Robert Folger

Robert Folger
University of Central Florida | UCF · Department of Management

Doctor of Philosophy

About

159
Publications
120,720
Reads
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20,307
Citations
Citations since 2017
12 Research Items
6053 Citations
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Introduction
Deonance Theory, which is a behavioral ethics perspective on perceived rights and the sense of responsibility

Publications

Publications (159)
Article
Full-text available
We introduce this special issue on “Social Justice: Lessons Learned and Needed Research.” The issue honors Early Career Award winners chosen by the International Society for Justice Research. The resulting articles represent notable contributions to the domain of research and theory on justice.
Article
Within the field of organizational cybersecurity, much attention has been given to insider compliance and non-compliance with the information security policies (ISPs) set forth by their organizations. Most of these efforts apply theoretical foundations based on self-interest, personal incentive, and cost-benefit calculations to explain compliance a...
Preprint
In this chapter, the authors present a theoretical model useful for analyzing people's perceptions of what they should do, should not do, and should be allowed to do at work. These perceptions create powerful motivational forces that shape workplace behavior. The authors describe various aspects of this model-a deonance perspective-as it relates to...
Article
Studies show that abusive leader behaviors “trickle down” to lower organizational levels, but this research ignores that many abused supervisors do not perpetuate abuse by harming their own subordinates. Drawing on social-cognitive theory and related research, we suggest abused supervisors might defy rather than emulate their managers’ abusive beha...
Article
Workplace cheating behavior is unethical behavior that seeks to create an unfair advantage and enhance benefits for the actor. Although cheating is clearly unwanted behavior within organizations, organizations may unknowingly increase cheating as a byproduct of their pursuit of high performance. We theorize that as organizations place a strong emph...
Article
This paper provides a historical review of the conceptualization and measurement of organizational justice. We demonstrate how, over time, a dominant norm for conceptualizing and measuring justice has emerged. We posit that although consistent conceptualization and measurement across justice studies can enable the accumulation of knowledge, if the...
Chapter
Workplace aggression is a serious problem for workers and their employers. As such, an improved scientific understanding of workplace aggression has important implications. This volume, which includes chapters written by leading workplace aggression scholars, addresses three primary topics: the measurement, predictors and consequences of workplace...
Article
We propose that the process of abduction is a useful tool for how management scholars can better develop new explanatory hypotheses and theories. In doing so, we differentiate abduction from the more commonly studied methods of deduction and induction. We briefly explain the various research streams on abductive reasoning and propose a version that...
Article
Three experiments were conducted to test whether an enhanced degree of fair behavior could be obtained by making justice a goal, whether consciously set, primed, or both. Each experiment assessed fairness in a competitive negotiation context. All participants, across the three experiments, were asked to attain a base-level performance goal. The fir...
Conference Paper
Ethical leadership (EL) is a key consideration for organizations, and research on that topic has received increasing attention. For example, a supervisor's score on a measure of EL has been shown to be associated with important effects on employees who report to that person. A related question, however, has received less attention: What are the con...
Article
Substantial research demonstrates that ethical leaders improve a broad range of outcomes for their employees, but considerably less attention has been devoted to the performance and success of the leaders themselves. The present study explores the extent to which being ethical relates to leaders’ performance and promotability. We address this quest...
Chapter
This chapter relates justice to deonance, or the psychology of behaviors required or forbidden by social codes of conduct (prescriptive and proscriptive duties), versus those that are permitted (rights). Initial sections review the origins of deonance as a perspective on organizational justice and then discuss subsequent developments—some of which...
Article
Full-text available
Three experiments were conducted to test whether an enhanced degree of fair behavior could be obtained by making justice a goal, whether consciously set, primed, or both. Each experiment assessed fairness in a competitive negotiation context. All participants, across the three experiments, were asked to attain a base-level performance goal. The fi...
Article
https://youtu.be/92a59QojWt8 Over the years, the management field has had many important contributors to its theoretical development and practical application of its major concepts. As a relatively young academic discipline, the management field has the good fortune to have access to many of those pioneers who are responsible for its foundation, h...
Article
Drawing from a social predicament and identity management framework, we argue that procedural unfairness on the part of decision makers places messengers in a dilemma where they attempt to protect their professional image or legitimacy by engaging in refusals (e.g., curbing explanations) and exhibiting distancing behaviors (e.g., minimizing contact...
Article
