Robert Eklund

Robert Eklund
Florida State University | FSU · College of Education

Doctor of Philosophy

About

134
Publications
104,950
Reads
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7,703
Citations
Citations since 2017
24 Research Items
2964 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500
Introduction
Robert C. Eklund is the Associate Dean of Faculty Development and Advancement in the College of Education at Florida State University. His research expertise is in sport and exercise psychology.
Additional affiliations
March 2013 - May 2017
University of Stirling
Position
  • Chair
January 2005 - July 2013
Florida State University
Position
  • Professor
June 1998 - December 2004
University of Western Australia
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Education
August 1988 - August 1991
August 1986 - May 1987
Washington State University
Field of study
  • Kinesiology
January 1981 - July 1982
The University of Calgary
Field of study
  • Education

Publications

Publications (134)
Article
Full-text available
We tested hypotheses grounded in self-determination theory regarding athletes' cognitive appraisals and emotional reactions when returning to competition following a serious injury. Professional male athletes (N = 225) competing in the Australian Football League were presented with return-to-competition scenarios that varied with respect to: (1) de...
Article
This investigation sought to replicate and extend earlier studies of athlete burnout by examining athlete-perceived controlling coaching behaviors and athlete perfectionism variables as, respectively, environmental and dispositional antecedents of athlete motivation and burnout. Data obtained from NCAA Division I swimmers (n = 487) within 3 weeks o...
Article
Full-text available
This study explored person-related sources of variance in athletes' efficacy beliefs and performances when performing in pairs with distinguishable roles differing in partner dependence. College cheerleaders (n = 102) performed their role in repeated performance trials of two low- and two high-difficulty paired-stunt tasks with three different part...
Article
This study examined whether teachers' use of transformational teaching behaviors, as perceived by adolescent girls, in physical education would predict girls' moderate to vigorous physical activity via mediated effects of physical activity self-presentation motives, physical activity identity, and physical education class engagement. Self-report da...
Article
This study's purpose was to evaluate the unique contributions of self-, other-, and collective constructs in the efficacy-performance reciprocal relationship for athlete dyads involving low- and high-dependence roles. Data were obtained from 74 intact cheerleading pairs on self-, other-, and collective efficacy and subjective performance evaluation...
Chapter
This chapter overviews fatigue, overtraining, and burnout from multiple theoretical perspectives with an emphasis on historical, contemporary, and future milestones/directions. Two theory-based questions are (a) Is there a theoretical conceptualization that characterizes and differentiates fatigue, overtraining, and burnout? and (b) Does recovery s...
Article
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Fear of failure is a popular catchphrase used by performers in a variety of domains to reference motivating and/or inhibiting forces. In 2001, Conroy produced a review of research on the development of fear of failure and associated problems across a variety of different domains that also offered ideas on future research directions in relation to t...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to test the validity and reliability of the “Short Flow State Scale-2 (SFSS-2)” and “Short Dispositional Flow Scale-2 (SDFS-2)” for Turkish athletes in two separate studies. One hundred ninety-seven athletes (Mage = 22.05, SD = 3.60) voluntarily participated in the first study to test the psychometric properties of SDF...
Article
Efficacy beliefs and communication are key constructs that have been targeted to develop task cohesion. This study’s purpose was to (a) examine whether collective efficacy, team-focused other-efficacy, and team-focused relation-inferred self-efficacy are predictive of task cohesion and (b) evaluate the possibility that communication mediates effica...
Chapter
This chapter lays conceptual groundwork on athlete burnout as a psychosocial construct from a historical perspective, focusing on the seminal theory and research on the syndrome conceptualization. It reviews what is known to date about key antecedents of athlete burnout from cross‐sectional studies before highlighting key studies exemplifying the r...
Article
Objectives: The study was designed to examine if dispositional team-referent attributions moderate relationships between situational team-referent attributions and collective efficacy. Design: In this cross-sectional design investigation, team athletes completed measures of dispositional team-referent attributions, situational team-referent attrib...
