Robert C Ford

Robert C Ford
University of Central Florida | UCF · Department of Management

PhD

About

135
Publications
48,795
Reads
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5,161
Citations
Additional affiliations
June 1993 - present
University of Central Florida
Position
  • Professor Emeritus

Publications

Publications (135)
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to add new insights into the discussion of how a city’s destination marketing organization (DMO) can apply operant resources to act upon its operant resources to create, market and manage a unique brand over time. Design/methodology/approach The study uses an abductive approach to advance understanding of how t...
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Full-text available
Misalignment among virtual team members in performance expectations leads to a divergence between virtual teams’ perceptions of performance expectations and the organization’s and this divergence can lead to major organizational performance issues. This articles addresses this issue and provides advise to alleviate risks cause by misalignment.
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Now more than ever there exists a need to conduct data collection online in a safe environment while ensuring that methodological rigor is not sacrificed. Widely available online platforms allow for text-based focus groups to be conducted quickly, easily, and efficiently, but protocols must be maintained to ensure they do not descend into casual ob...
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Practitioners and researchers are conducting more focus groups online as a qualitative data collection method, yet rigorous methodological studies investigating the diversity of findings versus traditional in-person focus groups are limited. Previous studies primarily focused on health topics, varied on topic scope (broad to sensitive), format (syn...
Article
How the principles of workplace fun can be applied to museums.
Article
While few organizations were prepared to help their many managers cope with how to be effective leaders in this new reality of COVID-19, there is help available from research done over the last 20-years on leading virtual teams. Insights have been gained on how to lead, organize, motivate and build organizational support systems and strong cultures...
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to illustrate, through the example of the Springfield Armory and its role in the development of interchangeable parts, the critical role of government in establishing a cluster of organizations that evolved into an innovation ecosystem primarily located in the Connecticut River Valley in the 1800s. Using the Spr...
Article
While there are many organizations that seek to quickly grow into multi-unit operations, the academic literature is surprisingly limited in what advice it provides to those confronting the managerial capacity limitations scaling up to multiple units presents. In this Executive Digest, we detail one co-author’s experience in rapidly developing the e...
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Purpose With the ever-increasing adoption of technology and automation radically changing the nature of service delivery, the purpose of this paper is to explore the role of human touch, introducing hospitable service as an enhancement for value creation in service organizations. Design/methodology/approach Drawing on management, social sciences...
Article
Based on a study of leader communication effectiveness conducted in a large human resource outsourcing firm, this article reports how virtual team members’ perceptions of their leaders’ effective use of communication tools and techniques affect team performance outcomes. The study also investigates the role that trust plays in moderating the relati...
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Purpose - This paper tests the idea generation capabilities of online text-based focus groups versus traditional in-person focus groups using sustainability in the hospitality industry as the idea generation topic. Idea generation quantity and quality are analyzed and the theoretical and practical implications for the hospitality industry are discu...
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the management innovations developed and implemented by the Harvey House restaurants with specific attention to those human resource policies and procedures that were created to use what many believe to be the first large-scale use of single women working away from home, the famous Harvey Girls. A se...
Article
In an increasingly service-oriented economy, the importance of understanding supervisors’ impact on employees working in a fun work environment continues to grow. While researchers have learned much about the negative outcomes of abusive supervisors, relatively little is known about ebullient supervisors and the beneficial outcomes caused by leader...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to empirically test the validity of the service-profit chain (SPC) in a restaurant company context to comprehensively explicate the relationship between organizational practices, employee attitudes with customer and financial outcomes. Design/methodology/approach The method used both questionnaire and company...
Article
Purpose This research provides a historical example of how an innovation champion radically changed the operations of the circus industry by incorporating both the rational and actuation models in his scaling up innovations. The innovations to the logistics and operations of the P. T. Barnum Circus, “The Greatest Show on Earth,” created by William...
Article
While there have been many articles written on the advantages and techniques of goal setting, there has been far less written to guide practicing managers on how to put this powerful motivational tool to work. This article offers a three-step process that begins by identifying the combination of performance, learning, and behavioral goals to best m...
Article
The impressive growth in web-mediated organizational relationships has created an escalating interest in how to manage virtual teams successfully. As organizations increasingly expect their managers to lead employees in these online groupings, it becomes imperative to identify and train them in the skills to do this effectively. The purpose of this...
