Robert Chambers

Robert Chambers
Keele University · School of Nursing and Midwifery

About

45
Publications
6,234
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7,169
Citations

Publications

Publications (45)
Article
This article explores the potential presented by quantitative participatory methods (QPMs) and approaches for agricultural monitoring and evaluation and impact assessment. Pioneering examples indicate that QPMs can be ‘win-win’, with gains to farmers through their own analysis, action and voice, and to scientists and other non-farming professionals...
Article
Full-text available
We executed a genome-wide association scan for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in 2,157 cases and 1,150 controls. Our results validate AMD susceptibility loci near CFH (P < 10⁻⁷⁵), ARMS2 (P < 10⁻⁵⁹), C2/CFB (P < 10⁻²⁰), C3 (P < 10⁻⁹), and CFI (P < 10⁻⁶). We compared our top findings with the Tufts/Massachusetts General Hospital genome-wide a...
Article
For the diverse, complex and risk-prone farming systems found outside green revolution areas, normal agricultural research and extension for single commodities has a more limited part to play. Reversals are needed and occurring - to perceive, permit and promote diversity, searching for what farmers need and providing not a package of practices but...
Article
* Robert Chambers was funded first by the Rockefeller Foundation, then by himself, and finally by ODA through IDS at the University of Sussex for a six months finishing off period. Local institutional support in Kenya was provided by the IDS University of Nairobi, and the East African Staff College. The author is grateful to these institutions for...
Article
'Vulnerable' and 'vulnerability' are common terms in the lexicon of development and while they may serve as convenient substitutes for 'poor' and 'poverty', vulnerability is not the same as poverty. It means not lack of want, but defencelessness. The articles in IDS Bulletin 20.2 arose from a conference held at IDS in September 1988 to contribute t...
Article
This article argues that there is nothing inherently bad about power over others - it depends on how it is used; that in many ways power over others does not have to be a zero-sum game; and that perspectives and strategies for transforming power from below, vital as they are, should not distract from the potentials for transformations from above. P...
Article
Rapid change In rural Africa raises new policy problems In dealing with mass influxes of rural refugees. Self-settlement in agriculture has become less feasible and is less acceptable now that Its disadvantages are better understood. Organized smallholder settlement can be a better solution where it is economically viable, refugees have freedom of...
Article
To evaluate optical coherence tomography (OCT) reproducibility in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME). Prospective 1-day observational study. Two hundred twelve eyes of 107 patients with DME involving the macular center by clinical examination and OCT central subfield thickness of > or =225 microm. Retinal thickness was measured with the OCT...
Article
Robert Chambers outlines some key approaches to poverty and ways to end it through participatory approaches. He suggests that while poverty may never be made history, a sharp reduction can be achieved if powerful professionals become more participatory and get closer to and learn more from those who live their lives in poverty; and then act on what...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The total number of individuals in this series is nine. This includes: three adults, one adolescent, two children and three infants. Two of the adults have some muscle tissue but no internal organs while the third adult has some desiccated organs present. The adolescent has some soft tissue and with vestiges of a perineum. All three infants have es...
Article
Objective: To evaluate diurnal variation in retinal thickness measured with optical coherence tomography (OCT) in patients with center-involved diabetic macular edema. Methods: Serial OCT3 measurements were performed in 156 eyes of 96 subjects with clinically diagnosed diabetic macular edema and OCT central subfield retinal thickness of 225 mu m or...
Article
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of low-intensity laser treatment in the prevention of visual acuity (VA) loss among participants with bilateral large drusen. Design: Multicenter randomized clinical trial. One eye of each participant was assigned to treatment, and the contralateral eye was assigned to observation. Participants: A tota...
Article
Objective: To present visual acuity findings and related outcomes from eyes of patients enrolled in a randomized trial conducted by the Submacular Surgery Trials (SST) Research Group (SST Group H Trial) to compare surgical removal vs observation of subfoveal choroidal neovascular lesions that were either idiopathic or associated with ocular histopl...
Conference Paper
Objective: To describe characteristics of participants in the Complications of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Prevention Trial (CAPT) at baseline and to investigate associations among visual function, fundus features, and vision-related quality of life. Design: Cross-sectional study. Participants: The 1052 participants in CAPT, a multicenter, ran...
Article
The World Development Report (WDR) process set new standards for openness and consultation. Its concepts and content are a major advance on its 1990 predecessor. The intention that its concepts and content should be influenced by voices of the poor was partly fulfilled. Conceptually, the VOP findings support the multidimensional view of poverty as...
Article
This book is a sequel to the author's 'Rural development: putting the last first', and attempts to identify the mistakes made by professionals working in nongovernmental organisations, governmental organisations, and universities in their approaches to promoting rural development. Through analysing mistakes of the past and commonly held myths, the...
Article
If development means good change, questions arise about what is good, and what sorts of change matter. Answers can be personally defined and redefined. The changing words, meanings and concepts of development discourse both reflect and influence what is done. The realities of the powerful tend to dominate. Drawing on experience with participatory a...
Article
Explanations of errors in past development theory and practice include changes in development conditions in professional norms and in modes of learning. How a fourth dimension, power, contributes to error is illustrated by three case studies - Freud and child sex abuse, the animal-drawn, multi-purpose, wheeled toolcarrier, and woodfuel gap analysis...
