Robert Karasek

Robert Karasek
University of Copenhagen · Department of Psychology

About

101
Publications
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28,403
Citations
Citations since 2017
4 Research Items
7304 Citations
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201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,0001,200
201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,0001,200

Publications

Publications (101)
Article
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Objective To evaluate Job Content Questionnaire(JCQ) performance using the latent class model. Methods We analysed cross-sectional studies conducted in Brazil and examined three occupational categories: petroleum industry workers (n=489), teachers (n=4392) and primary healthcare workers (3078)and 1552 urban workers from a representative sample of...
Article
There is scarce research on the interaction between psychosocial working conditions and being a target of workplace bullying with individual characteristics as a moderator. We therefore examined 3,363 employees from 60 Danish workplaces to test whether sense of coherence moderates the relationship between the job demand-control model and bullying....
Article
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Workplace stress is known to be related with many behavioral and disease outcomes. However, little is known about its prospective relationship with measures of cognitive decline. To investigate the association of job strain, psychological demands and job control on cognitive decline. Participants from Framingham Offspring cohort (n=1429), were asse...
Article
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Insomnia and short and long sleep durations have all been linked to cardiovascular disease. Male gender and low socioeconomic status are also related to cardiovascular disease, but it is unclear whether these two factors modify the impact of poor sleep on cardiovascular disease incidence. Participants (5875 men and 7742 women ages 45 to 64 with no...
Article
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To examine the factor structure and to evaluate the longitudinal measurement invariance of the demand-control-support questionnaire (DCSQ), using the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH). A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA) models within the framework of structural equation...
Data
Demand control support questionnaire (in English and Swedish). (DOCX)
Article
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Background: It is unclear whether a healthy lifestyle mitigates the adverse effects of job strain on coronary artery disease. We examined the associations of job strain and lifestyle risk factors with the risk of coronary artery disease. Methods: We pooled individual-level data from 7 cohort studies comprising 102 128 men and women who were free...
Article
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Background Previous studies have found insomnia and long sleep duration to be independently associated with subsequent disability pension (DP). However, the issue of a possible gender-based pattern in this context has received little attention. Purpose This study aims to assess the impact of insomnia symptoms and sleep duration on the DP rates amon...
Article
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Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate whether job strain, psychological demands, and decision latitude are independent determinants of disability pension rates over a 12-year follow-up period. Methods We studied 3,181 men and 3,359 women, all middle-aged and working at least 30 h per week, recruited from the general population of Malm...
Presentation
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How low control may cause disease
Presentation
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The hypothesis: failure to meet physiological ordering capacity needs AT ANY LEVEL can be a sufficient explanation of disease. Thus, high-level physiological ordering capacity deficits can explain disease, without contribution of low-level pathological conditions. This occurs is this manner: There is a transient vulnerability due to deficits in hig...
Presentation
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Multi scale modeling allows partitioning of physiological origin and environmental influence of multiple scales of field collected heart rate variance. The ecological – physiological interactions measured by multi scale modeling offer a robust approach for testing the consequences of high job strain, and pathways toward and including exhaustion of...
Article
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Exhaustion is a concept of interest for both occupational health research and stress-disease theory research. The aim of the present study was to explore associations between chronic stressors, in terms of psychosocial working conditions, and exhaustion in a Swedish middle-aged population sample. A vocationally active population sample of the Malmö...
Article
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Little is known about the interaction between job control and social support at work on common mental disorders. To examine whether there is a synergistic interaction effect between job control and social support at work on general psychological distress and whether it differs by the level of job demands. About 1,940 male and female workers from th...
Article
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Background Little is known about the role of low physical activity at work (sedentary work or low physical job demand) in the increasing prevalence of obesity of US workers.Methods This cross-sectional and secondary data analysis included 1,001 male and 1,018 female workers (age range: 32–69) from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the U...
Article
This paper has two primary objectives. First, the paper proposes methodological strategies for analyzing multiscale vagal cardiac control based on the Stress Disequilibrium Theory (SDT) using high frequency power of heart rate variability (HFP) and short term variance of HFP. Second, the paper provides evidence of reduced vagal cardiac control rang...
Article
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This study was to examine whether psychosocial work characteristics such as job control, psychological job demands, and their combinations are associated with leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) in US workers. 2019 workers (age range: 32 to 69) from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) II study (2004-2006) were...
