Robert Butcher

Robert Butcher
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | LSHTM · Department of Clinical Research

Immunology MSc

About

40
Publications
2,983
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
374
Citations

Publications

Publications (40)
Article
Purpose: Trachoma is endemic in Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples' (SNNP) and Sidama regions of Ethiopia. We aimed to measure the prevalence of trachomatous inflammation - follicular (TF) among children aged 1 - 9 years and the prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis (TT) unknown to the health system among people aged ≥15 years following i...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The epidemiology of trachoma in several Pacific Islands differs from other endemic settings, in that there is a high prevalence of clinical signs of trachoma, particularly trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF), but few cases of trichiasis and limited evidence of ocular chlamydial infection. This so-called "Pacific enigma" has led t...
Article
Background: To determine where interventions are needed to eliminate trachoma as a public health problem, prevalence data are needed. We aimed to generate baseline population-based data on trachoma prevalence in suspected-endemic areas of Afghanistan. Methods: Cross-sectional population-based prevalence surveys designed according to World Health...
Article
Full-text available
Background Late-stage blinding sequalae of trachoma such as trachomatous trichiasis (TT) typically take decades to develop and often do so in the absence of ongoing ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection. This suggests that most TT risk accumulates in early life; as a result, population-level TT incidence and prevalence can remain high years after...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: To assess the contemporary prevalence of trachoma in Brazil’s non-indigenous population, surveys of those thought to be at greatest risk of disease were conducted. Methods: Rural census tracts of non-indigenous population from nine mesoregions were selected to compose the survey evaluation units (EUs) by considering previously endemic muni...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose There are several settlements in the Northern and Western Regions of Uganda serving refugees from South Sudan and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), respectively. Trachoma prevalence surveys were conducted in a number of those settlements with the aim of determining whether interventions for trachoma are required. Methods An evaluation un...
Article
Introduction The prevalence of trachomatous inflammation – follicular (TF) in 1–9-year-olds and of trachomatous trichiasis (TT) in ≥15-year-olds in four endemic evaluation units (EUs) of Darfur region, Sudan, was measured more than a year after the required single round of antibiotic mass drug administration (MDA). Methods Surveys were conducted u...
Article
Full-text available
Background: In the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu, the sign trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) is common, but ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis is not. It is therefore debatable whether azithromycin mass drug administration (MDA), the recommended antibiotic treatment strategy for trachoma's elimination as a public health problem, is...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: In the peri-elimination setting, the positive predictive value of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF), the primary marker used to determine need for antibiotics for trachoma, is suboptimal. Here, three non-TF measures are used to compare two regions where TF prevalence exceeds the threshold for intervention, but where the Chlam...
Article
Full-text available
Background: In Melanesia, the prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) suggests public health-level interventions against active trachoma are needed. However, the prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis (TT) is below the threshold for elimination as a public health problem and evidence of conjunctival infection with trachoma's causati...
Article
Full-text available
Background Mass drug administration (MDA) of 20 mg/kg (maximum 1 g in adults) azithromycin for ocular Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection is a key component of the WHO trachoma elimination strategy. However, this dose may be suboptimal in Mycoplasma genitalium infection and may encourage emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) to azithromycin....
Article
Yaws is a neglected tropical disease targeted for eradication by 2020. Kiribati, a Pacific Island nation, was previously endemic for yaws but lacks recent data from which its current endemicity status could be determined. This study tested antibody responses to Treponema pallidum to determine if transmission of yaws is taking place among children i...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Trachoma is endemic in several Pacific Island countries. The aims of this study were to (a) identify future trachoma mapping needs in the Pacific and (b) to examine whether any temporal trends in trachoma prevalence could be ascertained from the historical literature on trachoma in the Pacific Islands. Methods Human studies of trachom...
Data
PRISMA checklist required by journal publication guidelines. (DOC)
Data
Quality control questions used in the evaluation of trachoma studies. (DOCX)
Data
A summary of all the articles included in this review. This table includes the quality control assessment used on the prevalence studies. (DOC)
Article
Full-text available
