Robert Cooper

Robert Cooper
McMaster University | McMaster · DeGroote School of Business

Doctor of Business Administration

About

165
Publications
340,579
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
31,954
Citations
Introduction
Topic: Management of product innovation. Cooper is the creator of the Stage-Gate system for driving new products to market. Specific research topics include: Stage-Gate, Agile-Stage-Gate, portfolio management for new products, innovation strategy, critical success drivers of new products, best practices in new product development. A fellow of the PDMA. See webpage for recent articles: www.bobcooper.ca

Publications

Publications (165)
Article
The Pandemic taught us that accelerated new‐product development is more important than ever, and provided examples of firms developing breakthrough products in record time. This article outlines five approaches to accelerated development. The first two deal with adequately resourcing new‐product projects, namely the use of focused teams; and effect...
Article
Overview: While Agile development approaches to physical products have allowed companies to respond more quickly to change and increase R&D productivity, implementing these approaches also poses new challenges for new-product portfolio management. When Agile and the traditional way of measuring, evaluating, and managing projects clash, companies mu...
Article
Agile-Stage-Gate is a hybrid product development model that integrates elements of both Agile and Stage-Gate to help companies realize the strengths of both. Recent studies show positive results in manufacturing companies, although SMEs are notably absent despite being the majority. This paper reports results of a test of the model in three deliber...
Article
Why are some new products so successful and some companies outstanding performers in new-product development? The article identifies success factors from numerous research studies into NPD (new-product development) performance in industry. Three categories of success drivers have been defined. First, success drivers, that explain the success of ind...
Article
Agile development methods borrowed from the software industry are now being used by a handful of manufacturing firms for the development of physical products. Agile methods, which include time-boxed sprints, daily stand-up meetings, and early demos and retrospectives, are typically embedded within some or all of the stages of an existing Stage-Gate...
Article
Full-text available
See virtual issue: Collecting Robert G. Cooper's Articles as Author or Co-Author from the Journal of Product Innovation Management, 1984–2016
Article
Full-text available
Idea-to-Launch Gating Systems: Better, Faster, and More Agile Robert G. Cooper Abstract: Leading firms are rethinking and reinventing their idea-to-launch gating systems, adding elements of Agile to traditional Stage-Gate structures to add flexibility and speed while retaining the structure and governance facets of Stage-Gate. Iterations within st...
Article
New evidence reveals that Agile methods, until now used primarily for IT developments, can be integrated with traditional gating approaches to yield significant potential benefits for manufacturers of B2B physical products. Indeed, this new Agile-Stage-Gate hybrid approach represents a significant change to our thinking about how new-product develo...
Article
Full-text available
Agile development methodologies have been widely employed in the software industry, where they have been found to yield positive results. But can these new methods, with their new tools such as sprints, scrums, burndown charts, and backlogs, really be integrated with the traditional and popular Stage-Gate approach and then applied to physical produ...
Article
Full-text available
innovationmanagement.se/2016/08/09/integrating-agile-with-stage-gate/ Recent experiences show that Agile project-management methods can be used in the innovation process and has a great potential to reduce development time and increase the success rate of new products. The article briefly outlines how an Agile method, such as Scrum, can be used wit...
Article
Full-text available
OVERVIEW: Leading firms are now beginning to integrate elements of the Agile IT product development method into their traditional gating processes to develop physical products. The trend began first in the IT industry, where Agile and Stage-Gate methods were found to complement each other, and only recently has been seen in manufacturing firms. The...
Chapter
Full-text available
A Stage-Gate® system is a conceptual and operational map for moving a new-product project from idea through to launch and beyond – a blueprint for managing the product innovation process to improve effectiveness and efficiency. Keywords: roots of stage-gate; research that LED to stage-gate; how stage-gate works; gates or go/kill decision points;...
Article
Full-text available
OVERVIEW: As the creator of the Stage-Gate® process, I am often asked, “What’s next after stage-gate?” For years, I’ve not had an answer. Now, we’re seeing new approaches emerging from progressive companies that represent a new generation of idea-to-launch processes. In some cases, it’s an evolution of Stage-Gate to a better, faster model; in other...
