hierarchical Bayesian model. We explore both Gaussian process (GP) and template methods for fitting the LCs and...
Article
Full-text available
Shifting the focus of Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) cosmology to the near infrared (NIR) is a promising way to significantly reduce the systematic errors, as the strategy minimizes our reliance on the empirical width-luminosity relation and uncertain dust laws. Observations in the NIR are also crucial for our understanding of the origins and evolution...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present spectroscopy from the first three seasons of the Dark Energy Survey Supernova Program (DES-SN). We describe the supernova spectroscopic program in full: strategy, observations, data reduction, and classification. We have spectroscopically confirmed 307 supernovae, including 251 type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) over a redshift range of $0.017...
Preprint
Measurements of the dark energy equation-of-state parameter, $w$, have been limited by uncertainty in the selection effects and photometric calibration of $z<0.1$ Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). The Foundation Supernova Survey is designed to lower these uncertainties by creating a new sample of $z<0.1$ SNe Ia observed on the Pan-STARRS system. Here, w...
Preprint
The combination of multiple observational probes has long been advocated as a powerful way to constrain cosmological parameters, in particular dark energy. The Dark Energy Survey has measured 207 spectroscopically-confirmed Type Ia supernova lightcurves; the baryon acoustic oscillation feature; weak gravitational lensing; and galaxy clustering. Her...
Preprint
We present the first cosmological parameter constraints using measurements of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) from the Dark Energy Survey Supernova Program (DES-SN). The analysis uses a subsample of 207 spectroscopically confirmed SNe Ia from the first three years of DES-SN, combined with a low-redshift sample of 122 SNe from the literature. Our "DES-S...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present the analysis underpinning the measurement of cosmological parameters from 207 spectroscopically classified type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) from the first three years of the Dark Energy Survey Supernova Program (DES-SN), spanning a redshift range of 0.017<$z$<0.849. We combine the DES-SN sample with an external sample of 122 low-redshift ($z$...
Preprint
Full-text available
We describe catalog-level simulations of Type Ia Supernova (SN Ia) light curves in the Dark Energy Survey Supernova Program (DES-SN), and in low-redshift samples from the Center for Astrophysics (CfA) and the Carnegie Supernova Project (CSP). These simulations are used to model biases from selection effects and light curve analysis, and to determin...
Article
Full-text available
Recent analyses suggest that distance residuals measured from Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are correlated with local host galaxy properties within a few kiloparsecs of the SN explosion. However, the well-established correlation with global host galaxy properties is nearly as significant, with a shift of 0.06 mag across a low to high mass boundary (t...
Article
Full-text available
Empirical models of supernova (SN) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are widely used for SN survey simulations and photometric classifications. The existing library of SED models has excellent optical templates, but limited, poorly constrained coverage of ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) wavelengths. However, both regimes are critical for the...
Preprint
Full-text available
Shifting the focus of Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) cosmology to the near-infrared (NIR) is a promising way to significantly reduce the systematic errors, as the strategy minimizes our reliance on the empirical width-luminosity relation and uncertain dust laws. Observations in the NIR are also crucial for our understanding of the origins and evolution...
Article
Full-text available
Despite more than 30 years of searching, the compact object in Supernova (SN) 1987A has not yet been detected. We present new limits on the compact object in SN 1987A using millimeter, near-infrared, optical, ultraviolet, and X-ray observations from ALMA, VLT, HST, and Chandra. The limits are approximately 0.1 mJy ( erg s⁻¹ cm⁻² Hz⁻¹) at 213 GHz, 1...
Preprint
Full-text available
Empirical models of supernova (SN) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are widely used for SN survey simulations and photometric classifications. The existing library of SED models has excellent optical templates but limited, poorly constrained coverage of ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) wavelengths. However, both regimes are critical for the d...
Preprint
Recent analyses suggest that distance residuals measured from Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are correlated with local host galaxy properties within a few kpc of the SN explosion. However, the well-established correlation with the global properties of the host galaxy is nearly as significant, with a shift of 0.06 mag across a low to high mass boundary...
Preprint
Full-text available
Despite more than 30 years of searches, the compact object in Supernova (SN) 1987A has not yet been detected. We present new limits on the compact object in SN 1987A using millimeter, near-infrared, optical, ultraviolet, and X-ray observations from ALMA, VLT, HST, and Chandra. The limits are approximately 0.1 mJy ($0.1\times 10^{-26}$ erg s$^{-1}$...