Article
Team-referent attributions are associated with collective efficacy and emotions (Allen et al., 2009). However, the contextual factors in which these attributions are formulated have been largely ignored. Therefore, the current research was designed to examine whether social identity could moderate the way individuals think about their team-referent...
Article
Objectives: Investigate (a) the effects of attributional consensus on interpersonal outcomes and performance, (b) the effects of attribution type (i.e., adaptive/maladaptive) on performance, and (c) the interaction effects between attributional consensus and attribution type on performance. Design: Across two studies (i.e., vignette and behavioural...
Article
In this investigation, self-compassion was examined as a potential moderator of relationships between athletes’ subjective appraisals of performance and coping or motivational outcomes after a performance episode. Data were obtained online from competitive swimmers (N = 121, Mage = 15.53, SDage = 2.23). Significant moderation effects were observed...
Article
Full-text available
The main purpose of the present study was to examine the validation and reliability of the Korean version of the Sport Anxiety Scale (SAS-2Kr) by evaluating its factorial invariance across gender. A total of 303 Korean collegiate athletes (198 males and 105 females) from 9 sports participated in the study, and they completed the demographic questio...
Chapter
We present commentary focused on the theoretical implications of study of elite (E) and super-elite (SE) UK athletes. Athlete developmental experiences are first discussed, and we consider how Hardy et al.'s findings fit with extant and emerging theory regarding motivation and experiences of adversity. We then focus on athlete characteristics and p...
Article
Full-text available
Borrowed from organizational psychology, the concept of transformational leadership has now been applied to a sport context for a decade. Our review covers and critically discusses empirical articles published on this growing topic. However, because the majority of studies used crosssectional designs and single-source questionnaires to tap what has...
Chapter
Athlete burnout is a cognitive-affective syndrome characterized by perceptions of emotional and physical exhaustion, reduced accomplishment, and devaluation of sport. A variety of theoretical conceptualizations are utilized to understand athlete burnout, including stress-based models, theories of identity, control and commitment, and motivational m...
Article
A vignette-based experimental manipulation was used to examine the impact of self-presentation concerns on athletes' affect and cognitive appraisal. Others' reactions were described, so as to emphasize or deemphasize self-presentation concerns. Athletes given cause to believe that they were generating unfavorable impressions experienced more negati...
Article
Introduction Well-being declines during the first year of university. We examined if change in self-compassion was indirectly related to change in well-being through change in psychological need satisfaction during the first year of university. Methods First year university students (N = 189, 77.2% female) completed self-report questionnaires at...
Article
Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine behavioral regulations and dispositional flow in exercise among university students in terms of gender and stage of change. Participants: Data were collected from American college students (N = 257; Mage ± SD = 23.02 ± 4.05) in Spring 2013. Methods: Behavioral regulations and dispositional fl...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Although many, likely most, athletes will not experience burnout in any meaningful degree in their sport endeavors, it can be an important concern for the psychological health and well-being of some athletes choosing to invest intensely in highly demanding competitive sport environments. This aversive chronic experiential state is of inte...
Article
Dyadic interactions generate direct relationships in which interdependent sport behaviors can be destructured. The focus of this investigation was to develop a two-level performance framework and corresponding measures of individual- and dyad-level sport performance. The described procedures surrounded a male–female cheerleading paired-stunt task,...
Article
Full-text available
We aimed at studying athletes' mental skills-related implicit beliefs and their susceptibility to changes. Collegiate athletes (n = 68) responded to the Theories of Mental Skills scale to determine their implicit beliefs of mental skills abilities within sports. Participants were randomly assigned to read one of two manipulation articles and comple...
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT Following ironic process theory (IPT), the authors aimed at investigating how attentional allocation affects participants' upper limb motion steadiness under low and high levels of mental load. A secondary purpose was to examine the validity of skin conductance level in measuring perception of pressure. The study consisted of 1 within-part...
Article
Full-text available
2014): Not so risky business: the use of planning within rock climbing, Leisure/ Loisir, makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of all the information (the "Content") contained in the publications on our platform. However, Taylor & Francis, our agents, and our licensors make no representations or warranties whatsoever as to the accuracy, complet...
