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Robert M. Gordon

Robert M. Gordon
Indepenent Practice

Ph.D. ABPP

About

99
Publications
90,251
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678
Citations
Introduction
Researcher on ethics, the MMPI-2, psychotherapy, relationships, forensic psychology, personality assessment, psychodiagnoses, the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual-2 and the Psychodiagnostic Chart.
Education
September 1970 - June 1975
Temple University
Field of study
  • Psychology

Publications

Publications (99)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual-2 (PDM-2) was developed for a person-centered perspective to the conceptualization and diagnosis of psychological dysfunction not found in the ICD or DSM. The PDM-2 enables clinicians to describe overall level of personality organization (Healthy, Neurotic, Borderline or Psychotic), specific personality patterns...
Data
The Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual-2 for the Assessment of Malignant Narcissistic, Psychopathic, and Sadistic Personality Syndromes: Implications for Criminology and Politics Slide presentation International Congress on Law and Mental Health, July, Lyon, France, p.163.
Article
Full-text available
The objective of the current article is to explore the emotional intelligence (EI) as a coping mechanism and training competence in the management of SARS COVID-19 pandemic stress in Albanian students. Methods we administered online is the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso emotional intelligence Test (MSCEIT) and The Scale of Impact of Stressful (Albanian versi...
Article
Full-text available
We conducted an international survey to better understand both the negative and positive reactions of distance treatment during the pandemic. We received 1,490 survey responses from practitioners from 56 regions and countries who remotely treated patients psychoanalytically during the beginning months of the Covid-19 pandemic. Eighty-nine percent o...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Most psychotherapists had no choice during the COVID-19 pandemic but to offer teletherapy in order to provide needed treatment. Several psychoanalytic theorists wondered if the very concept of treatment would change without an embodied relationship in an office setting. Methods: To attempt to understand the current concept of effectiv...
Article
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We present three recent research projects from China on distance psychoanalytic training and treatment. The first study explored how the internet could influence the process of psychoanalysis in three ways. First, choosing to accept online psychoanalysis is itself meaningful to the patients. Second, the internet connection itself can also be an org...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objective: The objective of the current article is to explore the role of Emotional Intelligence (EI) in the management of SARS Covid-19 pandemic stress in Albanian students. Method: We administered online the Mayor-Slavory model of EI and The Scale of Impact of Stressful Events-Albanian version. The sample of respondents was 300 students (N=300)...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction- The China American Psychoanalytic Alliance (CAPA) has been offering psychoanalytic psychotherapy training and treatment to Chinese mental health professionals entirely over the Internet since 2006. When the COVID-19 pandemic began, most practitioners worldwide had to turn to teletherapy. US psychoanalytic practitioners were more negat...
Poster
Full-text available
Students and practitioners gravitate to various theoretical orientations (TO) as if they were competing independent brands of treatment. Gordon (2008) proposed that TO was not just a choice among different brands but represent styles of mind for understanding reality. These TO are not discrete epistemologies but can be organized as a continuum from...
Article
Full-text available
I summarize several studies on the effectiveness of distance training and treatment¹¹ I will use the term “distance treatment,” but this is interchangeable with other terms as such as “Internet mediated therapy” “remote treatment,” telepsychotherapy,” “Video-conferencing mediated treatment.”View all notes with Chinese mental health professionals. W...
Article
Full-text available
This study assessed the concurrent validity of the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual (PDM-2, APO, 2017) personality syndromes (P Axis) formulation by factor analyzing the countertransference expectation ratings of 412 clinicians of the PDM-2 personality syndromes. This study compared the resulting factor structures of those ratings to some of the lea...
Article
Full-text available
Psychological research has generally suffered from methodological fundamentalism, which is an overly strict interpretation of what is considered "scientific" and has created a psychology of triviality. Methodological fundamentalism often constricts the study of a complex dynamic psychology that encompasses both observed and unobserved reality with...
Article
Full-text available
Background: There is little empirical research on patients at the severe level of personality organization who generally need more clarifications of roles, tasks, boundaries, and supportive interventions, and often create increased problems with countertransference. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between clinicians' r...