Article
Full-text available
OVERVIEW: There is a real shortage of breakthrough initiatives in businesses’ development portfolios. A major challenge in developing these high-risk projects is portfolio management—how executives make R&D investment decisions. Financial approaches, such as net present value and the productivity index, are traditionally recommended to lend rigor t...
Article
Introduction Critical Success Factors at the Project Level Critical Success Factors at the Business Level Summary
Article
Full-text available
OVERVIEW: Most firms now use some form of idea-to-launch process such as a Stage-Gate® system. The question is: Do these processes really work? And what are the elements of a best-in-class idea-to-launch system that really make a difference? A second and related question concerns the governance of the idea-to-launch model. Sadly there is a lack of...
Article
Full-text available
Most companies have ambitious growth goals. The trouble is there are only so many sources of market growth. Markets in many countries and industries are mature and increasingly commoditized; achieving growth in market share is expensive; and acquisitions often do not work. For most companies, product development means line extensions, improvements,...
Chapter
Full-text available
The main factors impacting success at the project and the firm levels are identified on the basis of numerous empirical studies. The factors at the project level are a unique superior product, strong market orientation, global orientation, predevelopment work, early product definition, project-team organization, and leveraging core competencies. Di...
Article
Full-text available
Many companies lack a clearly articulated and well-communicated product innovation and technology strategy. Such a strategy is essential and is strongly linked to positive performance in product innovation. A framework for developing a product innovation strategy is presented, and the various steps of strategy development are described, from best-p...
Article
Full-text available
Many companies lack a clearly articulated and well-communicated product innovation and technology strategy. Such a strategy is essential and is strongly linked to positive performance in product innovation. A framework for developing a product innovation strategy is presented, and the various steps of strategy development are described, from best-p...
Article
Full-text available
The Stage-Gate® system introduced in the mid-1980s has helped many firms drive new products to market. But leaders have adjusted and modified the original model considerably and built in many new best practices. They have made the system more flexible, adaptive and scalable; they have built in better governance; integrated it with portfolio managem...
Article
Full-text available
Article
Full-text available
India is using its large number of skilled professionals to conduct research and development (R&D) in the field of product development. It is being observed that a lot of the country's product development effort relies on information technology (IT), including outsourcing work by companies, such as Wipro and a number of local software companies. Th...
Article
Full-text available
Stage-Gate has become a popular system for driving new products to market, and the benefits of using such a robust idea-to-launch system have been well documented. However, there are many misconceptions and challenges in using Stage-Gate. First, Stage-Gate is briefly outlined, noting how the system should work and the structure of both stages and g...
Article
Full-text available
OVERVIEW: Recent evidence suggests that productivity in new product development (NPD) is declining; that is, we are seeing less output (measured in terms of impact on the business) for the same relative spending level. This article outlines seven practices or principles which, according to studies of NPD practices and performance, will increase NPD...
Article
Full-text available
Ideation for product innovation: What are the best methods? Robert G. Cooper and Scott J. Edgett Surprisingly little research has been done evaluating the burgeoning number of techniques used in the front end of the innovation process, namely “ideation”, where ideas come into the funnel before they are weeded out and evaluated. Our two authors, Bo...
Chapter
IntroductionCritical Success Factors at the Project LevelCritical Success Factors—People and EnvironmentStrategic Critical Success FactorsSummaryReferences
Article
Full-text available
The research seeks to identify different types or dimensions of new product success and the specific determinants of these different success types. Based on a sample of 125 companies, including 123 new product successes and 80 failures, three independent dimensions of success were found: financial performance, opportunity windows and market share....
Article
Full-text available
A major problem for managers is to effectively manage the high risks inherent in moving a new product from idea to market introduction. An example is presented in which a company effectively manages the process of developing a new product by effectively managing risk. The process is characterized by a modular approach to risk and timely review poin...
Article
Full-text available
New product successd is largely determined by the way a firm conceives, develops and commercializes a new product—the new product process. Traditionally, the new product process is portrayed as proceeding in an orderly, stepwise fashion from product idea to launch. This article reports the results of a research study whose purpose was to uncover wh...
