Robert Elliott

Robert Elliott
University of Strathclyde · School of Psychological Sciences and Health

Ph.D., Psychology

About

202
Publications
311,272
Reads
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12,906
Citations
Citations since 2016
49 Research Items
5034 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
Additional affiliations
September 2006 - present
University of Strathclyde
Position
  • Professor (Full)
November 2004 - May 2006
KU Leuven
Position
  • Guest Professor
September 1978 - July 2006
University of Toledo
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Education
October 1972 - August 1978
University of California, Los Angeles
Field of study
  • Clinical Psychology

Publications

Publications (202)
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Emotion-Focused Skills Training (EFST) is a 12-week parental program based on EmotionFocused Therapy, developed to improve children and adolescents’ mental health problems. Methods: In a randomized clinical dismantling study, including parents of 236 children and adolescents (ages 6–13, Mage 8.9, 60.6% boys, 95.8% Caucasian) with externa...
Article
The present study aimed to test the reliability and validity of the Person Centred and Experiential Psychotherapy Scale–Young Person version (PCEPS-YP). This is a newly developed and adapted 9-item scale which aims to measure counsellor competences in, and adherence to, person-centred practice, when working with adolescents. Counselling practice wa...
Article
The Strathclyde Inventory is a self-report instrument assessing Rogers’ concept of the fully functioning person. Using data collected from a UK-based counseling service, we investigated its validity for use as an outcome measure, and produced a 12-item brief version that maintained fit to the Rasch model and construct representation.
Article
Full-text available
In this commentary we discuss the two examples of systematic case study research in this issue: Miller et al., (2021), who continue the development of the quasi-judicial Panels of Psychological Inquiry method by applying it to a child client with an autistic spectrum condition; and Bohart et al. (2021), who apply their research jury approach to a v...
Article
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Objective: We tested qualitative metasynthesis of a series of Hermeneutic Single Case Efficacy Design (HSCED) studies as a method for comparing within-session processes that may explain good and poor therapeutic outcome. Method: We selected eight HSCED studies according to change in clients’ scores on the Strathclyde Inventory (SI), a brief self-re...
Article
Background The UK Government's implementation in 2008 of the Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) initiative in England has hugely increased the availability of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for the treatment of depression and anxiety in primary care. Counselling for depression—a form of person-centred experiential therapy (PCET...
Article
Full-text available
Fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) is a main concern for most cancer survivors and can bring significant distress impacting well-being and quality of life. Although other psychological approaches have been developed for dysfunctional FCR, based on previous research, Emotion-focused therapy (EFT) might also be a relevant intervention for treating this...
Article
Objectives In emotion‐focused therapy (EFT) relational processes between the therapist and client are not normally an explicit focus unless the therapist and client encounter difficulties that interfere with therapeutic work. When this does happen, however, relational dialogue (including meta‐communication) becomes necessary. We present the princip...
Article
Full-text available
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. There was an omission to the original acknowledgement. The acknowledgement should have read: We would also like to express our gratitude to the rater, Mary Hamilton for her expertise and time commitment given freely to this project.
Chapter
Empathy refers to understanding what another person is experiencing or trying to express. The chapter begins by discussing definitional issues and presenting an integrative definition. It then reviews measures of therapist empathy, including the conceptual problem of separating empathy from other relationship variables. Clinical examples illustrati...
Article
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Background The aim of this research was to identify facilitative therapeutic principles in person‐centred and emotion‐focused therapy for working with traumatised clients in the early stages of therapy. Methods Four cases were selected from the Strathclyde Experiential Therapy for Social Anxiety archive: one good and one poor outcome case from eac...
Poster
Full-text available
EFT case study with a patient with severe fear of cancer recurrence
Chapter
Bringing the insights of discursive researchers and discursive practitioners, we conceptualize and provide empirical evidence for "discursive ethics." For us, disucrsive ethics are ways of practice that are reciprocal and non-hierarchical when it comes to how professionals engage clients in meaning-making dialogues and processes based on client pre...
Article
Fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) is a significant issue for most cancer survivors, with nearly half of cancer survivors reporting it at moderate to high levels of intensity. We aimed to further explore the experience of having FCR from the point of view of patients by systematically reviewing qualitative studies. Following PRISMA guidelines, 87 qual...
Article
The paper offers a perspective on some of the methodological issues present in current qualitative psychotherapy research (QPR). The authors are involved in this type of research (for 20 and 40 years, respectively) as researchers, as reviewers of papers submitted to journals publishing QPR, as well as past editors of such journals. The authors refl...