Article
Full-text available
We describe updated and revised MMPI-2 scales for personality disorder (PD) using Loevinger’s (1957) integrated construct validation (CV) approach to guide scale development. Dimensionalized PD “Spectra” scales were constructed out of the item pool of all previous MMPI-2 PD scales using content validity, item-analytic, and external criterion compar...
Article
Full-text available
The Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual (PDM; Alliance of Psychoanalytic Organizations [APO], 2006) was developed to add a contrasting, person-centered perspective to the conceptualization and diagnosis of psychological dysfunction in traditional diagnostic systems (i.e., the International Classification of Diseases, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manu...
Preprint
Telehealth care is currently practiced world-wide offering expert services to individuals who would otherwise have difficulties obtaining such services. This new technology however, demanded new legal and ethical considerations. Legally, there are issues of territoriality of practice, and ethically there are issues of privacy, competency and qual...
Presentation
Full-text available
A review of the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual-2; a review of the Psychodiagnostic Chart-2; Diagnosing and Treating Personality Syndromes
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background and Aim: We illustrate a prototypical case study of the intergenerational transmission of trauma in a Chinese family. We used semi-structured interviewing with a volunteer family. Results: Grandmother (75 years old) experienced the traumas of poverty, suicide of her mother when she was 4 years old, "So I seldom sense a mother's love. (Th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The objective of the present paper is to introduce and explain a novel method of understanding,guiding,treatment,teaching and researching of mental health through Psychodynamic Manual-2(PDM-2). First,we will give an overview of the PDM-2 basic structure,its functionality and utilization. Second,we will focus on the conjoint instruments of operation...
Presentation
Full-text available
Power Point presentation of my PDM-2 workshop.
Article
Full-text available
How effective is psychoanalytic/psychodynamic distance training over the Internet? To assess this, we surveyed graduates of the 2 year and 4 year programs of the China America Psychoanalytic Alliance (CAPA). The main results of the 90 graduates’ surveys showed that 77% of their work involves a psychoanalytic formulation of their cases as compared t...
Article
Full-text available
Now we have the option of delivering psychoanalytic services online to those who otherwise would not have easy access to such services. This new channel of connection is suspect to some psychoanalysts who fear that the Internet filters out too much of the interpersonal quality of the therapeutic relationship, according to a study I did with with Ja...
Article
Full-text available
What do typical practitioners think of a psychodynamic taxonomy? A sample of mental health practitioners from a wide range of educational backgrounds and theoretical orientations (N= 438) were asked to rate the utility of the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual’s taxonomy with a recently seen patient. Our survey indicated that the percent rated as “hel...
Article
Full-text available
This chart compares the taxonomies of personality disorders and syndromes from ICD-10, DSM5 and PDM-2. The types of personalities across taxonomies have a great deal of commonality despite their differences in methodology and theoretical assumptions. The ICD-10 classification is a product of the World Health Organization and is based on an internat...
Article
Full-text available
Countertransference (CT) awareness is widely considered valuable for differential diagnosis and the proactive management of ethical dilemmas. We predicted that the more practitioners' theoretical orientation (TO) emphasizes insight into the dynamics of subjective mental life, the better they will be at using their CT expectations in differential di...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The PDCv.8.1 digital form provides construct definition boxes, score totaling, dialog box, and allows the ratings to be exported to Excel for data collection and statistical analysis for research purposes. N.B. If the download does not work properly get a copy from: https://sites.google.com/site/psychodiagnosticchart/
Article
Full-text available
In an earlier study, Gordon, Wang and Tung, (2015) surveyed 176 therapists, supervisors and teachers in the China American Psychoanalytic Alliance (CAPA) and found that the psychodynamic constructs hold up well when treating Chinese patients over video-conferencing (VCON). Over-all, expert raters felt that psychodynamic treatment over VCON was only...
Article
Full-text available
How do experts compare teaching, supervision and treatment from a psychodynamic perceptive over the Internet with in-person work? Our methodology was based on the expert opinions of 176 teachers, supervisors and therapists in the China American Psychoanalytic Alliance (CAPA) who use video-conferencing (VCON) with Chinese students. The results from...
Article
Full-text available
