Robert H Carnahan

Robert H Carnahan
Vanderbilt University | Vander Bilt · Department of Cancer Biology

PhD

About

105
Publications
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4,128
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Publications

Publications (105)
Article
Human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that target the spike glycoprotein of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) offer a promising approach for the prevention and treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Given suboptimal global vaccination rates, waning immunity in vaccinated individuals, and the emergence of SARS-CoV-...
Article
Background: Convalescent plasma has been one of the most common treatments for COVID-19, but most clinical trial data to date have not supported its efficacy. Research question: Is rigorously selected COVID-19 convalescent plasma with neutralizing anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies an efficacious treatment for adults hospitalized with COVID-19? Study d...
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Full-text available
RNA-based vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 have proven critical to limiting COVID-19 disease severity and spread. Cellular mechanisms driving antigen-specific responses to these vaccines, however, remain uncertain. Here we identify and characterize antigen-specific cells and antibody responses to the RNA vaccine BNT162b2 using multiple single-cell techn...
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Full-text available
Real-time cell analysis (RTCA) enables high-throughput, quantitative kinetic measurements of cytopathic effect (CPE) in virus-infected cells. Here, we detail a RTCA approach for assessing antibody neutralization. We describe how to evaluate the neutralizing potency of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and identify viral escape mutants to antibody neutra...
Article
The protective human antibody response to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus focuses on the spike (S) protein which decorates the virion surface and mediates cell binding and entry. Most SARS-CoV-2 protective antibodies target the receptor-binding domain or a single dominant epitope ('supersite') on the N termina...
Article
Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) remains a risk for epidemic emergence or use as an aerosolized bioweapon. To develop possible countermeasures, we isolated VEEV-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from mice and a human immunized with attenuated VEEV strains. Functional assays and epitope mapping established that potently i...
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Full-text available
Although several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been approved for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) therapy, development was generally inefficient, with lead generation often requiring the production and testing of numerous antibody candidates. Here, we report that the inte...
Article
Background Human monoclonal antibody (mAb) treatments are promising for COVID-19 prevention or therapy. The pre-exposure prophylactic efficacy of neutralizing antibodies that are engineered with mutations to extend their persistence in human serum and the neutralizing antibody titer in serum required for protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection rema...
Article
In this issue of Cell Host and Microbe, Haslwanter et al. (2022) present a comprehensive investigation into the molecular and functional basis of 17D vaccine responses and into differences between antibody neutralization of the 17D and related African lineage strains to contemporary Central/South American strains, including the emergent YFV ES-504...
Preprint
Full-text available
Understanding the human antibody response to emerging viral pathogens is key to epidemic preparedness. As the size of the B cell response to a pathogenic virus protective antigen is undefined, we performed deep paired heavy and light chain sequencing in EBOV-GP specific memory B cells, allowing analysis of the ebolavirus-specific antibody repertoir...
Preprint
Full-text available
The protective human antibody response to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus focuses on the spike (S) protein which decorates the virion surface and mediates cell binding and entry. Most SARS-CoV-2 protective antibodies target the receptor-binding domain or a single dominant epitope (supersite) on the N terminal...
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Full-text available
Background RSV is a major cause of pediatric respiratory disease. Antibodies to the prefusion conformation of the RSV fusion (pre-F) protein are needed for virus neutralization. Methods We measured RSV-specific responses in two groups of children < 3 years of age; subjects with laboratory-confirmed RSV (RSV-infected) or infants born in the period...
Preprint
Dengue is a major public health threat. There are four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV), therefore efforts are focused on development of safe and effective tetravalent DENV vaccines. While neutralizing antibodies contribute to protective immunity, there are still important gaps in understanding of immune responses elicited by dengue infection and v...
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Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic revealed an urgent need for rapid profiling of neutralizing antibody responses and development of antibody therapeutics. The current Food and Drug Administration-approved serological tests do not measure antibody-mediated viral neutralization, and there is a need for standardized quantitative neutralization assays. We report a...
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Full-text available
Understanding the molecular basis for immune recognition of SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein antigenic sites will inform the development of improved therapeutics. We determined the structures of two human monoclonal antibodies–AZD8895 and AZD1061–which form the basis of the investigational antibody cocktail AZD7442, in complex with the receptor-bindin...
Article
Ebolaviruses cause a severe and often fatal illness with the potential for global spread. Monoclonal antibody-based treatments that have become available recently have a narrow therapeutic spectrum and are ineffective against ebolaviruses other than Ebola virus (EBOV), including medically important Bundibugyo (BDBV) and Sudan (SUDV) viruses. Here,...