Background: The low population prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis and high prevalence of trachomatous inflammation–follicular (TF) provide contradictory estimates of the magnitude of the public health threat from trachoma in the Solomon Islands. Improved characterisation of the biology of trachoma in the region may support policy makers as they...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The low population-prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis and high prevalence of trachomatous inflammation–follicular (TF) provide contradictory estimates of the magnitude of the public health threat from trachoma in the Solomon Islands. Improved characterisation of the biology of trachoma in the region may support policy makers as they...
Article
Full-text available
Background Clinical signs of active (inflammatory) trachoma are found in many children in the Solomon Islands, but the majority of these individuals have no serological evidence of previous infection with Chlamydia trachomatis. In Temotu and Rennell and Bellona provinces, ocular infections with C. trachomatis were seldom detected among children wit...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Yaws-like chronic ulcers can be caused by Treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue, Haemophilus ducreyi, or other still-undefined bacteria. To permit accurate evaluation of yaws elimination efforts programmatic use of molecular diagnostics is required. The accuracy and sensitivity of current tools remains unclear because our understanding of...
Conference Paper
Introduction The first round of Mass Drug Administration (MDA) with 1g oral azithromycin for ocular Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection, which is a key component of trachoma control strategies, concomitantly reduced genital CT infection in the Solomon Islands. However, this dose is known to be sub-optimal for the treatment of genital Mycoplasma ge...
Preprint
Background Trachomatous trichiasis (TT) and ocular Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) infection in the Solomon Islands are scarce, whereas trachomatous inflammation–follicular (TF) is prevalent. Methods We enrolled 1511 people aged ≥1 year from randomly selected households in 13 villages in which >10% of the population had TF prior to a single round of az...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Trachoma, caused by the intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) is the leading infectious cause of preventable blindness. Many commercial platforms are available that provide highly sensitive and specific detection of Ct DNA. However, the majority of these commercial platforms are inaccessible for population-level surveys...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The WHO definition of trachomatous trichiasis (TT) is "at least one eyelash touching the globe, or evidence of recent epilation of in-turned eyelashes", reflecting the fact that epilation is used as a self-management tool for TT. In Fiji's Western Division, a high TT prevalence (8.7% in those aged ≥15 years) was reported in a 2012 surv...
Article
Full-text available
Yaws, caused by Treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue, is an important public health problem in many tropical countries.1 Like syphilis, the disease manifests in three stages; however, unlike syphilis, its route of transmission is non-genital skin-to-skin contact and not by sexual intercourse. Primary yaws manifests as either a papilloma or a chronic...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: We sought to complete the baseline trachoma map of the Solomon Islands by establishing prevalences of active trachoma and trichiasis in the provinces of Choiseul, Western, Rennell-Bellona, and Temotu. Methods: Using the standardized methodology developed for the Global Trachoma Mapping Project, we conducted cross-sectional community-bas...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Both yaws and trachoma are endemic in several countries in the Pacific. In co-endemic countries there may be potential synergies between both control programmes. Methods: We undertook a cluster randomised trachoma and yaws seroprevalence survey of children in the Western Division of Fiji. Children were examined for skin lesions con...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Trachoma is endemic in several Pacific Island states. Recent surveys across the Solomon Islands indicated that whilst trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) was present at levels warranting intervention, the prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis (TT) was low. We set out to determine the relationship between chlamydial infection and...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness and is caused by ocular infection with the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct). While the majority of the global disease burden is found in sub-Saharan Africa, the Western Pacific Region has been identified as trachoma endemic. Population surveys carried out throughout Fiji have sh...
Data
Indicates the aspects of the study that adhered to the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) guidelines [39]. (PDF)
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection and is frequently asymptomatic; ocular C. trachomatis strains cause trachoma. Mass drug administration (MDA) of azithromycin for trachoma might also reduce the prevalence of genital C. trachomatis. In a survey conducted in the Solomon Islands in 2014, pri...
Article
Full-text available
This study sought to determine the prevalence of common bacterial sexually transmitted infections, including Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, in women attending clinics in the Solomon Islands. We conducted a sexual health survey among women attending three nurse-led community outpatient clinics in August 2014, to establish the preva...
Article
Full-text available
Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) is an emulsion PCR process that performs absolute quantitation of nucleic acids. We developed a ddPCR assay for Chlamydia trachomatis infections and found it to be accurate and precise. Using PCR mixtures containing plasmids engineered to include the PCR target sequences we were able to quantify with a dynamic range betw...

Network

Cited By