Chapter
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Psychosocial Safety ClimateHow to Build PSC—A Multilevel Socially Coordinated ResponseCase StudyMethod ResultsDiscussionConclusions References
Article
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The aim was to examine the perception of work stressors in relation to ambulatory measures of heart rate variability (HRV). Results are based on a sample of 653 healthy male workers aged 40-55 from the Belgian Physical Fitness Study conducted in 1976-1978. Data were collected by means of self-administered questionnaires and bio-clinical examination...
Article
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Exhaustion is consistently found to be more prevalent in women than in men. Women suffer from job strain more often, which may constitute a partial explanation for this phenomenon, but experienced shortcomings in combining work and family demands may also contribute to ill health. The aim of this study was to investigate, and analyse by gender, how...
Article
We claim that a new level of studies is needed to answer a series of important questions about the expanding global chronic disease burden for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and for related conditions such as diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and obesity. These require a new study design structure, related to a new level of theory that goes beyond the cu...
Article
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Little is known about cross-language measurement equivalence of the job content questionnaire (JCQ) PURPOSE: The purposes of this study were to assess the extent of cross-language differential item functioning (DIF) of the 27 JCQ items in six languages (French, Dutch, Belgian-French, Belgian-Dutch (Flemish), Italian, and Swedish) from six European...
Conference Paper
Low control over work can be indicated by either decision latitude or job insecurity. Job insecurity may constitute a psychosocial hazard in itself. The study reviews psychosocial factors and job insecurity. Whether decision latitude and job insecurity measures can be used as a form of social control using occupational linkage system was examined...
Article
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The role of sleeping problems in the causal pathway between job strain and musculoskeletal pain is not clear. Purpose: To investigate the impact of sleeping problems and job strain on the one-year risk for neck, shoulder, and lumbar pain. A prospective study, using self-administered questionnaires, of a healthy cohort of 4,140 vocationally active p...
Article
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The five-item psychological demands scale of the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) has been assumed to be one-dimensional in practice. To examine whether the scale has sufficient internal consistency and external validity to be treated as a single scale, using the cross-national JCQ datasets from the United States, Korea, and Japan. Exploratory facto...
Article
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OBJECTIVES: This study attempted to determine whether an ecological association exists between job strain and common mental disorders at the occupational level and whether the association is a confounding effect of socioeconomic status. METHODS: Male occupations from Belgium (N=184) and the United States (US) (N=120) were chosen from the BELSTRESS...
Article
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OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the job content questionnaire (JCQ) in measuring work psychology aspects with respect to formal and informal jobs in Brazilian occupational groups. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a random sample of 1311 ≥15-year-old residents in the urban area of the city of Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil. The...
Article
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OBJECTIVES: This study explored the associations between social class, job insecurity, and job strain among Korean workers. METHODS: Data on 6143 participants (253 health care workers, 5113 subway workers, and 777 petrochemical refinery workers) from three Korean job-stress studies were used. Job strain and job insecurity were measured with the job...
Article
OBJECTIVES: The paper presents a new stress physiological theory to describe how low social control can contribute to the development of chronic disease through the deregulation of physiological systems. METHODS: Two presumptions and four operating principles are used to derive very generalized forms of hypotheses about disease (and some hypotheses...
Conference Paper
From the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort, 5,204 individuals who reported work related injuries or illnesses were followed up. Among the injured workers, 2918 workers (56%) filed workers' comp and 1360 workers (26%) were compensated. 13% were in the group of job insecurity. Few occupational illnesses (8%) were compensated compared...
Article
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To test the validity and reliability of selected scales, namely, decision latitude, psychological job demand, social support, job insecurity, and macro-level decision latitude from the Korean version of the job content questionnaire (K-JCQ), as part of a psychosocial epidemiological study among university hospital workers. K-JCQ was developed by tr...
Article
The aim of this study was to assess whether job strain is associated with 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure measurements within a subsample of the Belgian Job Stress Project (BELSTRESS) population. A group of 89 middle-aged male and female workers perceiving high job strain and an equally large group of workers perceiving no high job strain wore an...
Article
The roles of informal social ties in affecting healthcare workers' risk of injury and assault were investigated in a long-term care facility for the elderly in the US. The original hypothesis was that nurses and healthcare assistants who integrated more with their coworkers would have lower risk. A crude measure of familiarity and social integratio...