Various theoretical orientations may represent very different epistemological styles and degrees of insightfulness into subjective states. Gordon (2008) proposed an epistemological dimension from the additive-overt-concrete behavioral/ CBT theories to the dynamic-covert-abstract psychoanalytic theories which values subjectivity and insight, with fa...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
IPA Panel 2015: Psychoanalysis’ Taxonomic Tool for the 21st Century: the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual -2 Robert F. Bornstein will discuss the goals for PDM-2, and the guiding principles that are being used by the PDM-2 Organizing Committee to ensure that the second edition of the manual is scientifically sound and clinically useful. Drawing upo...
Article
Full-text available
In the social context, individuals and society are in a complex combination for they cannot exist without each-Other. The way these identities combine in a time and space with new dimensions, is the core question held in this paper. Surely individuals gains from society space and time and gives space and time to it, as well.These quantum interchang...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between level of personality organization and type of personality disorder as assessed with the categories in the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual (PDM; PDM Task Force, 2006) and the emotional responses of treating clinicians. We asked 148 Italian clinicians to assess 1 of their adult patients in...
Conference Paper
Summary : Introduction: In the social context, individuals and society are in a complex combination for they cannot exist apart one-another. The way these parallel identities combine in a time and space with brand new dimensions is the core question held in this paper. Surely individuals gains from society space and time and gives space and time to...
Article
Introduction In the social context individuals and society are in a complex combination for they can not exist apart one-another. The way these paralellic identities combine in a time and space with brand new dimensions is the core question held in this paper. Surely individuals gains from society space and time and gives space and time to it, as w...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Abstract Various theoretical orientations may represent very different epistemological styles and degrees of insightfulness into subjective states. Gordon (2008) proposed an epistemological dimension from the additive-overt-concrete behavioral/ CBT theories to the dynamic-covert-abstract psychoanalytic theories which values subjectivity and insigh...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we discuss the development of the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual (PDM) and its upcoming revision, the PDM-2. We describe the processes by which the PDM-2 is being developed and highlight important differences across both editions. At the same time, we emphasize the value of assessing internalized experience and how that can be of...
Article
Full-text available
This article reviews the development of the second edition of the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual, the PDM-2. We begin by placing the PDM in historical context, describing the structure and goals of the first edition of the manual, and reviewing some initial responses to the PDM within the professional community. We then outline 5 guiding principle...
Article
Full-text available
Countertransference (CT) awareness is widely considered valuable for differential diagnosis and the proactive management of ethical dilemmas. We predicted that the more practitioners’ theoretical orientation (TO) emphasizes insight into the dynamics of subjective mental life, the better they will be at using their CT expectations in differential di...
Article
Full-text available
Countertransference awareness is widely considered valuable for differential diagnosis and the proactive management of ethical dilemmas. We predicted that the more practitioners’ theoretical orientation (TO) emphasizes insight into the dynamics of subjective mental life, the better they will be at using their countertransference (CT) expectations i...
Article
Full-text available
The Psychodiagnostic Chart (PDC) operationalizes the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual (PDM) Adult section. The authors collected 104 PDC cases from 15 psychologists who are experts with the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2). They found very good construct validity when the PDC was compared to MMPI-2, the Karolinska Psychodynamic...
Article
Full-text available
We are not likely to find a diagnostic system as “unethical,” per se, but rather find that it creates ethical concerns in its formulation and application. There is an increased risk of misuse and misunderstanding of the DSM-5 particularly when applied to forensic assessment because of documented problems with reliability and validity. For example,...
Article
Full-text available
Psychoanalytic Diagnosis focuses only on adult personality, but goes beyond the few paragraphs of descriptions found in the PDM. It goes into great detail about personality organization, defensive functioning, and character styles and describes how they impact treatment. McWilliams does not cover the range of the PDM (which serves as a near-complet...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to assess the differences between the MMPI-2 and the MMPI-RC scales in sensitivity to levels of psychopathology. Ninety-eight clients from forensic, disability and psychotherapy evaluations were evaluated on the MMPI-2 and RC scales and rated for personality organization (neurotic, borderline or psychotic) on the Psych...