Evolutionary biologists often refer to a distinction between ultimate and proximate explanation. On the one hand, such a distinction points to important issues for social psychologists, especially in terms of what it means to say that people experience emotions such as guilt and shame. On the other hand, the value of the ultimate/proximate distinct...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we introduce the construct of abusive supervision climate, the collective perceptions employees hold regarding abusive supervision in their work unit. We thereby extend research on abusive supervision to the team level, which allows us to explore its relationship with outcomes not addressed by individual-level theories of abuse. First...
Article
Full-text available
This research examines 3rd parties' reactions to the abusive supervision of a coworker. Reactions were theorized to depend on 3rd parties' beliefs about the targeted coworker and, specifically, whether the target of abuse was considered deserving of mistreatment. We predicted that 3rd parties would experience anger when targets of abuse were consid...
Article
This study examined a contextual predictor of abusive supervision. Specifically, we hypothesized that job goals that are judged by supervisors to be exceedingly difficult to attain is a predictor of subordinate‐rated abusive supervisory behavior. Drawing on the cognitive theory of stress, we hypothesized that exceedingly difficult job goals assigne...
Article
We analyze business behavioral ethics in terms of bounded autonomy, namely the result of tensions between the countervailing motivations of reactance (tendencies that involve the freedom of behaving in certain ways as a right) versus deonance (tendencies that involve the appropriateness of behaving in certain ways as an obligation). We focus in par...
Article
The present research contributes to a growing literature on observer reactions to injustice experienced by others. In particular, we separated two variables that have previously been confounded in prior research, namely perpetrator intent to cause harm and victim perception of harm. We expected that injustice intent and injustice perceptions would...
Article
Uses an integrated social comparison-counterfactual simulations approach as a lens through which to view the justice literature, treating comparison standards and judgments as subjects to a counterfactual and mental construction (simulation) process more generic than social comparison per se. The literature review begins with links between equity a...
Chapter
In this chapter, Robert Folger focuses on the notions of status, authority, power, and morality. This chapter entails an integration between Fiske’s (1991) social relations model and social resource theory. The latter refers to categories of resources, while the former refers to categories of social relations which, in turn, can be related to resou...
Article
Drawing on the labeling perspective of deviance, we investigate employee reactions to coworkers perceived as deviants. We look at two positive effects for employees in the presence of a deviant coworker. First, in comparison to a deviant individual, other employees can draw more positive conclusions about themselves; and second, a deviant can be in...
Article
Full-text available
Prior research has shown that in the aftermath of an organizational product or service failure, accommodative communication approaches, such as apologies, are not just expected by the general public, but are also more beneficial to the organization in many ways, compared to defensive communication approaches. However, much of this research has assu...
Article
This research empirically examines the underlying mechanisms of fairness theory ( and ), namely counterfactual thought processes. Study 1 used a policy-capturing design to examine the relative importance of contextual variables in predicting counterfactual thoughts and fairness perceptions. Study 2 utilized a between-subjects design and asked parti...
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present and partially test the triangle model of fairness (TMF) by examining employee reactions to customer fairness. Design/methodology/approach – A total of 217 undergraduate hospitality students at a US university participated in the study. Participants seated in a classroom were asked to take part in t...
Article
In the current study, we draw on the original job characteristics model (JCM) and on an elaborated model of work design to examine relationships between ethical leadership, task significance, job autonomy, effort, and job performance. We suggest that leaders with strong ethical commitments who regularly demonstrate ethically normative behavior can...
Article
Neuroethics, the study of the cognitive and neural mechanisms underlying ethical decision-making, is a growing field of study. In this review, we identify and discuss four themes emerging from neuroethics research. First, ethical decision-making appears to be distinct from other types of decision-making processes. Second, ethical decision-making en...
Article
Within the realm of management and the other social sciences, many scholars have used self-interest explanations to account for individual judgment, decision making, and behavior with respect to a variety of issues in the domains of ethics and justice. In this article, the authors address the descriptive claim that all human behavior can ultimately...
Article
Stress researchers frequently use self-report measures to assess stress, health, psychological adjustment, and subjective dissatisfaction. We present evidence demonstrating that all of these variables are highly intercorrelated and reflect a common underlying factor of Negative Affectivity (NA). NA is a stable and pervasive personality dimension-hi...
Article
Three hundred and fifty-three layoff victims responded to questions describing their reactions to layoffs. Victims also described management layoff practices. Two measures of procedural fairness in layoff practices (decision-making characteristics and social accounts) and one measure of layoff outcomes (benefits level) were included. Only decision-...