Preprint
Full-text available
Human monoclonal antibody (mAb) treatments are promising for COVID-19 prevention, post-exposure prophylaxis, or therapy. However, the titer of neutralizing antibodies required for protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection remains poorly characterized. We previously described two potently neutralizing mAbs COV2-2130 and COV2-2381 targeting non-overlap...
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Full-text available
The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) lineages that are more transmissible and resistant to currently approved antibody therapies poses a considerable challenge to the clinical treatment of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Therefore, the need for ongoing discovery efforts to identify broadly reactive monoclona...
Preprint
Full-text available
Despite the success of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, there remains a need for more prevention and treatment options for individuals remaining at risk of COVID-19. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the viral spike protein have potential to both prevent and treat COVID-19, and reduce the risk of severe disease and death. Here, we describe AZD7442, a combin...
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Full-text available
Avian H7N9 influenza viruses cause sporadic outbreaks of human infections and threaten to cause a major pandemic. The breadth of B cell responses to natural infection and the dominant antigenic sites recognized during first exposure to H7 HA following infection are incompletely understood. Here, we studied the B cell response to H7 HA of two indivi...
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Full-text available
Unrelated individuals can produce genetically similar clones of antibodies, known as public clonotypes, which have been seen in responses to different infectious diseases as well as healthy individuals. Here we identify 37 public clonotypes in memory B cells from convalescent survivors of SARS-CoV-2 infection or in plasmablasts from an individual a...
Article
Alphaviruses cause severe arthritogenic or encephalitic disease. The E1 structural glycoprotein is highly conserved in these viruses and mediates viral fusion with host cells. However, the role of antibody responses to the E1 protein in immunity is poorly understood. We isolated E1-specific human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with diverse patterns o...
Preprint
Full-text available
RNA-based vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are critical to limiting COVID-19 severity and spread. Cellular mechanisms driving antigen-specific responses to these vaccines, however, remain uncertain. We used single-cell technologies to identify and characterized antigen-specific cells and antibody responses to the RNA vaccine BNT162b2 in longitudinal sam...
Article
Full-text available
Broadly reactive antibodies targeting the influenza A virus hemagglutinin (HA) head domain are thought to be rare and to require extensive somatic mutations or unusual structural features to achieve breadth against divergent HA subtypes. Here we describe common genetic and structural features of protective human antibodies from several individuals...
Preprint
Full-text available
SARS-CoV-2 therapeutic antibody discovery efforts have met with notable success but have been associated with a generally inefficient process, requiring the production and characterization of exceptionally large numbers of candidates for the identification of a small set of leads. Here, we show that incorporating antibody-ligand blocking as part of...
Preprint
The emergence of novel SARS-CoV-2 lineages that are more transmissible and resistant to currently approved antibody therapies poses a considerable challenge to the clinical treatment of COVID-19. Therefore, the need for ongoing discovery efforts to identify broadly reactive monoclonal antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 is of utmost importance. Here, we repor...
Preprint
Full-text available
Unrelated individuals can produce genetically similar clones of antibodies, known as public clonotypes, which have been seen in responses to different infectious diseases as well as healthy individuals. Here we identify 37 public clonotypes in memory B cells from convalescent survivors of SARS-CoV-2 infection or in plasmablasts from an individual a...
Preprint
Ebolaviruses cause a severe and often fatal illness with the potential for global spread. Monoclonal antibody-based treatments that have become available recently have a narrow therapeutic spectrum and are ineffective against ebolaviruses other than Ebola virus (EBOV), including medically important Bundibugyo (BDBV) and Sudan (SUDV) viruses. Here w...
Article
Full-text available
The continual emergence of novel coronavirus (CoV) strains, like SARS-CoV-2, highlights the critical need for broadly reactive therapeutics and vaccines against this family of viruses. From a recovered SARS-CoV donor sample, we identify and characterize a panel of six monoclonal antibodies that cross-react with CoV spike (S) proteins from the highl...
Article
Most human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 recognize the spike (S) protein receptor-binding domain and block virus interactions with the cellular receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. We describe a panel of human mAbs binding to diverse epitopes on the N-terminal domain (NTD) of S protein from SARS-CoV-2 convalescent donors...
Article
SARS-CoV-2 has caused the global COVID-19 pandemic. Although passively delivered neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 show promise in clinical trials, their mechanism of action in vivo is incompletely understood. Here we define correlates of protection of neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in SARS-CoV-2-infected animals. Whereas...