Chapter
Full-text available
ABPP in Clinical Psychology and in Psychoanalysis in Psychology WHY A NEW DIAGNOSTIC MANUAL? The Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual (PDM Task Force, 2006) is the first psychological diagnostic classification system that considers the whole person in various stages of development. A task force of five major psychoanalytic organizations and leading rese...
Article
Full-text available
The Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual (PDM Task Force, 2006) was introduced to 192 psychologists as part of either ethics/risk management or MMPI-2 workshops; 65 were psychodynamic, 76 CBT and 51 other non-psychodynamic psychologists (i.e. systems, humanistic/existential, eclectic with no primary preference, etc.). Over all the psychologists gave the...
Article
Full-text available
A check-in at the beginning of supportive and symptom focused groups are common. However, it has not been part of psychoanalytic groups which center on the unconscious determinates of symptoms. The purpose of the two-minute check-in in a psychoanalytic group is to gain information on each member’s state of mind, help the group decide where it wants...
Article
Full-text available
To test the involvement of primitive defenses in Parental Alienation Syndrome (PAS), we collected 158 MMPI-2s from court ordered custody evaluations from 7 forensic psychology practices; 76 were PAS cases and 82 were custody cases without PAS (controls). We used two MMPI-2 indexes to measure primitive defenses: L + K − F and (L + Pa + Sc) − (Hy + P...
Article
Full-text available
Gordon’s (2001) study of the high reactivity of the MMPI/MMPI-2 to long-term psychoanalytic psychotherapy did not include effect sizes and correlations. These are now included for use in meta-analyses. Fifty-five polysymptomatic outpatients mostly at the borderline level were tested at the beginning and end of treatment. After M = 38.8 months (SD =...
Book
Full-text available
Introduction From over a span of 30 years, I studied and treated disturbances of personality and intimacy with the expert’s tools of: 1. Case study, 2. Empirical research, and 3. Theoretical formulation. I will tell you what I have learned about the nature of love, healthy and unhealthy intimacy and how to bring about personal growth. For this purp...
Article
Full-text available
Moyer, Burkhardt, and Gordon found in 2002 that some individuals could fake PTSD on the MMPI-2. In light of these results, a follow-up study was conducted to assess whether attributes such as empathy, intelligence, subjectivity, or insightfulness influenced ability to fake a PTSD profile on the MMPI-2. 35 subjects from the previous study were divid...
Article
Full-text available
The MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical scales rest on the common behavioral assumption that consistent items can be added to assess all psychopathologies. This may be the case for some unitary symptoms such as anxiety or anger, but not for complex diagnostic conditions such as Hysteria, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Borderline Personality Disorder....
Article
Full-text available
What is love? No one theory can explain it. I offer a unified model in order to better integrate the contributions from such areas as evolutionary psychology, psychoanalysis and social psychology. I use a heuristic pyramid with five levels. Starting at the base, they are Species Traits, Individual Traits, Relational Internalizations, Beliefs and fi...
Article
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Gerd Fenchel's first publication about the psychology of human interaction was in 1951 (Fenchel, Monderer, & Hartley, 1951). And now, fifty-five years later, with his recent book, Psychoanalytic Reflections on Love and Sexuality , we have the benefit of Fenchel's years of teaching, treating and scholarship on sexuality, intimacy, gender, culture, s...
Article
Full-text available
J. S. Wallerstein and J. M. Lewis (2004; see record 2004-17367-002) concluded from their correlational research of 45 divorced families that divorce causes lasting damage to children. The authors attribute the subsequent psychological problems in the children to the divorce itself as opposed to the psychopathology of the parents, the trauma of the...
Article
Full-text available
The MMPI-2 is often used to assess posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in individuals who claim psychological injury, as a result of a motor vehicle accident. There is concern that attorneys can coach plaintiffs to fake PTSD. The purpose of this study was to determine whether prior symptom knowledge increased one’s ability to fake PTSD on the MMPI...
Book
Full-text available
I include this piece to show two things. First, to show how I seek and weigh evidence. Secondly, to show how love relations can become hateful and destructive when there are lies, primitive defenses (denial, splitting, projection, etc.) and little insight. I often need to use psychological detective work to track down evidence in a child custody ev...
Article
Full-text available