Article
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Scale comparative properties of "JCQ-like" questionnaires with respect to the JCQ have been little known. Assessing validity and reliability of two methods for generating comparable scale scores between the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) and JCQ-like questionnaires in sub-populations of the large Job Stress, Absenteeism and Coronary Heart Disease...
Presentation
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Presentation on dissertation findings related to within subject variability in HRV based on diary assessments of daily stressors
Presentation
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Key note presentation on behalf of Robert Karasek to present the stress disequilibrium theory at EuroPrevent 2006
Article
The Stress-Disequilibrium Theory is based on a new generalized analytic three-level model based on thermodynamics to describe the process of physiological risk development. This approach explains how low social control could cause chronic disease through chronic de-regulation of our highly integrated physiological systems. Could low external social...
Article
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The objectives of this study were to document the high rates of acute injuries and physical assaults among nurses and certified nursing assistants working in long-term psychiatric care facilities and to identify risk factors for assaults and injuries to inform prevention strategies. A mixed-design cohort study was conducted. Acute injury and physic...
Article
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Background Despite the epidemiological evidence linking job strain to cardiovascular disease, more insight is needed into the etiologic mechanisms. This, in turn, would help to more precisely identify risk.Methods We measured Job Strain using the Job Content Questionnaire, 8/day diary reports, and nationally standardized occupational code linkage,...
Article
The conducivity process, a methodology for creating healthier workplaces by promoting conducive production, is illustrated through the use of the “conducivity game” developed in the NordNet Project in Sweden, which was an action research project to test a job redesign methodology. The project combined the “conducivity” hypotheses about a combinatio...
Article
Nineteen international case studies of workplace stress prevention initiatives are analyzed. The focus of these cases, which span a variety of workplaces and locations, is on preventing stress through work reorganization rather than remedial approaches for stress relief. It is found that the majority of the occupations represented in the case studi...
Article
A model of production and exchange is proposed as an alternative to both market-oriented policy and social welfare policy. New patterns of social coordination at work form the basis for a new form of production output value: conducive value. This value is developed in both workers and consumers, activates skills and capabilities, and transforms cus...
Article
Conducive production (the concept developed in the first article of this issue) is a process of creative coordination in production, which also contributes to the development of the social fabric. To understand how, this article looks inside the conducive production process and examines how producer and consumer activities link together in collabor...
Article
After a brief description of the concept of clean production, its commonalities with the concept of conducive production (discussed in the first article of this issue) are outlined. By integrating clean production goals into the conducive economy, a healthier environment can be realized along with healthier workplaces and a healthier economy.
Article
A model of job socialization based on the joint effect of decision latitude and psychological demands are developed to predict how behaviors learned on the job would carry over to leisure and political activities out-side of work. The model is tested with a longitudinal national random sample of the Swedish male work force (1:1,000) in 1968 and 197...
Article
A vacuum is arising in the social policy of advanced countries. It is due to the fact that both of the currently dominant bases for social policy, market-oriented policy, and its presumed antagonist, welfare state policy, have the same and an insufficiently broad production value model at their core. The solution is to create a true new alternative...
Presentation
Full-text available
The overall goal of this research project is to assess the effect of stress in the work environment on cardiovascular health via the assessment of heart rate variability (HRV). The hypothesis tested was that psychosocial stress from work activity effects cardiac regulation in a pathogenic manner. The demand/control model was used to quantify work s...
Presentation
Full-text available
Purpose: The goal of this project is to measure the association of mood with two forms of measures of occupational stress based on the demand control model. It is part of a larger study on the effect of occupational stress on cardiovascular health via the assessment of heart rate variability during a 48 hour-long protocol. Methods: Thirty-Six males...
Presentation
Full-text available
As part of a study on the impact of Job Strain on Heart Rate Variability thirty-Six males between the ages of 35 and 60 years and free of known heart disease were selected from a larger longitudinal study of healthy subjects and cardiovascular risk based on responses to a subset of questions from the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). Potential subje...