Article
Full-text available
The strategy a firm elects for its new product program is a critical element of the firm's corporate strategy. But little research has probed the performance results of firms' new product programs, and the strategy-performance link. This article reports the results of an empirical study of 122 firms, whose purpose was to identify the levels of new...
Article
Full-text available
Although new product development is one of the riskiest activities of a modern corporation, relatively little account is taken of risk measurement in the R & D project selection literature. The existing consensus is that risk is measured by some combination of the total amounts at stake and the uncertainties of the situation. The paper describes a...
Article
Full-text available
The paper reports an analysis of the characteristics of those new projects that are killed, that is, terminated before commercialisation. Such projects constitute the majority of new product projects. The authors' aim was to learn from the differences between ‘kills’ and those that are commercialised. The latter may, of course, turn out to be succe...
Article
Full-text available
OVERVIEW: Technology development projects are the foundation or platform for new products and new processes and thus are vital to the prosperity of the modern corporation. But these basic research or fundamental knowledge-build projects are often mismanaged because companies employ the wrong process to manage them or apply inappropriate financial c...
Article
Full-text available
A formal new product process isn't enough—you need a high-quality process, a clear and visible strategy, enough people and money, and a respectable R&D budget. How does your program rate on these 10 metrics? OVERVIEW: 2007 is Research-Technology Manage-ment's 50th year of publication. To mark the occasion, each issue reprints one of RTM's six most...
Article
Full-text available
Technology development projects are not the same as product development projects, nor should they be managed the same way. Cooper outlines a unique gating system designed for technology development and technology platform projects-including the right criteria to use for making the Go/Kill decisions. Citation: This article appeared as: R.G. Cooper,...
Article
Full-text available
Technology development projects are the foundation or platform for new products and new processes and thus are vital to the prosperity of the modern corporation. But these basic research or fundamental knowledge-build projects are often mismanaged because companies employ the wrong process to manage them or apply inappropriate financial criteria fo...
Article
Full-text available
Article
Full-text available
Author’s note: Stage-Gate – An Idea to Launch System The article you requested, “The Seven Principles of the Latest Stage-Gate Method” was published in 2006, and thus is out-of-date. Please read on for more recent information Background on Stage-Gate Facing increased pressure to reduce the cycle time yet improve their new product success rates,...
Article
Full-text available
This first of three articles reports the results of the most recent American Productivity and Quality Center study on performance and best practices in new product development. Performance results achieved on a number of NPD metrics are reported first, followed by a set of Best Performing businesses, wha t these businesses ha ve in common and—most...
Article
Full-text available
The new product process by which firms drive new product projects from inception through to commercialization, and the methods, practices and tactics embedded within that process, are the focus of this final of three articles reporting the results of the recent American Productivity and Quality Center study on performance and best practices in new...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the critical success factors that underlie new product per- formance. It is based on the author's and other's research into hundreds of new product launches, probing the question: What distinguishes the best from the rest? Ten common denominators or factors appears to drive new product success, profitability and time-to-mark...
Article
Full-text available
Managing new product development (NPD) is, to a great extent, a process of separating the winners from the losers. At the project level, tough go/no-go decisions must be made throughout each development effort to ensure that resources are being allocated appropriately. At the company level, benchmarking is helpful for identifying the critical succe...
Article
Full-text available
Looks at the success factors that drive innovation -- those factors that have been discovered over the past 25 years of research into the factors that correlate most strongly with new product performance. Many of these factors were identified years ago, yet many firms still miss them -- they are still surprisingly absent in many firms' new-products...
Article
Full-text available
Most new product development efforts suffer from serious resource deficiencies across all business functions, and many of the symptoms that beset NPD can be traced directly to this resource crunch. The underlying causes of this crunch are a preoccupation with short-term financial performance, reluctance to kill projects (and the resulting lack of f...
Article
Full-text available
Portfolio management for product innovation – picking the right set of development projects – is critical to new product success. This article reports on the new product portfolio practices and performance of a large sample of firms in North America. Reasons why portfolio management is important are identified, followed by the relative popularity o...
Article
Full-text available
Now that most companies have implemented a systematic new product process to drive projects from idea to launch, the best-practice companies are improving their processes to make them both faster and more effective. With breakthrough ideas and home-run projects in short supply, some companies are adding a Discovery stage to the front end of the pro...
