Robert M Dores

Robert M Dores
University of Denver · Department of Biological Sciences

BA, MS, Ph.D.

About

193
Publications
6,120
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3,432
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 1985 - present
University of Denver
Position
  • Professor
Description
  • My research program investigates the co-evolution of melanocortin receptors, and the melanocortin-2 receptor accessory proteins. I teach courses in endocrinology, histology, cell biology, and introductory biology

Publications

Publications (193)
Article
Full-text available
In bony vertebrates, melanocortin 2 receptor (Mc2r) specifically binds adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and is responsible for mediating anterior pituitary signaling that stimulates corticosteroid production in the adrenal gland/interrenal cells. In bony fishes Mc2r requires the chaperoning of an accessory protein (Mrap1) to traffic to the membra...
Article
RT-PCR analysis indicated that steroidogenic tissues are located along the length of the kidney of the neopterygian fish, Lepisosteus oculatus (spotted gar; g). However, RT-PCR analysis of the distribution of mc2r mRNA and mrap1 mRNA, critical components of the gar hypothalamus/pituitary/interrenal (HPI) axis, was only associated with the anterior...
Article
Full-text available
The melanocortin receptors (MCRs) and the MRAP accessory proteins belong to distinct gene families that are unique to the chordates. During the radiation of the chordates, the melancortin-2 receptor paralog (MC2R) and the MRAP1 paralog (melanocortin-2 receptor accessory protein 1) have co-evolved to form a heterodimer interaction that can influence...
Article
In the current study, the whale shark (ws; Rhincodon typus) melanocortin-2 receptor (MC2R) co-expressed with wsMRAP1 in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) Cells could be stimulated in a dose dependent manner by ACTH(1–24) with an EC50 of 2.6 × 10⁻¹⁰ M ± 9.7 × 10⁻¹¹. When the receptor was expressed alone, stimulation was only observed at [10⁻⁶ M]. A compar...
Article
The melanocortin-2 receptor (MC2R) and the melanocortin-5 receptor (MC5R) are found on the same chromosome in most vertebrate genomes, and for the species analyzed in this study, MC2R and MC5R are co-expressed in glucocorticoid-producing cells that also express the accessory protein MRAP1. Since MRAP1 affects the ligand sensitivity of MC2R ortholog...
Article
Full-text available
The interaction between the pituitary hormone, adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), and melanocortin-2 receptor (MC2R) orthologs involves the H6 F7 R8 W9 and R/K15 K16 R17 R18 motifs in ACTH making contact with corresponding contact sites on MC2R. Earlier studies have localized the common HFRW binding site of all melanocortin receptors to residues in TM2, T...
Article
Cadmium is an endocrine disruptor and inhibits corticosteroid production, but the mechanisms are far from clear. We tested the hypothesis that sublethal exposure to environmentally realistic levels of cadmium impairs cortisol production by disrupting the melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R) signaling in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish were expo...
Article
The presence of Mrap1 and Mrap2 orthologs in the genome of the elephant shark (es), a cartilaginous fish, presented an opportunity to evaluate the potential interactions between these accessory proteins and melanocortin receptors of a cartilaginous fish. RT-PCR analysis indicated that Mrap1 mRNA was present in interrenal, brain, and pituitary tissu...
Article
Previous studies on bony vertebrate MC2R orthologs (i.e., ray finned fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals) have shown that these MC2R orthologs have an obligatory requirement for interaction with bony vertebrate MRAP1 orthologs to a) allow for the trafficking of the MC2R ortholog to the plasma membrane; and b) to allow activation by ACT...
Article
In order to better understand the roles that melanocortin receptors (cMCRs) and melanocortin-2 receptor accessory proteins (cMRAP1 and cMRAP2) play in the HPA axis and hypothalamus, adrenal gland and hypothalamus mRNA from 1 day-old white leghorn chicks (Gallus gallus), were analyzed by real-time PCR. mRNA was also made for kidney, ovary, and liver...
Article
The activation of either teleost or tetrapod melanocortin-2 receptor (MC2R) orthologs requires interaction between the HFRW motif and R/KKRRP motif in the primary sequence of ACTH, and two corresponding sites on the melanocortin 2 receptor. While the HFRW contact site on MC2R appears to involve residues in TM2, TM3, and TM6, several studies on huma...
Article
Full-text available
The evolution of the melanocortin receptors (MCRs) is closely associated with the evolution of the melanocortin-2 receptor accessory proteins (MRAPs). Recent annotation of the elephant shark genome project revealed the sequence of a putative MRAP1 ortholog. The presence of this sequence in the genome of a cartilaginous fish raises the possibility t...
Article
Full-text available