Presentation
Full-text available
Purpose: To assess the effect of stress in the work environment on cardiovascular health via the assessment of heart rate variability (HRV) ICOH Presentation: Present graphical findings regarding primary variables and discuss analysis considerations
Article
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There is increasing interest in distinguishing the effects of physical and psychosocial workplace stressors on the aetiology of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSD). Modest associations have been found between psychosocial stressors and MSD, such as intensive load, monotonous work and low job control. Interpretation of these results has bee...
Article
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Part I discusses the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), designed to measure scales assessing psychological demands, decision latitude, social support, physical demands, and job insecurity. Part II describes the reliability of the JCQ scales in a cross-national context using 10,288 men and 6,313 women from 6 studies conducted in 4 countries. Substanti...
Article
Reports an error in "Current issues relating to psychosocial job strain and cardiovascular disease research" by Töres Theorell and Robert A. Karasek (Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 1996[Jan], Vol 1[1], 9-26). On p. 12, in the caption to Figure 2, the copyright statement is missing. The caption should have read "The environment, the work...
Article
The authors comment on recent reviews of cardiovascular job strain research by P. L. Schnall and P. A. Landsbergis (1994), and by T. S. Kristensen (1995), which conclude that job strain as defined by the demand-control model (the combination of contributions of low job decision latitudes and high psychological job demands) is confirmed as a risk fa...
Article
A paper by Hlatky et al. which appeared in Circulation last August, has received considerable media attention, since it purported to show no relationship between high job stress levels and any increase in coronary heart disease. In a subsequent interview, Hlatky indicated that a major conclusion from the study was that heart attack patients could r...
Chapter
The idea that stress may contribute to the development of high blood pressure and heart disease has been considered for many years, but convincing evidence for such an association has been difficult to find. One reason for this is that blood pressure is not a fixed entity but varies considerably from one moment to another. Furthermore, the conventi...
Article
To determine whether "job strain" (defined as high psychological demands and low decision latitude on the job) is associated with increased workplace diastolic blood pressure and the left ventricular mass index, we conducted a case-control study at seven urban work sites of 215 employed men aged 30 to 60 years without evidence of coronary heart dis...
Article
Associations between increased job control and health status were tested with questionnaire data from a random sample of full-time workers (n = 8504) from the national Swedish white collar labor federation, TCO (representing 25 per cent of the Swedish work force). Of these subjects, 1937 had undergone a company-initiated job reorganization during t...
Article
Job strain, a high level of psychological demands combined with a low level of decision latitude, has been hypothesized to induce mobilization of energy and inhibition of anabolism. In the present project this hypothesis was tested using four repeated observations every third month in a group of 44 men working in six widely different occupations. O...
Article
The relation of job psychologic demands and decision latitude to four coronary heart disease risk factors (cholesterol, smoking, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures) was tested among 12,555 men in five investigations conducted in the United States during the period 1959-1980 (National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys I and II, Nation...
Article
The hypothesis that men in high "strain" occupations have an increased risk of developing coronary heart disease was tested during an 18-year follow-up study from 1965-1983 of a cohort of 8,006 men of Japanese ancestry in Hawaii. There were no significant associations between the incidence of coronary heart disease and the individual job components...
Article
The goal of this article is to further illuminate the poorly understood distribution of psychosocial well-being at the national population level (the distribution of conventional economic well-being is, of course, well understood). After reviewing psychosocial phenomena that cannot be predicted by the "conventional" class structure, the author intr...
Article
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A system is presented for linking information about psychosocial characteristics of job situations to national health surveys. Job information can be imputed to individuals on surveys that contain three-digit US Census occupation codes. Occupational mean scores on psychosocial job characteristics-control over task situation (decision latitude), psy...
Article
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Associations between psychosocial job characteristics and past myocardial infarction (MI) prevalence for employed males were tested with the Health Examination Survey (HES) 1960-61, N = 2,409, and the Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HANES) 1971-75, N = 2,424. A new estimation method is used which imputes to census occupation codes, job cha...
Article
Four broad classes of dependent variables (psychological strain, physical illness symptoms, health-related behaviour and social participation) were associated with eleven categories of stressors and stress moderators from work and family life, using multiple logistic regression analysis for a random sample of 8700 full-time male and female members...
Article
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Evidence is reviewed that the operating characteristics ofcomputer application systems, in addition to physical characteristicsof display units (CRTs), are the cause of many observed effects onoperator health and task effectiveness. These effects arehypothesized to occur through changes in task structure, and theman-machine redivision of labor that...