Article
The effects of trash talk and competition outcome on self-efficacy and affect were examined in 40 Madden™ NFL 08 football video game players randomly assigned to two conditions: silence talk, where they played the first game in complete silence; and the second trash talking. Measures of self-efficacy, positive affect (PA), and negative affect (NA)...
Article
Abstract An experiment was conducted to investigate how self-presentation imperatives can influence cognition and affect. Participants were 70 collegiate and recreational athletes who were recruited because of the relevance of self-presentation processes in sport. Athletes were asked to read either a script which de-emphasized self-presentation con...
Chapter
Athlete burnout has become a matter of disquiet in both colloquial and sport science commentaries around the world. Concern has been sufficiently elevated that major sporting organizations have been increasingly spurred into action. The International Tennis Federation, for example, sought to alleviate the problem through the development of educatio...
Article
Four primarily quantitative researchers in the field of sport and exercise psychology offer their observations on qualitative methods. Topics addressed include their assessment of certain strengths and weaknesses of qualitative research, frustrations and concerns in reading and evaluating qualitative research, and speculation on the future of quali...
Article
Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of parental feedback on young competitive athletes' Perceived Motivational Climate (PMC), goal involvement, goal orientation, and motor performance. Design: A pre-post experimental design was employed where two types of parental feedbacks were delivered to participants, and used as an inde...
Article
Full-text available
The present study examined relationships among motivational climate, self-efficacy, collective efficacy, cohesion and self-talk in soccer players. Data were obtained from male players (N = 139, mean age = 23, SD = 4.43 yrs) from nine teams. Participants completed the GEQ, the PMCSQ-2, as well as measures of self-talk, self-efficacy, and collective...
Article
Full-text available
We analyzed data from two independent samples to assess the predictive relationships between eating disorder risk (RISK) and physical self-esteem and social physique anxiety. Female college athletes completed the Physical Self-Perception Profile (PSPP), the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS), and the Drive For Thinness (THIN), Bulimia (BUL), and...
Article
We conducted a series of studies to investigate the psychometric properties of the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS; Hart, Leary, & Rejeski, 1989) among a total sample of 1,563 nonclinical French adolescents. The, first study provided support for the item content of the preliminary version of the French SPAS for adolescents. Then, the second stu...
Article
Full-text available
Objective For many injured athletes, a safe and successful return to sport following injury is the ultimate aim of injury recovery. Little consensus exists however, regarding the meaning of a “successful” return to sport following injury recovery [Evans, L., Mitchell, I., & Jones, S. (2006). Psychological responses to sport injury: a review of curr...
Article
The effects of perceived stress (PS) on the relationship between adaptive and maladaptive forms of perfectionism and burnout were examined. Smith's (1986)stress appraisal model and Kelley, Eklund, and Ritter-Taylor's (1999) model of coach burnout were used to test two models of burnout in a sample of college coaches (N=177). The results indicated t...
Article
A unified conceptual framework, which integrates the structural components of human performance, such as emotional processes (i.e., feelings, mood), cognitive processes and structures (e.g., knowledge architecture, long-term working memory), motor processes (coordination, endurance), and the neurophysiologic basis of these structural components (i....
Article
The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between the expectation of pain and pre-competitive anxiety. Male and female collegiate athletes (N = 89) completed a set of surveys prior to competition, which measured pain expectations (Expectations of Pain Scale), competitive anxiety (Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2), and ex...
Article
Full-text available
Long and short flow scales are examined from dispositional (n=652 long; n=692 short) and state (n=499 long; n=865 short) perspectives. The long flow scales constitute a 36-item multidimensional assessment of flow and have previously demonstrated good psychometric properties. The short flow scales constitute new abbreviated versions of the long form...
Article
The effect of hypothetical injuries to pivotal and nonpivotal players on collective efficacy perceptions was studied in this exploratory investigation. A collective efficacy inventory was given to male soccer players (N = 194) from 12 semiprofessional teams, as well as a hypothetical scenario describing an injury to a pivotal or less pivotal player...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to test the validity and reliability of the Turkish versi- on of Dispositional Flow Scale-2 (DFS-2) and Flow State Scale-2 (FSS-2). 301 (Mage = 21.58, SD = 3.57 years) and 422 (Mage = 25.11, SD = 8.06 years) exercise and sport participants completed DFS-2 and FSS-2, respectively. Both DFS-2 and FSS-2 are 36 item instru...