This article contains structure and pharmacological characteristics of melanocortin receptors (MCRs) related to research published in “Characterization of melanocortin receptors from stingray Dasyatis akajei, a cartilaginous fish” (Takahashi et al., 2016) [1]. The amino acid sequences of the stingray, D. akajei, MC1R, MC2R, MC3R, MC4R, and MC5R wer...
Article
The evolution of the melanocortin receptors is linked to the evolution of ACTH, the MSHs, and their common precursor POMC. The origin of the melanocortin receptors and POMC appears to be grounded in the early radiation of the ancestral protochordates. During the genome duplications that have occurred during the evolution of the chordates, the organ...
Article
A critical regulatory component of the hypothalamus/pituitary/adrenal axis (HPA) in mammals, reptiles and birds, and in the hypothalamus/pituitary/interrenal (HPI) axis of amphibians and teleosts (modern bony fishes) is the strict ligand selectivity of the melanocortin-2 receptor (MC2R). Tetrapod and teleost MC2R orthologs can only be activated by...
Article
Full-text available
The melanocortin receptors (MCRs) are a family of G protein-coupled receptors that are activated by melanocortin ligands derived from the proprotein, proopiomelanocortin (POMC). During the radiation of the gnathostomes, the five receptors have become functionally segregated (i.e. melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), pigmentation regulation; MC2R, glucoc...
Article
The chicken (Gallus gallus) melanocortin-2 receptor (cMC2R) can be functionally expressed in CHO cells when chicken melanocortin-2 receptor accessory protein 1 (cMRAP1) is co-expressed. The transiently transfected CHO cells responded in a robust manner to stimulation by hACTH(1-24) (EC50 value = 2.7x10(-12)M +/- 1.3x10(-12)), but the transfected CH...
Article
Full-text available
The activation of melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R) by ACTH mediates the signaling cascade leading to steroid synthesis in the interrenal tissue (analogous to the adrenal cortex in mammals) of fish. However, little is known about the functional regulation of this receptor in fish. In this work described, we cloned sea bass MC2R from a liver cDNA. SbMC...
Article
The tetrapods are a diverse assemblage of vertebrates, and that diversity is reflected in the sequences of tetrapod melanocortin-2 receptors (MC2Rs). In this review, the features common to human (mammal), Gallus gallus (bird), Anolis carolinensis (reptile), and Xenopus tropicalis (amphibian) MC2Rs in terms of ligand selectivity, requirements for in...
Article
Full-text available
The melanocortin receptors (MCRs) are a gene family in the rhodopsin class of G protein-coupled receptors. Based on the analysis of several metazoan genome databases it appears that the MCRs are only found in chordates. The presence of five genes in the family (i.e., mc1r, mc2r, mc3r, mc4r, mc5r) in representatives of the tetrapods indicates that t...
Article
When considering the interactions between the melanocortin peptides (i.e., ACTH, α-MSH, β-MSH, γ-MSH) and the melanocortin receptors (i.e., MC1R, MC2R, MC3R, MC4R, MC5R), it appears that the structure/function relationship between ACTH and MC2R is the most complicated. Human ACTH(1-24) and the human melanocortin-2 receptor provide a useful model sy...
Article
There is general agreement that the presence of five melanocortin receptor genes in tetrapods is the result of two genome duplications that occurred prior to the emergence of the gnathostomes, and at least one local gene duplication that occurred early in the radiation of the ancestral gnathostomes. Hence, it is assumed that representatives from th...
Article
Full-text available
Phylogenetic analyses indicate that the genome of the cartilaginous fish, Callorhynchus milii (elephant shark), encodes a melanocortin-2 receptor (MC2R) ortholog. Expression of the elephant shark mc2r cDNA in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells revealed that trafficking to the plasma membrane and functional activation of the receptor do not require c...
Article
The melanocortin-5 receptor (MC(5)) of the dogfish Squalus acanthias (SacMC(5) receptor) can be functionally expressed in CHO cells in the absence of the co-expression of an exogenous MRAP cDNA. Both human ACTH(1-24) and dogfish ACTH(1-25) were much better stimulators of the SacMC(5) receptor than any of the mammalian or dogfish MSH ligands that we...
Article
Analyses of prodynorphin and proenkephalin cDNAs cloned from the central nervous system of the shark, Heterodontus portusjacksoni, provided additional evidence that these two opioid precursor-coding genes were most likely directly derived from a common ancestral gene. The two cDNAs could be aligned by inserting only seven gaps. The prodynorphin cDN...
Article
Analysis of the functional expression of the melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R) from a rather broad spectrum of vertebrates indicates that MC2R is exclusively selective for the ligand, ACTH, and the melanocortin receptor accessory protein 1 (MRAP1) is required for high affinity ACTH binding and activation of MC2R. A phylogenetic analysis of MRAP1 sugge...
Article
The melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R) is unique in terms of ligand selectivity and in vitro expression in mammalian cell lines as compared to the other four mammalian MCRs. It is well established that ACTH is the only melanocortin ligand that can activate the ACTH receptor (i.e., melanocortin 2 receptor). Recent studies have provided new insights into...