Article
Pendant que les changements accélèrent dans les conditions rurales du Sud, le professionnalisme et la bureaucratie sont protégés contre le changement. Dans leur mode haut-bas, elles produisent et encouragent des programmes, des contrats globaux et des technologies standardisés. Les programmes de développement rural en Inde pour l'agriculture, pour...
Article
In the 21st century, vastly more people will need to gain sustainable livelihoods in difficult environments. For this, changes are needed on the part of outsiders - professionals, officials and others - who have overlooked or underestimated the complexity and diversity of rural conditions, rural people's ability to take a long-term view, and their...
Article
Translation of: "Rural development: putting the last first". Incl. bibl.
Article
The many billions of dollars invested in canal irrigation in recent decades have had disappointing results. In consequence, in the mid-1980s, further vast sums are being spent throughout the Third World on programmes for rehabilitation, canal lining, on farm development, and farmers' organisation. Shows that much of this policy and practice is base...
Article
PIP Refugee relief organizations and refugee studies have refugees as their 1st concern and focus. Adverse impacts of refugees on hosts are relatively neglected. When impacts are considered, they are seen in terms of host country governments, economies, and services rather than people or different groups among host populations. In rural refugee-aff...
Article
Most canal irrigation water in South and Southeast Asia and elsewhere continues to flow at night and much is badly used or wasted. Yet what happens to water at night is a neglected subject, a matter for anecdotes more than analysis. Darkness, cold, fear, normal working hours, and desire for sleep deter irrigation staff, farmers and labourers from a...
Book
The many billions of dollars invested in canal irrigation in recent decades have had disappointing results. Rarely have projected benefits in well-being or production been achieved. In consequence, in the mid-1980s, further vast sums are being spent throughout the Third World on programmes for rehabilitation, canal lining, on farm development, and...
Article
Decision makers need the right information at the right time but in rural development much information generated is too costly and inappropriate. Rapid rural appraisal forms part of the attempt to learn about rural conditions in a cost effective way. Such appraisal involves avoiding the traps of quick and dirty or long and dirty methods and using i...
Article
The thesis of this paper is that there are major obstacles to perceiving the nature and the extent of rural poverty in developing countries. These obstacles originate not only in the nature of rural poverty itself, but also in the condition of those, not themselves of the rural poor, who do or, more significantly, do not perceive that poverty. The...
Chapter
Agricultural extension has generated a large literature for India (including the Journal of Extension Education; Roy et al., 1968; Fliegel et al., 1968; Hunter, 1970; Sinha (ed.), 1972; Heginbotham, 1973; Mook, 1974), and has also been studied in some of its aspects in Sri Lanka (Abeyratne, 1973; ARTI, 1974). Much of the concern has been with the d...
Chapter
The previous chapters have made it clear that this book records some of the results of an inter-disciplinary research project which operated in parts of North Arcot District, Tamil Nadu and of Hambantota and Moneragala Districts, Sri Lanka; and that our field methods involved both rigorous sample surveys and village studies in depth. The purpose of...
Chapter
Recent dissatisfaction with urban-biased macro-planning of rural development has called forth a variety of responses. Among them a common concern is to relate planning at national or regional levels more closely to village needs and conditions. It is not so much a question of adapting programmes and methods of implementation to local circumstances...
Chapter
Our fieldwork was overtaken in its later stages by the crisis in energy and fertiliser supply occasioned by OPEC’s sudden increase in oil prices: between March 1973 and August 1974 freight rates in North Arcot trebled, while fertiliser prices in both India and Sri Lanka rocketed and the problems of the supply of scarce chemical inputs, already intr...
Article
Many obstacles face the selection of effectively poverty-focused rural projects. Poor rural people are hard to reach. The small projects often required may conflict with donor and political needs for big projects. The complex appraisal procedures of social cost–benefit analysis obscure the basis for decisions, are in practice abused, and both negle...
Chapter
The previous chapters have made it clear that this book records some of the results of an inter-disciplinary research project which operated in parts of North Arcot District, Tamil Nadu and of Hambantota and Moneragala Districts, Sri Lanka; and that our field methods involved both rigorous sample surveys and village studies in depth. The purpose of...
Chapter
Agricultural extension has generated a large literature for India (including the Journal of Extension Education; Roy et al., 1968; Fliegel et al., 1968; Hunter, 1970; Sinha (ed.), 1972; Heginbotham, 1973; Mook, 1974), and has also been studied in some of its aspects in Sri Lanka (Abeyratne, 1973; ARTI, 1974). Much of the concern has been with the d...
Chapter
Our fieldwork was overtaken in its later stages by the crisis in energy and fertiliser supply occasioned by OPEC’s sudden increase in oil prices: between March 1973 and August 1974 freight rates in North Arcot trebled, while fertiliser prices in both India and Sri Lanka rocketed and the problems of the supply of scarce chemical inputs, already intr...
Chapter
Recent dissatisfaction with urban-biased macro-planning of rural development has called forth a variety of responses. Among them a common concern is to relate planning at national or regional levels more closely to village needs and conditions. It is not so much a question of adapting programmes and methods of implementation to local circumstances...
Article
An overview paper for only one earth, conference on sustainable development organised by the International Institute for Environment and Development, Regents` College, Regents' Park, London Incluye bibliografía

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