Chapter
In this chapter, we link ethical practice and discursive theory and research and introduce discursive ethics of practice as a therapeutic concept and orientation embedded within a postmodern or discursive worldview. Central to our discursive view of ethical practice is an empirical focus on how therapist and client negotiate the meanings and conver...
Article
Put simply, empathy refers to understanding what another person is experiencing or trying to express. Therapist empathy has a long history as a hypothesized key change process in psychotherapy. We begin by discussing definitional issues and presenting an integrative definition. We then review measures of therapist empathy, including the conceptual...
Article
Full-text available
The Strathclyde Inventory (SI) was created as an outcome measure to go beyond symptom intensity. It is designed to assess personality development such as congruent and flexible functioning from a person-centered perspective. The present study validated the data obtained from the 22-item French version of the SI collected in eight samples, including...
Article
Put simply, empathy refers to understanding what another person is experiencing or trying to express. Therapist empathy has a long history as a hypothesized key change process in psychotherapy. We begin by discussing definitional issues and presenting an integrative definition. We then review measures of therapist empathy, including the conceptual...
Article
The demand to implement routine outcome assessment in mental health care services calls for measures with clinical utility, i.e. feasible to therapists, acceptable to clients and generalizable to settings. An exploratory sequential research design was used to study the clinical utility of an individualized outcome measure, the Personal Questionnair...
Article
Therapist in-session experiences of momentary disconnection from clients have not been previously studied. Four person-centered therapists participated in semi-structured in-depth one-to-one interviews to investigate the nature of these experiences. Using grounded theory analyses and drawing on concepts from emotion-focused therapy and pre-therapy,...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this analysis was to explore whether pre-treatment intervention preferences were related to outcomes for patients with persistent sub-threshold and mild depression who received one of two treatment types. Thirty-six patients took part in a two-arm, parallel group, pilot randomized controlled trial that compared short term (3 month and 6...
Article
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The person-centered approach has paid little attention to persons with autistic process, in spite of their often experiencing high levels of psychological distress. We present the main arguments for a group therapy adaptation of Emotion-Focused Therapy for people on the autistic spectrum (EFT-AS). The principles of this approach are described here....
Article
Social anxiety (SA) is a common, disabling difficulty characterized by persistent fear of other people. After a brief clinical description, we present an emotion-focused therapy (EFT) theory of SA: We describe its developmental origins in experiences of social degradation, which result in primary emotional processes organized around a core sense of...
Article
Full-text available
Background: NICE guidelines state cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is a front-line psychological treatment for people presenting with depression in primary care. Counselling for Depression (CfD), a form of Person-Centred Experiential therapy, is also offered within Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) services for moderate depress...
Poster
Full-text available
The present review relies on qualitative data about fear of cancer recurrence experience. Preliminary results are presented.
Article
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People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), can have difficulties in emotion processing, including recognising their own and others' emotions, leading to problems in emotion regulation and interpersonal relating. This study reports the development and piloting of the Client Emotional Processing Scale-Autism Spectrum (CEPS-AS), a new observer measur...
Chapter
Small-N designs, such as systematic case studies and single-case experiments, are a potentially appealing way of blending science and practice, since they enable clinicians to integrate formal research methods into their everyday work. There are two main types of design: single-case experiments and naturalistic case studies. Small-N designs can mak...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the final stage of clinical psychology research methods. The final stage of the research process involves making sense of data, first by the researcher, and then for a wider audience. This stage can itself be broken down into three parts: analysis, interpretation, and dissemination. All forms of qualitative analysis engage i...
Chapter
This chapter has two separate sections: sampling and ethics. Sampling refers to the process of specifying and obtaining the participants for the study. There are three steps: specifying the target population; choosing the sampling procedure; and determining the sample size. The chapter deals with each of these steps and then considers some alternat...
Chapter
Practicing psychologists may choose to do research, or not to, for a variety of personal reasons. This chapter attempts to shed light on the research process from three perspectives: philosophical, professional, and personal. The process of psychological research is similar to that of open-minded enquiry in everyday life. This chapter examines some...
Chapter
Evaluation is applied research that aims to assess the worth of a service. It includes service audit, quality assurance, needs assessment, and outcomes evaluation. Evaluation researchers often face a Hobson's choice: they can either collect inadequate data or no data at all. The chapter examines some of evaluation research's basic concepts and spec...