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The lodging industry, with high capital costs and low margins, leaves little room for the cost of innovation. Since the typical hotel operates through a partnership of up to four stakeholders, consisting of the brand, the management firm, the hotel owner, and the land owner, identifying who is responsible for initiating innovative practices and ide...
Chapter
This chapter presents the fact that company's culture can be one of the strongest forces for ensuring excellent customer service and the resulting financial success. As a leader in a culture-driven organization, one seeks to define the beliefs, values and norms of the organization through what they do, say, and write and whom one rewards, recognize...
Chapter
This chapter illustrates various ideas that help motivating staff. It also emphasizes that the employee who provides the guest experience must be not only well trained but highly motivated to meet the guest's quality and value expectations and to do so consistently. A manager's role is to provide an exceptional service experience. Manager is specif...
Article
Service leaders have learned that it is not enough to attract customers who are ready and willing to experience what their organizations have to offer; they must also attract customers who are able to perform important roles in co-producing a successful service experience. This recognition has led to increasing interest regarding how organizations...
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Interest in and enthusiasm for crowdsourcing is growing tremendously. But should organizations contemplating the use of crowdsourcing view it as simply another means of outsourcing to non-employees, or is it something unique that has special requirements for success? This article addresses that issue. After reviewing the various ways organizations...
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https://youtu.be/92a59QojWt8 Over the years, the management field has had many important contributors to its theoretical development and practical application of its major concepts. As a relatively young academic discipline, the management field has the good fortune to have access to many of those pioneers who are responsible for its foundation, h...
Article
Over the years, the management field has had many important contributors to its theoretical development and practical application of its major concepts. As a relatively young academic discipline, the management field has the good fortune to have access to many of those pioneers who are responsible for its foundation, history, and evolution. Many of...
Article
In this our fourth special issue based on service management papers presented at QUIS we changed the format of having an interview with a prominent service executive to interviewing a service thought leader. This change allows us to introduce leading contributors to service management from the academic world to readers of JAME. Thus we use this int...
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The purpose of this paper is to focus attention on developing a workforce development strategy that comprehensively includes the critical determinants of how employees fit a particular job in a particular organization at a particular location. Appropriating the Attraction-Selection-Attrition (ASA) framework, and incorporating person-location with p...
Article
The American healthcare industry, with rare exceptions (Pensacola Baptist, Scripps Healthcare, and SSCS), has not produced many exemplars of excellent customer service when compared to other service industries. For example, the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI), an indicator created by the University Of Michigan Ross School Of Business, t...
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The purpose of the “Then and Now” program is to engage these people more actively in the annual meetings and provide a forum for them to engage with those who are following in their footsteps. This purpose allows the missions of the Community of Academy Senior Scholars (CASS) and the Management History (MH) Division to intersect. CASS has as one of...
Article
Envisaging the future of tourism anywhere is difficult but is amplified when making predictions for the dynamic and rapidly changing Asia-Pacific region. The purpose of this conceptual article is to problematize a 2030 Asia-Pacific tourism future by modeling one polarized and probable scenario, theoretically framed within the mobilities paradigm an...
Article
In this study we examine reasons that professionals become and remain members of professional associations. We looked at tangible and symbolic benefits that an association can provide to attract members. Satisfaction with these benefits was linked to overall membership satisfaction and intent to renew the membership. We also considered the role of...
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A growing body of work explores how priming goals in the subconscious can improve employee productivity. Likewise, practitioners and scholars are seeking strategies and techniques for improving customer effectiveness in performing the roles they play as partial employees in their service experiences. The purpose of this article is to present the ra...
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This paper takes a strategic contingencies theory perspective to understanding the power asymmetries that arise between tourism organizations in tourism distribution networks in the exchange of critical resources. After addressing the sources of these power asymmetries, we suggest strategies by which less powerful organizations can influence these...
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Based on reinforcement theory, a quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate the effect of (a) feedback obtained from (b) a relatively neutral third party (namely, mystery shoppers) that was obtained on a (c) variable interval schedule for managers to use to (d) coach their employees. An interrupted time-series design showed that both employee a...
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Purpose – Identifying, attracting, and maintaining the engagement of the right composition of people for a non‐profit Board is a major challenge. Executives should ensure that their Boards accurately represent the stakeholders that matter, both from industry and the community. The purpose of this paper is to describe ways and offer propositions for...
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to offer insights and lessons learned about how to successfully balance the interests of the many competing stakeholders who can or do influence the CVB's strategy for marketing a destination. Design/methodology/approach – The study uses a qualitative case study approach utilizing an extensive interview as th...