Article
Athlete burnout has been postulated to manifest as physical and emotional exhaustion, reduced accomplishment and sport devaluation (Raedeke & Smith, 2001). Qualitative evidence has recently been presented indicating that this multidimensional conceptualization appropriately characterizes the experience of athlete burnout among professional New Zeal...
Article
Full-text available
ObjectivesThe objective of this paper is to review the literature relevant to the psychosocial aspects of a return to sport following injury using a self-determination theoretical (SDT) framework.MethodsThe literature was reviewed qualitatively. SDT was used to interpret and bring coherence to the diverse array of findings.ResultsThe review is divi...
Article
Self-objectification (SO) and Social Physique Anxiety (SPA) were investigated in relation to reported exercise behaviors (EBs). A conceptual model was used in which SPA was posited as a mediating variable between SO and EBs categorized as protective or permissive. Two hundred and ninety-one women (age range = 18–74 years) completed the SO, SPA, and...
Article
Full-text available
Research examining the role of coach assistance among athletes in injury rehabilitation (e.g., Bianco, 20012. Bianco , T. 2001 . Social support and recovery from sport injury: Elite skiers share their experiences . Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport , 72 : 376 – 388 . [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], [CSA]View all references; Johnston & Carroll...
Article
Athlete burnout has been a concern to sport organizations, the media, and researchers because of its association with negative welfare and performance outcomes (Gould, Udry, Tuffey, & Loehr, 1996; Smith, 1986). Conclusions drawn in existing cross-sectional studies (e.g., Cresswell & Eklund, 2006c; Gould, Tuffey, Udry, & Loehr, 1996) are limited bec...
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to test the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of Dispositional Flow Scale-2 (DFS-2) and Flow State Scale-2 (FSS-2). 301 (Mage = 21.58, SD = 3.57 years) and 422 (Mage = 25.11, SD = 8.06 years) exercise and sport participants completed DFS-2 and FSS-2, respectively. Both DFS-2 and FSS-2 are 36 item...
Book
Endorsed by the International Society of Sport Psychology, this classic reference draws on an international roster of experts and scholars in the field who have assembled state-of-the-art knowledge into this thorough, well-rounded, and accessible volume. It is completely updated to reflect the latest research and is an indispensable resource for an...
Article
Researchers studying the experiences of individuals in human care settings propose the burnout syndrome consists of three central characteristics: emotional exhaustion, reduced accomplishment and depersonalization (Maslach, 198220. Maslach , C. 1982. Burnout: The cost of caring, London: Prentice Hall. View all references). The purpose of this stud...
Article
Controversy over a negative experiential state among players, discussed as "burnout" in media reports, stimulated the New Zealand Rugby Union to commission research (including the present study) into players' experiences. Athlete burnout research to date has largely been limited to studies featuring cross-sectional designs. The purpose of this stud...
Article
Full-text available
Returning to sport following a serious injury can be a difficult process for competitive athletes (Bianco, 2001; Bianco, Malo, & Orlick, 1999; Gould, Udry, Bridges, & Beck, 1997). Unfortunately, no qualitative longitudinal studies were found that examine athlete return-to-sport experiences following injury recovery. The purpose of this study was to...
Article
Athlete burnout research has been hampered by the lack of an adequate measurement tool. The Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ) and the Maslach Burnout Inventory General Survey (MBI-GS) are two recently developed self-report instruments designed to assess burnout. The convergent and discriminant validity of the ABQ and MBI-GS were assessed through...
Chapter
There has been considerable interest in athlete burnout. Much of the literature on athlete burnout, however, is troubled by conceptual confusion because of the variety of ways that the notion of burnout has been operationalized. As a result, current commentaries on burnout do not all address a common issue. Within this chapter we review various con...