Article
The mouse α-TC1.9 endocrine cell line was used to analyze the amino acid requirements for endoproteolytic processing at the paired basic amino acid cleavage site, K(141)R(142) that is N-terminal to the ACTH sequence in the POMC proprotein of the anuran amphibian, Silurana tropicalis. Real-Time PCR analysis of non-transfected α-TC1.9 cells indicated...
Article
The proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene was most likely derived from an ancestral opioid-coding gene following the 1R chordate genome duplication event. During the radiation of the jawless fish, the POMC organization plan emerged multiple melanocortin sequences (α-MSH/ACTH and β-MSH) and a C-terminally extended opioid sequence (β-endorphin). Following...
Article
At the close of the Devonian Period the rapid decline in the diversity of the lobe-finned fishes was countered by the emergence and diversification of the ray-finned fishes and the cartilaginous fishes that now dominate marine and freshwater ecosystems. All of these jawed vertebrates were derived from the ancestral gnathostomes; a chordate lineage...
Article
In gnathostomes the kappa, mu, delta, ORL-1 receptor genes constitute the opioid/ORL-1 receptor gene family. These genes are most likely the result of two (2R) genome duplication events that occurred during the radiation of the chordates. In stilico analysis of the genome of the lamprey, Petromyzon marius, revealed the partial sequences of four gen...
Article
In 1977 Dr. Robert Schwyzer wrote the review ACTH: A Short Introductory Review, which provided a reference point for current structure/function studies on the interactions between adrenocorticotropic hormone and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and the melanocortin receptors. This mini review will evaluate how the predictions made in the 1977 r...
Article
Comparative studies support the hypothesis that the proliferation of melanocortin receptor genes (MCRs) in gnathostomes corresponds to the 2R hypothesis for the radiation of gene families in Phylum Chordata. This mini-review will initially focus on the distribution of MCRs in cartilaginous fish and the relationship between the shark MC5R gene and t...
Article
Pacific salmon employ a semelparous reproductive strategy where sexual maturation is followed by rapid senescence and death. Cortisol overproduction has been implicated as the central physiologic event responsible for the post-spawning demise of these fish. Cortisol homeostasis is regulated through the action of hormones of the hypothalamus-pituita...
Article
In gnathostomes there is remarkable consistency in the organization of the proenkephalin gene. This opioid precursor encodes seven opioid (YGGF) sequences: five pentapeptide sequences, a met-enkephalin-7 sequence and a met-enkephalin-8 sequence. Yet, within vertebrate lineages there can be distinct sets of pentapeptide opioids (YGGFM or YGGFL). In...
Article
In many cartilaginous fishes, most ray-finned fishes, lungfishes, and amphibians, the post-translational processing of POMC includes the monobasic cleavage of beta-endorphin to yield an opioid that is eight to ten amino acids in length. The amino acid motif within the beta-endorphin sequence required for a monobasic cleavage event is -E-R-(S/G)-Q-....
Article
This minireview considers the possibility that there is a correlation between the slow rate of morphological change and speciation events that has been occurred within the lungfish lineage since the Permian period, and the apparent slow rate of divergence in the amino acid sequences of lungfish opioid precursor sequences. The status of lungfish as...
Article
The detection of the prodynorphin gene in anuran amphibians and lungfishes may indicate that this gene arose as a result of the duplication of the proenkephalin gene early during the divergence of the Sarcopterygii, or that this gene may predate the divergence of the ray-finned fish and the lobe-finned fish. The cloning of prodynorphin-related gene...
Article
Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) cDNAs were cloned and sequenced from brain extracts of two species of urodele amphibians: Amphiuma means and Necturus maculosus. Although the two species of urodele amphibians belong to separate families, and do not share a direct common ancestor, the level of primary sequence identity for the open reading of the POMC cDN...
Article
The POMC gene is perhaps the most extensively studied member of the opioid/orphanin gene family. In Phylum Chordata this gene has been characterized in representatives of every class within the Gnathostomata, as well as in one representative agnathan vertebrate, the marine lamprey. This review provides a systematic overview of trends in the evoluti...
Article
The opioid/orphanin gene family provides a model system for analyzing the outcomes of genome duplication events. Recent studies on the proenkephalin gene provide additional evidence that the organizational plan for this gene has been conserved throughout the extensive radiation of the gnathostome vertebrates. However, an analysis of the amino acid...