Article
We examined the effects of ex ante polite or apologetic messages on an individual's responses to a low (unfair) outcome offered in an ultimatum (take-it-or-leave-it) situation. Results show that these 2 messages (a) increased, rather than decreased, participants' perceptions of unfairness; and (b) decreased, rather than increased, their acceptance...
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores the concept of self-interest. Taking a multi-disciplinary perspective, we discuss and critique various definitions of this phenomenon. We argue that self-interest is an important human motive. However, we also emphasize that other human motives exist. These include empathy toward others and adherence to moral duty. Copyright © 2...
Article
Full-text available
This paper focuses on the psychology of social change and social justice. Specifically, we focus on subordinates’ reactions to new and old supervisors, and we argue that in evaluating these different types of supervisors, subordinates may rely on prior fair or unfair experiences as temporal frames of reference. We further propose that a result of t...
Article
The editors of this volume wanted the authors of this chapter to address the place of organizational retaliatory behavior (ORB) in the conceptual domain covered by counterproductive work behavior. They trace the origins of ORB to earlier work by Folger and his colleagues on referent cognitions theory, which in turn led to research on retaliation by...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter discusses the relationship between injustice and moral accountability. Building on multidisciplinary theory and research, we argue that the sense of fairness is grounded in basic ethical assumptions of normative treatment. The sense of injustice, therefore, often involves holding someone accountable for a deliberate transgression of ac...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we begin to integrate two fields that have, until now, remained largely independent of one another: organizational justice and transaction-cost economics. Transaction costs consist of search, bargaining, monitoring, enforcement, and other costs not directly related to the production of goods or services. Usually such costs are attr...
Article
Full-text available
This article develops the construct of workplace forgiveness by drawing from several relevant literatures. Forgiveness is defined as a process by which an offended worker cognitively acknowledges the wrongfulness of an injurious act and deliberately chooses to release negative emotions and inhibit the desire for revenge. In contrast to revenge, for...
Article
Full-text available
This article develops the construct of workplace forgiveness by drawing from several relevant literatures. Forgiveness is defined as a process by which an offended worker cognitively acknowledges the wrongfulness of an injurious act and deliberately chooses to release negative emotions and inhibit the desire for revenge. In contrast to revenge, for...
Article
Full-text available
This study contrasts community violence and an organization's procedural justice climate (or lack thereof) as explanations for employee-instigated workplace aggression in the geographically dispersed plants of a nationwide organization. The findings showed that violent crime rates in the community where a plant resided predicted workplace aggressio...
Article
Previous research has shown that outcome favorability and procedural fairness often interact to influence employees’ work attitudes and behaviors. Moreover, the form of the interaction effect depends upon the dependent variable. Relative to when procedural fairness is low, high procedural fairness: (a) reduces the effect of outcome favorability on...
Article
We investigate the ways in which concern for fairness influences decision-making. We use a paradigm previously shown to illustrate circumstances under which a decision maker sacrifices some of his or her own potential for financial gain to punish or reward someone who has demonstrated a prior intent to be either unfair or fair to another person. By...
Article
Full-text available
We investigate the ways in which concern for fairness influences decision-making. We use a paradigm previously shown to illustrate circumstances under which a decision maker sacrifices some of his or her own potential for financial gain to punish or reward someone who has demonstrated a prior intent to be either unfair or fair to another person. By...
Chapter
This book contains essays in honour of Melvin J. Lerner, a pioneer in the psychological study of justice. The contributors to this volume are internationally renowned scholars from psychology, business, and law. They examine the role of justice motivation in a wide variety of contexts, including workplace violence, affirmative action programs, help...
Article
All of us want to be treated fairly, both as employees and customers. Managers must honor several "justice principles" if both their employees and customers are to feel fairly treated. Specifically, for employees, these "justice principles" underlie fair human resource management practices in hiring, performance appraisal, and rewards. Customers ex...
Article
Introduction The Psychology of Social Justice Relative Deprivation Is Justice Important To Peoples Feelings And Attitudes? Distributive Justice Procedural Justice Retributive Justice Behaviorial Reactions To Justice And Injustice Psychological Versus Behavioral Responses to Injustice Behavioral Reactions to Injustice Why Do People Care About Justic...
Article
We show how the thinness of abstract concepts in thought experiments may provide advantages typically associated with thick description. In addition we show how the thin abstraction of thought experiments allows for the isolation and manipulation of important variables-a process that parallels the design features of actual experiments and, thus, al...