Article
Purpose – Entrepreneurship is increasingly recognized as vital for economies to grow and survive in an increasingly competitive world. Studying the critical success factors of entrepreneurial activity is and will continue to be a primary scholarly interest. Factors that have been identified in current times as critical to the success of entrepreneu...
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The management field is characterized by two countervailing perspectives that attempt to define what constitutes appropriate research valued by scholars and practitioners. Historically the field has moved from an emphasis on one or the other - from applied research and practice to basic research and theory and then back again. It is our contention...
Article
The service sector is dependent upon customers’ willingness to contribute their knowledge, skills, and abilities to co-produce the service experiences they want and expect. Service organizations therefore seek to employ strategies that will enhance their customers’ ability to do whatever they must to be successful in co-producing those experien...
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present and partially test the triangle model of fairness (TMF) by examining employee reactions to customer fairness. Design/methodology/approach – A total of 217 undergraduate hospitality students at a US university participated in the study. Participants seated in a classroom were asked to take part in t...
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Effective stakeholder management is essential in today's dynamic business environment, especially in the case of convention and visitors bureaus that are dependent upon destination stakeholder support for critical resources. This article uses the resource-dependency theory to propose a typology for strategically managing stakeholders using conventi...
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Purpose – Hospitality organizations, whether large or small, are complex entities requiring managers to work through frontline employees to manage every guest's moment of truth and meet their firms' goals and objectives. This study aims to test propositions that firms whose staffing policies and systems are aligned with their strategic goals and ob...
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The convention and visitors bureau executive plays a number of managerial roles. Selecting the right person to perform these roles necessitates identifying the skills, abilities, training, and experiences that lead to success as a convention and visitors bureau executive. This exploratory study reports data from both a survey of roles and interview...
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Full-text available
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show how the content of a firm's culture, carefully developed by top managers, can create effective employee experiences and how this exemplary case of strategic culture shaping relate to various academic insights on intangible social or collaborative capital. Design/methodology/approach – Inductive case st...
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Even though services dominate the U.S economy and figure prominently in other developed economies, principles for the effective provision of service experiences receive little attention in conventional management education. We provide an argument for what is termed a service-dominant logic for management education. It is organized into three parts....
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An effective change process must account for all aspects related to that change. This article presents a “5-P” framework for implementing change and illustrates the application of the framework with a case situation in which the operations at the Swan and Dolphin Hotels at Walt Disney World were consolidated. The five “P”s are as follows: purpose,...
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the factors and forces that led the creation of the convention and visitor bureau industry and profession to illustrate how historical events influence managerial outcomes. Design/methodology/approach – A variety of historical documents and records discovered and reviewed offer insights...
Article
The convention and visitor bureau (CVB) industry has grown into a major driver of economic development for many cities and destinations around the world. If what happens in the future is somewhat predicated on what happened in the past, it is important to understand the nature and history of this business and the people that lead it to understand i...
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In today's competitive health care environment, service excellence is rapidly becoming a major differentiating advantage between health care providers. Too often, senior executives talk about their commitment to a mission statement that extols the virtues of providing world class service to their patients only to undermine those statements with wha...
Article
In today's competitive marketplace service excellence may be the only competitive differentiation between businesses, especially those that are in the service industry. Senior executives often talk about their wonderful ‘Mission Statements’ that extol the virtues of providing world class service to their customers only to discredit those statements...
Article
The measurement of patient satisfaction is crucial to enhancing customer service and competitive advantage in the health-care industry. While there are numerous approaches to such measurement, this paper provides a case study which compares and contrasts patient and staff perceptions of customer service using both survey and focus group data. Resul...
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Managers of hospitality and service organizations have long believed that it is critical for their employees to have fun at work. They recognize the important relationships between their employees having fun and their customers having a pleasant experience. While everyone accepts this notion, there is little empirical support for either a definitio...
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It has become increasingly clear in the research literature that successful organizations have found ways to ensure that their organizational missions are aligned both in terms of fit with the external environment and with all factors internal to the organization. The challenge is that accomplishing this fit is easier said than done. Too often ther...