Article
Full-text available
OVERVIEW: Now that most companies have implemented a systematic new product process to drive projects from idea to launch, the best-practice companies are improving their processes to make them both faster and more effective. With breakthrough ideas and home-run projects in short supply, some companies are adding a Discovery stage to the front end...
Article
Full-text available
Portfolio Management – Fundamental to New Product Success R G Cooper, S.J. Edgett and E.J. Kleinschmidt Note: This is a chapter in the PDMA handbook. More recent handbooks have been published, and also there are more recent article on the topic by us. Google 'Robert G. Cooper' and check webpage. Intro to Handbook Chapter: There are two ways for a...
Article
Full-text available
Picking the New Product Winners: There are a series of articles on this topic of portfolio management and selecting winning new-product projects for investment. See web-page www.bobcooper.ca (click bottom right) - no charge for download. Also the book Winning at New Products 5th edition (paperback on Amazon)
Article
Full-text available
Winning at New Products is a 2001 book. It is now in its 5th edition, "Winning at New Products: Creating Value Through Innovation" 5th ed.. Available as paperback on Amazon.
Article
Full-text available
Better new product performance is important for the survival of the firm. Based on a three-dimensional performance space, 110 new products launched from 55 Australian firms are grouped into five performance clusters. Performance groups from ‘Stars’—the winning group to—‘Dogs’—the worst performance group. The five groups could be well explained by t...
Article
Full-text available
Most companies' development portfolios suffer from: too many projects for the limited resources available; ineffective project prioritization; Go/Kill decisions made in the absence of solid information; and too many minor projects in the portfolio. The end result is poor performance: low-impact projects; too long to get to market; and higher-than-a...
Article
Full-text available
This empirical study investigates the impact of customer partnering in new product development by comparing the performance of new products undertaken in partnerships versus those developed in-house. The results demonstrate that overall, partnership projects were no more successful than in-house projects. This surprising result was true regardless...
Article
Full-text available
Some of the findings of an extensive investigation into how businesses manage their research and development and new product portfolios are presented, including how satisfied management is with their portfolio management practices, and the portfolio results achieved in these businesses. An exploratory study was undertaken to gain insights into indu...
Article
Full-text available
R&D portfolio management is a challenging task for most executives. The findings of this study suggest that although many companies are struggling with portfolio management, some organizations are achieving better results in terms of six portfolio performance metrics. Top performers indicated better results on alignment with objectives and strategy...
Article
Full-text available
Introducing new products into the marketplace is essential to a company's competitive position and long-term survival. Robert Cooper investigates the new product performance of a large number of North American and European business units and various best business practices that led to this performance. This novel benchmarking study identifies three...
Article
Full-text available
Introducing new products into the marketplace is essential to a company's competitive position and long-term survival. Robert Cooper investigates the new product performance of a large number of North American and European business units and various best business practices that led to this performance. This novel benchmarking study identifies three...
Article
Full-text available
A study of portfolio management practices in industry reveals three goals: maximizing the value of the portfolio, achieving the right balance and mix of projects, and linking the portfolio to the business s strategy. This first of two articles provides examples of portfolio methods used to achieve the first two goals. Maximizing the portfolio's val...
Article
Full-text available
A study of portfolio management practices in industry reveals three goals: maximizing the value of the portfolio, achieving the right balance and mix of projects, and linking the portfolio to the business's strategy. This first of two articles provides examples of portfolio methods used to achieve the first two goals. Maximizing the portfolio's val...
Article
Full-text available
The three cornerstones of successful product development are process, strategy, and resources, according to the benchmarking study reported in this article. Of the three, having a high quality new product process had the strongest impact on business's new product performance. A high quality new product process meant: an emphasis on up-front homewor...
Article
Full-text available
Article
Full-text available
OVERVIEW: This benchmarking study of 161 business units uncovered the key drivers of new product performance at the business unit level. Ten different performance measures were gauged, including percentage of sales by new products, profitability and success rate. The ten gauges were reduced to two key performance dimensions - profitability and impa...
Article
OVERVIEW: This benchmarking study of 161 business units uncovered the key drivers of new product performance at the business unit level. Ten different performance measures were gauged, including percentage of sales by new products, profitability and success rate. The ten gauges were reduced to two key performance dimensions—profitability and impact...