Article
The increasing number of layoffs among middle- and upper-level executives has made self-employment a more common outcome of outplacement counseling. At this point, however, research that identifies the personal characteristics of new business starters is rare or plagued with methodological problems. This research represents a unique opportunity to...
Article
Proposes that organizational fairness is a psychological mechanism that can mediate employee resistance to change. Focuses on resentment-based resistance as a subset of all possible resistance behaviors. Uses referent cognitions theory to explain why organizational change not only increases employees’ sensitivity to fairness, but also why change is...
Article
Skarlicki and Folger (1997) found that distributive, procedural, and interactional justice interacted to predict workplace retaliation. In this follow-up and extension of that study, we investigated whether a person-by-situation interaction explained variance in workplace retaliation beyond what could be attributed to fairness perceptions alone. Ne...
Article
Full-text available
Are threats and assaults by employees a reflection of aggression found in society at large, or of management practices (procedural injustice), or both? Analyses of large-scale longitudinal data showed that local violent crime rates predicted both workplace threats and assaults. Organizational climates of procedural injustice predicted assaults but...
Article
Previous research has suggested that there exists a bias in the social sciences against no-effect hypotheses. This is regrettable given the importance of establishing not only when an effect does occur but also the boundary conditions of that effect. The purposes of this article are two-fold The first purpose is to review relevant portions of the h...
Article
A scenario study and a field survey were used to investigate why managers often lay off employees in a curt, abrupt fashion. The extent to which mismanagement (versus external conditions) caused the need for layoffs was found to affect managers' reported feelings of discomfort and the time designated for dismissal meetings with employees. Further r...
Article
The authors investigated the relationship between organizational justice and organizational retaliation behavior—adverse reactions to perceived unfairness by disgruntled employees toward their employer—in a sample of 240 manufacturing employees. Distributive, procedural, and interactional justice interacted to predict organizational retaliation beh...
Article
Distributive, procedural, and interactional justice have taken on various interpretations. Even when the meaning assigned to each term has been specified and clarified, however, no single set of unique interpretations for each term allows for an unambiguous set of interrelations among the terms. That is, definitional clarity alone cannot resolve al...
Article
Full-text available
Past research has indicated the importance of disputant voice in determining the fairness of conflict resolution procedures, but some conflicting data have called the role of voice into question. The authors review the role of voice in procedural fairness and conclude that some of those negative results were due to a confounded research design. In...
Article
The just‐in‐time (JIT) production system is notable for its emphasis on employee involvement and participation. However, we suggest that the role of participation that is most typically described in the organizational behavior (OB) literature does not match the type of participation practiced in JIT. We introduce a theoretical framework that accoun...
Article
Distributive and procedural justice gain new meaning in light of other distinctions about how organizations value employees (the employees' “worth”). Fair compensation gives employees worth as achieved status: how the employee is like some employees (similarly rewarded) and not like others (dissimilarly rewarded). But employees also want to be trea...
Article
Psychological processes responsible for value creation are explored beginning with the energization model (EM) developed by Brehm and his colleagues (e.g., Wright & Brehm, 1989). Biner's (1987) study of the effects of task difficulty and goal value on goal attractiveness was replicated as an additional test of EM. An initial analysis of the results...
Article
This article focuses on the possible instrumental characteristics of extrarole behaviours. Specifically, the motivation to perform beyond role requirements for future rewards is discussed. It is first argued that the motivation to engage in extrarole behaviors may stem from a reaction to inequity, or from a desire to receive rewards that cannot be...
Article
Organizational development has always had an ethical interest in the fairness of interventions. Recent work in organizational justice indicates such an interest also has functional value. This paper explores some of the contributions distributive, procedural, and interactional justice might make to planned change and the organizations to emerge fro...
Article
Casting the classic provocation-retaliation paradigm in an equity framework, we hypothesized that persons realizing their retribution was excessive would derogate their victim, but only when they did not anticipate an opportunity to compensate her. After retaliating against a peer who had harshly evaluated their essays, 40 female undergraduates wer...
Article
Based on a selective review of the occupational alcoholism literature, a number of difficulties with the research regarding the effects of the workplace on problem drinking were identified. The identification of these difficulties led to an alternative model being proposed. The alternative emphasizes interactions between predispositional factors an...

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