Preprint
Full-text available
The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has led to an urgent need to understand the molecular basis for immune recognition of SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) glycoprotein antigenic sites. To define the genetic and structural basis for SARS-CoV-2 neutralization, we determined the structures of two human monoclonal antibodies COV2-2196 and COV2-21301, which form the basis of t...
Preprint
Full-text available
Most human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 recognize the spike (S) protein receptor-binding domain and block virus interactions with the cellular receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. We describe a panel of human mAbs binding to diverse epitopes on the N-terminal domain (NTD) of S protein from SARS-CoV-2 convalescent donors...
Article
Full-text available
Respiratory virus challenge studies involve administration of the challenge virus and sampling to assess for protection from the same anatomical locations. It can therefore be difficult to differentiate actively replicating virus from input challenge virus. For SARS-CoV-2, specific monitoring of actively replicating virus is critical to investigate...
Preprint
Full-text available
Broadly reactive antibodies targeting the influenza A hemagglutinin (HA) head domain are thought to be rare and to require extensive somatic mutations or unusual structural features to achieve breadth against divergent HA subtypes. Here we describe common genetic and structural features of diverse human antibodies from several individuals recognizi...
Preprint
Full-text available
SARS-CoV-2 has caused the global COVID-19 pandemic. Although passively delivered neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 show promise in clinical trials, their mechanism of action in vivo is incompletely understood. Here, we define correlates of protection of neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in SARS-CoV-2-infected animals. Whereas...
Preprint
The continual emergence of novel coronavirus (CoV) strains, like SARS-CoV-2, highlights the critical need for broadly reactive therapeutics and vaccines against this family of viruses. Coronavirus spike (S) proteins share common structural motifs that could be vulnerable to cross-reactive antibody responses. To study this phenomenon in human corona...
Article
Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is one of the most virulent viruses endemic to North America. No licensed vaccines or antiviral therapeutics are available to combat this infection, which has recently shown an increase in human cases. Here, we characterize human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) isolated from a survivor of natural EEEV infection...
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Full-text available
Antibodies targeting the SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) are being developed as therapeutics and are a major contributor to neutralizing antibody responses elicited by infection. Here, we describe a deep mutational scanning method to map how all amino-acid mutations in the RBD affect antibody binding and apply this method to 10 human...
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Full-text available
The emergence and re-emergence of highly virulent viral pathogens with the potential to cause a pandemic creates an urgent need for the accelerated discovery of antiviral therapeutics. Antiviral human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are promising candidates for the prevention and treatment of severe viral diseases, but their long development timeframe...
Article
We have examined the effects of targeted p120 KO in a PyMT mouse model of invasive ductal (mammary) cancer (IDC). Mosaic p120 ablation had little effect on primary tumor growth but caused significant pro-metastatic alterations in the tumor microenvironment leading ultimately to a marked increase in the number and size of pulmonary metastases. Surpr...
Article
Full-text available
Antibodies targeting the SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) are being developed as therapeutics and make a major contribution to the neutralizing antibody response elicited by infection. Here, we describe a deep mutational scanning method to map how all amino-acid mutations in the RBD affect antibody binding, and apply this method to 10...
Article
Full-text available
Antibodies are a principal determinant of immunity for most RNA viruses and have promise to reduce infection or disease during major epidemics. The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has caused a global pandemic with millions of infections and hundreds of thousands of deaths to date1,2. In response, we used a rapid antibody discovery platform to isolate...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic is a major threat to global health¹ for which there are limited medical countermeasures2,3. Moreover, we currently lack a thorough understanding of mechanisms of humoral immunity⁴. From a larger panel of human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting the spike (S) glycoprotein⁵, we identified several that exhibited potent neutra...
Article
Full-text available
Although broadly protective, stem-targeted Abs against the influenza A virus hemagglutinin (HA) have been well studied, very limited information is available on Abs that broadly recognize the head domain. We determined the crystal structure of the HA protein of the avian H7N9 influenza virus in complex with a pan-H7, non-neutralizing, protective hu...
Article
Mosquito inoculation of humans with arthritogenic alphaviruses results in a febrile syndrome characterized by debilitating musculoskeletal pain and arthritis. Despite an expanding global disease burden, no approved therapies or licensed vaccines exist. Here, we describe human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that bind to and neutralize multiple distant...
Article
Full-text available
Monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapeutics are an effective modality for the treatment of infectious, autoimmune, and cancer-related diseases. However, the discovery, development, and manufacturing processes are complex, resource-consuming activities that preclude the rapid deployment of mAbs in outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases. Given recent a...