Chapter
Von den im ersten Kapitel dieses Buches herausgestellten acht Erfolgsfaktoren der Studie NewProd III beziehen sich zwei der acht Erfolgsfaktoren direkt auf Marketingaktivitäten (Marketingsynergie; Ausführungsqualität der Marketingaktivitäten); zwei weitere betreffen den Kunden bzw. den Markt (Ein überlegenes Produkt, das dem Kunden einzigartigen Nu...
Chapter
Im vorangehenden Kapitel wurden die Ergebnisse der Studie NewProd III vorgestellt. Eine wichtige Erkenntnis war, daß die prozeßbezogenen Erfolgsfaktoren dominieren. Die tiefergehende Analyse zeigte, daß die Prozeßqualität häufig unbefriedigend war: Es wurden Aktivitäten übersprungen oder sehr oberflächlich ausgeführt. Die befragten Manager sagten s...
Chapter
Im ersten Kapitel wurde dargelegt, daß nach NewProd III der wichtigste Erfolgfaktor für Produktinnovationen „Ein überlegenes Produkt, das dem Kunden einzigartigen Nutzen bietet.“ ist. Dieser Erfolgsfaktor stellt den Kunden oder Anwender in den Mittelpunkt der Innovationsaktivitäten. Aus den Fallanalysen geht auch hervor, welche Merkmale überlegene...
Chapter
Neue Produkte spielen für den Erfolg eines Unternehmens eine zentrale Rolle. So teilt z. B. Siemens mit, daß im Geschäftsjahr 1993 40% der Umsätze aus dem Verkauf von Produkten stammte, die fünf Jahre zuvor noch nicht produziert wurden (Siemens 1995). Andere Unternehmen geben ähnliche Zahlen an. Eine Befragung leitender Führungskräfte ergab, daß di...
Article
Full-text available
Managing new product development (NPD) is, to a great extent, a process of separating the winners from the losers. At the project level, tough decisions must be made throughout each development effort to ensure that resources are being allocated appropriately. At the company level, benchmarking is helpful for identifying the critical success factor...
Article
Full-text available
New product success is a vital but elusive goal for many firms. The last two decades have witnessed numerous studies into new product successes and failures in an attempt to uncover what makes a winner. Indeed, myriad characteristics, factors, and practices have been found that appear to discriminate between successful and unsuccessful new products...
Article
Full-text available
Accelerated product development is key to new product success. But most prescriptions for cycle time reduction are based on little hard evidence. This article reports the results of an extensive study of 103 new product projects, with a particular focus on the drivers of both reduced cycle time (on-schedule performance and time-efficient developmen...
Article
Full-text available
Results are presented of an extensive and objective benchmarking study to determine the critical success factors which drive new product success and to gauge how companies perform on these factors. 'Best practices' which help to drive success are also identified. The study is designed to overcome some of the traditional problems associated with ben...
Article
Full-text available
Success at product innovation is one key to corporate performance in the fast‐paced, competitive world of the 90s. But new product success can be gauged in many ways. New product managers may speak of success rates; the Managing Director looks to profitability; the scientist often talks about technical successes; the corporate planner thinks in ter...
Article
Full-text available
Speed to market is a compelling objective in new product development. Robert Cooper and Elko Kleinschmidt report the results of an extensive study of 103 new product projects in the chemical industry, with a particular emphasis on project timeliness. The key questions addressed in the study are: what are the drivers of an on-time, fast-paced projec...
Article
Full-text available
Speed to market is a compelling objective in new product development. Robert Cooper and Elko Kleinschmidt report the results of an extensive study of 103 new product projects in the chemical industry, with a particular emphasis on project timeliness. The key questions addressed in the study are: what are the drivers of an on‐time, fast‐paced projec...
Article
Full-text available
Despite previous comparisons of success and unsuccessful new products, an important question remains unaddressed: What separates very successful new service products from the ordinary? Robert Cooper, Christopher Easingwood, Scott Edgett, Elko Kleinschmidt, and Chris Storey obtained data on 173 new financial services and identified three performance...

Network

Cited By