Chapter
In the biological and physical sciences, various forms of observation are the only possible data collection method, since the objects of study are animals, plants, and inanimate objects. In psychology, however, researchers have a choice: whether to use observation, self-report, or a combination of the two. Observation can take many forms. The advan...
Chapter
Qualitative research aims to study people's thoughts, experiences, feelings, or use of language in depth and detail. The main advantage of qualitative methods is that they allow a rich description. They draw upon two main philosophical traditions, phenomenology and constructionism, although there is considerable diversity within, and overlap betwee...
Chapter
This chapter explains how to measure a psychological construct, which depends on the research questions, the theoretical framework, and the available resources. Measures can be classified into self-report and observation, and also according to whether they are qualitative or quantitative. The chapter defines some key terms and looks at the general...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on practical issues in getting a research project started. It covers the first stage of the research process, which is labeled as the groundwork stage. The chapter first considers how the research questions are formulated and specified in a research proposal. Next, it looks at the politics of research in clinical settings and o...
Chapter
This chapter discusses procedures for constructing self-report methods, such as interviews and questionnaires. The advantages of self-report are that it gives the person's own perspective, and that there is no other way to access the person's own experience. There are both qualitative and quantitative approaches to self-report. The main qualitative...
Chapter
This chapter deals with the design phase of a research project in clinical psychology. It examines nonexperimental and experimental designs, and their various subtypes, and also looks at some general principles for assessing validity in research designs. Most psychotherapy outcome studies use an experimental design. The chapter uses a comparative o...
Article
Full-text available
We present a range of evidence for the reliability and validity of data generated by the Personal Questionnaire (PQ), a client-generated individualized outcome measure, using five data sets from three countries. Overall pre-therapy mean internal consistency (alpha) across clients was .80; within-client alphas averaged .77; clients typically had one...
Chapter
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This chapter highlights the potential and variety of qualitative methods that can be applied to counselling and psychotherapy outcome research. The chapter’s main focus is on outlining the various forms of qualitative data collection methods that are available to researchers. This is followed by an overview of the various qualitative analysis metho...
Article
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Objective: Over the past 25 years, humanistic psychotherapy (HP) researchers have actively contributed to the development and implementation of innovative practice-informed research measures and coding systems. Method: Qualitative and quantitative research findings, including meta-analyses, support the identification of HP approaches as evidence...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract On the occasion of the 25th anniversary of the journal, Psychotherapy Research, three former editors first look back at: (i) the controversial persistence of the Dodo verdict (i.e., the observation that all bona fide therapies seem equally effective); (ii) the connection between process and outcome; (iii) the move toward methodological plu...
Article
Full-text available
Persistent sub-threshold depressive symptoms are important because almost all patients who experience symptoms for more than 2 years go on to develop major depressive episodes. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence in the United Kingdom recommends research into the efficacy of person centred counselling and low-intensity cognitive b...
Article
Reviews the book, Gestalt Therapy in Clinical Practice: From Psychopathology to the Aesthetics of Contact edited by Gianni Francesetti, Michela Gecele, and Jan Roubal (2013). In this historic, encyclopedic work, a group of well-known, talented Italian Gestalt therapists and trainers contribute close to half of the 33 chapters. Around this core are...
Article
Full-text available
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Article
Full-text available
Aims: This study aimed to assess the reliability of the Person-Centred and Experiential Psychotherapy Scale (PCEPS), a new adherence/competence measure of person-centred and experiential psychotherapies. The PCEPS consists of 15 items with two subscales: Person-Centred Process and Experiential Process. Method: One-hundred twenty audio-recorded segm...
Article
Hermeneutic Single-case Efficacy Design (HSCED) was applied to a good-outcome case in which an individual presenting with social anxiety (SA) received 13 sessions of nondirective Person-centered therapy. A Rich Case Record of qualitative and quantitative data gathered over the course of therapy was constructed, and provided the basis for affirmativ...
Article
The Leuven Systematic Case-study Protocol was used to analyze the therapeutic trajectory of a young woman suffering from anxiety problems. The LSCS protocol is a broad-spectrum monitoring tool that contains both quantitative and qualitative processes, effects and relational climate measurements. This case-study shows how relational and task-oriente...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Despite an increasing recognition of the relevance and significance of self-compassion processes, little research has explored interventions that seek to enhance these in therapy. In this study, we examined the compassionate self-soothing task of emotion-focused therapy involving two-chair work, with seven clients. Method: Conversatio...