Preprint
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic is a major threat to global health for which there are only limited medical countermeasures, and we lack a thorough understanding of mechanisms of humoral immunity. From a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting the spike (S) glycoprotein isolated from the B cells of infected subjects, we identified several mAbs that e...
Preprint
The emergence and reemergence of highly virulent viral pathogens with pandemic potential has created an urgent need for accelerated discovery of antiviral therapeutics. Antiviral human monoclonal (mAbs) are promising drug candidates to prevent or treat severe viral diseases, but the long timelines needed for discovery limits their rapid deployment...
Preprint
Antibodies are a principal determinant of immunity for most RNA viruses and have promise to reduce infection or disease during major epidemics. The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has caused a global pandemic with millions of infections and hundreds of thousands of deaths to date1,2. In response, we used a rapid antibody discovery platform to isolate...
Article
Full-text available
Ross River fever is a mosquito-transmitted viral disease that is endemic to Australia and the surrounding Pacific Islands. Ross River virus (RRV) belongs to the arthritogenic group of alphaviruses, which largely cause disease characterized by debilitating polyarthritis, rash, and fever. There is no specific treatment or licensed vaccine available,...
Article
The rational design of dengue virus (DENV) vaccines requires a detailed understanding of the molecular basis for antibody-mediated immunity. The durably protective antibody response to DENV after primary infection is serotype specific. However, there is an incomplete understanding of the antigenic determinants for DENV type-specific (TS) antibodies...
Article
Structural principles underlying the composition of protective antiviral monoclonal antibody (mAb) cocktails are poorly defined. Here, we exploited antibody cooperativity to develop a therapeutic mAb cocktail against Ebola virus. We systematically analyzed the antibody repertoire in human survivors and identified a pair of potently neutralizing mAb...
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Full-text available
Shared scientific resources, also known as core facilities, support a significant portion of the research conducted at biomolecular research institutions. The Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities (ABRF) established the Committee on Core Rigor and Reproducibility (CCoRRe) to further its mission of integrating advanced technologies, educat...
Article
Cytochrome c can undergo reversible conformational changes under biologically-relevant conditions including oxidative post-translational modifications, interactions with phospholipids and electric fields. Revealing the existence and relevance of these alternative cytochrome c proteoforms at the cell and tissue level is challenging and has benefitte...
Article
Identification of cell-surface markers specific to human pancreatic β cells would allow in vivo analysis and imaging. Here we introduce a biomarker, ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-3 (NTPDase3), that is expressed on the cell surface of essentially all adult human β cells, including those from individuals with type 1 or type 2 diabete...
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Full-text available
Ebolaviruses cause severe disease in humans, and identification of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that are effective against multiple ebolaviruses are important for therapeutics development. Here we describe a distinct class of broadly neutralizing human mAbs with protective capacity against three ebolaviruses infectious for humans: Ebola (EBOV), Sud...
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Full-text available
p120-Catenin (p120) functions as a tumor suppressor in intestinal cancer, but the mechanism is unclear. Here, using conditional p120 knockout in Apc-sensitized mouse models of intestinal cancer, we have identified p120 as an "obligatory" haploinsufficient tumor suppressor. Whereas monoallelic loss of p120 was associated with a significant increase...
Article
For research groups needing to isotype a significant number of antibodies on a fairly regular basis, the protocol outlined here provides a cost-effective option. In this simple sandwich ELISA, the monoclonal antibody is first captured with antibodies that discriminate between heavy-chain isotypes and then is detected with antibodies specific for ea...
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Perhaps because they are such commonly used tools, many researchers view antibodies one-dimensionally: Antibody Y binds antigen X. Although few techniques require a comprehensive understanding of any particular antibody's characteristics, well-executed experiments do require a basic appreciation of what is known and, equally as important, what is n...
Article
As future physicians, nearly all medical students will be required to provide face-to-face feedback. Moreover, receiving high-quality feedback from multiple perspectives is particularly valuable during the pre-clerkship training period. To address these needs, we developed a straightforward, easy-to-implement exercise that affords students the oppo...
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Many biomedical PhD trainees lack exposure to business principles, which limits their competitiveness and effectiveness in academic and industry careers. To fill this training gap, we developed Business and Management Principles for Scientists, a semester-long program that combined didactic exposure to business fundamentals with practical team-base...
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Importance: Virus attachment proteins mediate binding to host cell receptors, serve critical functions in cell and tissue tropism, and are often targeted by the neutralizing antibody response. The structural investigation of antibody-antigen complexes can provide valuable information for understanding the molecular basis of virus neutralization. S...