Article
To date, empirical reports of an association between motivation and athlete burnout have been exclusively based on cross-sectional research. Conclusions regarding the nature of the relationship between motivation and burnout are limited because they do not provide longitudinal information. To examine the relationship between burnout and motivation...
Article
Full-text available
Context It is argued in self-determination theory that the motivation underlying behavior has implications for health and well-being independent of the behavior itself. Objective To examine associations between athlete motivations for returning to sport after injury and perceived psychological return-to-sport outcomes. Design A correlational surv...
Article
In 2 studies framed within social identity theory, the authors examined the relationships among cognitive, affective, and evaluative dimensions of team identification. They also sought to determine relationships between team identification and intergroup bias. Factor analyses in both investigations revealed similar findings. Items corresponding to...
Article
Self-determination theory has proven to be a useful theoretical explanation of the occurrence of ill-being on a variety of accounts. Self-determination theory may also provide a useful explanation of the occurrence of athlete burnout. To date, limited evidence exists to support links between motivation and burnout. To examine relationships and pote...
Article
Objectives: The Children and Youth Physical Self-Perception Profile (CY-PSPP) is widely used to study children’s physical self-perceptions and potential influences on physical activity and other psychosocial constructs. Previous studies have supported the overall utility of the CY-PSPP with adolescent children but the validity and utility of the in...
Article
Objective. Growing international interest in self-esteem research and awareness of its relevance to human well-being and motivation has led to new opportunities to evaluate the cross-national and cross-cultural generalizability of self-esteem measurement, theory, and research (Marsh, 2001). Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to evaluate a T...
Article
Burnout has been identified as a concern in elite sport. The aim of the current study was to examine relationships among proposed early signs and the athlete burnout syndrome. Quantitative methods (i.e., questionnaire) were used to identify the level of burnout and perceptions of proposed early signs among New Zealand male semi- and fully-professio...
Article
The flow concept describes a model of enjoyment that has relevance for understanding participation and experience across a wide range of activities (Csikszentmihalyi, 1997). The basic premise of the flow concept is that when challenges and skills are simultaneously balanced and extending the individual, a state of total absorption can occur. Resear...
Article
Full-text available
Sportpsychology research, however, reveals that athletes may be physically healed and rehabili-tated but not necessarily psychologically prepared to return to competition. Discussing hisreturn from injury, Earvin “Magic” Johnson commented, “But I had lost a lot of confidenceduringthelonglayoff.AndforalongtimeafterIreturned,Istillheldback.AllIcouldt...
Article
Full-text available
This paper critically reviews self-presentational behavior, cognition, and affect in competition and sport. It is subdivided into three main sections. The first section focuses on self-handicapping behavior, describing what it is and why it occurs. Self-handicapping research is reviewed followed by suggestions for future study. In section two, cogn...
Article
Self-protection and self-enhancement were investigated in a field study of female athletes who were vying for selection in state all-star teams. Participants completed the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS; Brewer, Van Raalte, & Linder, 1993) on three occasions, and changes over time were compared for players who made the team and players w...
Chapter
Full-text available
Evidence for the anxiolytic effects of exercise is reviewed from two perspectives. Specifically, we examine findings from studies where state or trait anxiety has been assessed following either a single bout of exercise or participation in an exercise program consisting of multiple sessions. We then examine findings from studies in which anxiety le...
Article
Body composition testing has been advocated as part of fitness test batteries in an educational effort to promote health-related fitness, and to prevent public health problems like obesity. However, the measurement of the body composition of children and youth, especially involving the use of skinfold calipers, has raised concerns. In two experimen...
Article
Two studies grounded in ironic-cognitive-processing theory were conducted to determine (1) whether ironic errors may be associated with efforts to exert mental control that typically occur in sport settings and (2) whether these potential ironic effects could be negated through the use of a task-relevant cue word to refocus one's thoughts during su...
Article
The Flow State Scale-2 (FSS-2) and Dispositional Flow Scale-2 (DFS-2) are presented as two self-report instruments designed to assess flow experiences in physical activity. Item modifications were made to the original versions of these scales in order to improve the measurement of some of the flow dimensions. Confirmatory factor analyses of an item...

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