The MMPI-2 is often used to assess posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in individuals who claim psychological injury as a result of a motor vehicle accident. There is concern that attorneys can coach plaintiffs to fake PTSD. The purpose of this study was to determine whether prior symptom knowledge increased one's ability to fake PTSD on the MMPI-...
Chapter
Full-text available
Child Custody Evaluations: Psychology or Detective Work? is a book that I wrote that was published by the Pennsylvania Bar Institute in 2002. This book is based on my presentation to the Pennsylvania Bar about the role of the psychologist as an investigator of specific allegations such as child sexual abuse and spousal abuse. Many psychologists avo...
Article
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Clinical psychology is in danger of becoming the science of brief treatments for specific symptoms, and disenfranchising much of the psychotherapy practiced by successful private practitioners. Most the research today is not applicable to patients with personality disorders who require years of deep treatment. Although most the advances in psychoth...
Article
Full-text available
The MMPI/MMPI-2, the most used and validated test of psychopathology, reacts poorly to "Empirically Supported Treatments", which are usually less than 20 sessions. The MMPI/MMPI-2 was tested with large dose therapy (long-term psychoanalytic psychotherapy) with 55 polysymptomatic outpatients. After M = 38.8 months (SD = 17.1) of treatment, scales F,...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this chapter I will discuss: The mother-daughter bond, The Medea Complex ( The mother's revenge against her former husband by depriving him of his children), brain washing and the Parental Alienation Syndrome (The children's pathological unconscious wish to please the "loved" parent by rejecting the "hated" parent), the subsequent disturbed inti...
Article
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Just as transference is important to psychoanalysis, so is identification important to supervision. In analysis, learning occurs when the transference is interpreted; in supervision, identification is part of the nonverbal process of learning a new role. The identifications in supervision contribute to the learning of new tasks, skills, and role be...
Article
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"Ethics Based on Protection of the Transference" was published in Issues in Psychoanalytic Psychology in 1993, after I presented this paper as an invited address at the Washington Square Institute. I was serving as a representative from Pennsylvania on the American Psychological Association’s governing council when we were debating and voting on ou...
Chapter
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SCREENING INTERVIEW FOR SECURE POSITIONS Robert M. Gordon, Ph.D., ABPP Name:________________________________ Age:______ Date:_______ Position:__________________________________________________ EDUCATIONAL HISTORY: (Behavior at school i.e. fights, cutting, drugs and alcohol, suspended or expelled. Graduated H.S., Post High School Education) WO...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The subtle items of the MMPI clinical scales are not due to sampling errors, but rather are the result of the defensive aspect of the dynamics of the pathology. Denial of aggressive motives for example are in the Depression and Hysteria scales as subtle items that reflect the defenses seen with those disorders. The Paranoia scale for example has ne...
Article
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B. Harris and J. H. Harvey's (see record 1979-06555-001) criticism of the present author's (1976) research as imprecise is based on their misunderstanding of the author's procedures and making much ado about initial nonsignificant differences between the volunteers and the nonvolunteers. Using this to explain away the volunteer factor, they claim...
Article
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Randomly assigned 15 volunteer and 15 nonvolunteer undergraduates to 1 of 2 conditions. In the choice condition, Ss were led to believe that they had a choice between 2 hypothetical relaxation treatments that both they and another S would receive. Ss in the 2nd condition were denied the choice of treatment, receiving the treatment chosen by another...
Article
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Proefschrift Temple University. Lit. opg.: p. 122-132.
Article
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This research examined the effects of self-directed audio-tape encounter-group experiences on dimensions of self/ideal-self-congruence, creativity and interpersonal need fulfillment. The Semantic Differential, Barron-Welsh Art Scale and the FIRO-B were administered to groups of college students. The audio-tape procedure was effective and results su...
Article
Full-text available
Attempted to replicate and elucidate reliability characteristics of G. Gleser and D. Ihilevich's (see record 1969-11347-001) Defense Mechanism Inventory. 47 male and 47 female undergraduates were administered the Defense Mechanism Inventory on 2 occasions separated by a 17-day interval. Whereas test-retest reliabilities for both the total and the...

Questions

Questions (2)
Question
Question
Bob Bornstein and I would like to get feedback on this latest version of the PDC-2. We are grateful for any feedback.

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