Article
It has become increasingly clear in the research literature that successful organizations have found ways to ensure that their organizational missions are aligned both in terms of fit with the external environment and with all factors internal to the organization. The challenge is that accomplishing this fit is easier said than done. Too often ther...
Article
Purpose – Interchangeable parts were a critical development in the advancement of industry and manufacturing. This paper traces its development, the factors that contributed to it, and answers the question of why did this innovation occur at the Springfield Armory. Design/methodology/approach – This is an illustrative case study. Findings – The for...
Article
Nearly all service and hospitality experiences require customers to wait at some point in the service process. Unless the provider of the service has unlimited capacity or can precisely match customer demand to available capacity, customers will be forced to wait for the experience they seek. Although waiting is an expected part of many services (s...
Article
An extensive review of literature was conducted to see if there was evidence indicating there are differences in the management of hospitality organizations and manufacturing organizations. The literature was divided into three areas: organizing, staffing, and commanding. The results of the review indicate that there are a number of differences bet...
Article
Recently, many practitioners, books, articles, and consultants have claimed that a fun work environment is a good thing for organizations to have. These sources assert fun will lead to increased productivity, higher morale, and fewer human resource problems. This paper draws the results of a large e-mail survey of managers conducted by the authors....
Article
Executive Summary JetBlue Airways began operations in February 2000 from its base at New York's John F. Kennedy International Airport and now, four years later, serves 22 cities across the U.S. with a fleet of 48 new Airbus A320 aircraft. As CEO of JetBlue Airways, David Neeleman has launched his third successful aviation business and is realizing...
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The use of fun management techniques to improve productivity, lower absenteeism and maintain a better work environment is discussed. The fun work environment creates and maintains an increased ability to attract new employees, better customer satisfaction, stronger employee commitment and lowered employee turnover and absenteesism. It also increase...
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This article uses a practical and theoretical explication of “dues paying” as a vehicle for synthesizing and integrating attribution, justice, and impression management theories. A model is proposed that depicts the dues paying process as a specific type of impression management process that is stimulated by information that cues attributions of ju...
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The authors discuss how managers can take a proactive approach to using guests to benefit foodservice operations. Applications of customer co-production, customers as marketers and customers as providers of information are investigated. Each area includes a review of relevant literature, examples from the foodservice industry and discussions on how...
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Sodexho Alliance is a global diversified service business founded by Pierre Bellon, its current President-Director General, in 1966 in Marseilles, France. M. Bellon's family had over 60 years' experience in maritime catering for cruise ships, and he wanted to go further. He began by providing food service for company cafeterias, hospitals, and scho...
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One of the major concerns of patients using hospital emergency rooms (ERs) for emergency medical procedures is the inevitable long wait to receive service. This article addresses why the wait is important to manage, how ER managers might manage the reality of the patient waits, and how they might manage patient perception of the wait. The article c...
Article
The authors conducted an extensive review of literature to see if there was evidence indicating there are differences in the management of services and manufacturing organizations. The literature identified differences that related to measurements used to assess effectiveness and efficiency, differences in production strategies and differences in p...
Article
The authors conducted an extensive review of literature to see if there was evidence indicating there are differences in the management of services and manufacturing organizations. The literature identified differences that related to measurements used to assess effectiveness and efficiency, differences in production strategies and differences in p...
Article
Executive Overview Joe Lee has been CEO and chairman of the board of Darden Restaurants, Inc., since it was spun off as a separate company from General Mills in 1995. Prior to that he was on the board of directors for General Mills, where he served as vice chairman. Joe began his career in the restaurant industry in 1967 as a team member in the ori...
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Joe Lee has been CEO and chairman of the board of Darden Restaurants, Inc., since it was spun off as a separate company from General Mills in 1995. Prior to that he was on the board of directors for General Mills, where he served as vice chairman. Joe began his career in the restaurant industry in 1967 as a team member in the original Red Lobster w...
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Full-text available
Delivering excellent service is a challenge for most organizations. While many aspire to it, the evidence from customer satisfaction surveys indicates that too few firms are able to deliver service excellence. On the other hand, some organizations consistently deliver excellent service. This article reviews ten lessons these benchmark service organ...
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Guests may perform one or more of several quasi-employee functions for hospitality providers—functions that the organization must manage. The most common functions are (1) managers or supervisors and trainers of employees and other guests, (2) quality-control inspectors, (3) consultants, (4) marketers, and (5) co-producers of their own service expe...

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