Article
Abstract Objective: Over the past 25 years, humanistic psychotherapy (HP) researchers have actively contributed to the development and implementation of innovative practice-informed research measures and coding systems. Method: Qualitative and quantitative research findings, including meta-analyses, support the identification of HP approaches as ev...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the study was to discover how individuals diagnosed with a life-limiting illness experienced themselves as agents, even in the face of death. In this qualitative, multiple case study design, 4 female outpatient hospice patients with terminal illnesses received humanistic counseling to explore their experiences of themselves and their...
Article
Aims: This study aimed to assess the reliability of the Person-Centred and Experiential Psychotherapy Scale (PCEPS), a new adherence/competence measure of person-centred and experiential psychotherapies. The PCEPS consists of 15 items with two subscales: Person-Centred Process and Experiential Process. Method: One-hundred twenty audio-recorded segm...
Article
Full-text available
Anxiety difficulties are an increasingly important focus for person-centered/experiential (PCE) psychotherapies. I begin by reviewing person-centered, focusing-oriented, and emotion-focused therapy (EFT) theories of anxiety. Next, I summarize a meta-analysis of 19 outcome studies of PCE therapies for adults with anxiety, most commonly supportive or...
Chapter
The most central characteristics of humanistic approaches to psychotherapy are defined and sub-approaches within the humanistic approach are identified. The main characteristics of the family of humanistic experiential approaches are their focus on promoting an empathically attuned relationship, in-therapy experiencing, a commitment to a phenomenol...
Conference Paper
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ABSTRACT: Symposium overview Keywords: person-centred-experiential therapies, therapy adherence/competence, therapist facilitative conditions, therapeutic relationship, therapy process Title: The Person Centred and Experiential Psychotherapy Scale (PCEPS): Field Trial Results and Next Steps The Person Centred and Experiential Psychotherapy Scale...
Article
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Aims: The present study was intended to examine how a particular client disclosure came about and what made it important to the client. Method: A client-identified significant therapy event involving disclosure of childhood abuse was analysed using Comprehensive Process Analysis (CPA), a qualitative interpretive method for examining the process, ef...
Article
We offer a view of the nature and role of client-therapist collaboration in experiential psychotherapy, focusing on Gestalt and emotion-focused therapy (EFT). We distinguish between the necessary condition of mutual trust (the emotional bond between client and therapist) and effective collaboration (regarding the goals and tasks of therapy). Using...
Chapter
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After 5 years of conceptualizing, investigating, and writing about corrective experiences (CEs), we (the authors of this chapter) met to talk about what we learned. In this chapter, we summarize our joint understanding of (a) the definition of CEs; (b) the contexts in which CEs occur; (c) client, therapist, and external factors that facilitate CEs;...
Article
Social Anxiety (SA) is a common and debilitating problem. Although a range of therapies have been applied to treat SA, only a narrow range of these has been researched to date. In this study, Hermeneutic Single Case Efficacy Design (HSCED) was used to investigate Process-Experiential/Emotion-Focused Therapy (PE-EFT) with a socially isolated client...
Article
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We introduce two complementary measures of relational depth, defined as a state of profound contact and engagement between client and therapist. Using an internet-based survey of client and therapist accounts (n=342), judges rated relational depth as present in over a third of significant therapy event descriptions. Participants also completed the...
Chapter
IntroductionEpistemological Issues and the History of Change Process ResearchResearch Questions in Change Process ResearchCollecting Change Process Research DataExamples of Qualitative Change Process Research Data Collection Methods Qualitative Data Analysis OptionsDiscussion: Issues in Qualitative Change Process ResearchReferences
Article
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This qualitative study explores person-centered practitioners' perceptions of what is helpful in their work with clients who experience psychotic processes and the impact that they believe this practice has on their clients. In-depth interviews with 20 British person-centered practitioners focused on how they worked with clients who experienced psy...
Article
Full-text available
In this commentary we discuss Miller’s Panel of Psychological Inquiry (PPI) and Bohart’s Research Jury method approaches to the development of the adjudicated case study method, as represented by the papers assembled for this issue of Pragmatic Case Studies in Psychotherapy.  In our view, the case studies presented here demonstrate the rapidly...
Article
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Background: Social anxiety is a chronic, debilitating psychological condition. Hermeneutic Single Case Efficacy Design (HSCED) is a legalistic mixed-method case study method for evaluating therapy efficacy in single cases. Aims: Using a case of Person-Centred Therapy (PCT) with a client experiencing social anxiety difficulties, we addressed the sta...