Robert James R Blair

Robert James R Blair
Boys Town · Center for Neurobehavioral Research

About

374
Publications
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Publications

Publications (374)
Article
This paper represents the outcome of a multidisciplinary discussion on what works, what does not, and what can be improved, in ongoing work on biobehavioral taxonomies and their biomarkers. The authors of this paper, representing a wide spectrum of biobehavioral disciplines (clinical, developmental, differential psychology, neurophysiology, endocri...
Article
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Background Previous work has examined the association of aggression levels and callous-unemotional traits with outcome expectations and values regarding the consequences of aggression. Less work has examined the outcome expectations and values regarding the consequences of aggression of adolescents with Conduct Disorder (CD). Also, no studies have...
Poster
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Associations between the severity of AUD and CUD symptoms and CU traits, irritability, instrumental and reactive aggression, and BOLD responses during retaliation.
Article
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Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and disabling but seem particularly tractable to investigation with translational neuroscience methodologies. Neuroimaging has informed our understanding of the neurobiology of anxiety disorders, but research has been limited by small sample sizes and low statistical power, as well as heterogenous imaging meth...
Article
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Previous studies examining structural brain correlates of irritability have taken a region-specific approach and have been relatively inconsistent. In a sample of adolescents with and without clinically impairing irritability, the current study examines: (i) cortical volume (CV) in canonical functional networks; (ii) the association between the CV...
Article
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The goal of this study was to compare brain structure between individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and healthy controls. Previous studies have generated inconsistent findings, possibly due to small sample sizes, or clinical/analytic heterogeneity. To address these concerns, we combined data from 28 research sites worldwide through th...
Article
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Background: Alcohol and cannabis are commonly used by adolescents in the United States. Both alcohol use disorder (AUD) and cannabis use disorder (CUD) have been associated with reduced emotion expression recognition ability. However, this work has primarily occurred in adults and has not considered neuro-cognitive risk factors associated with cond...
Article
Background: The objective of this study was to examine changes in the activation of the brain reward system following treatment with lisdexamfetamine (LDX) vs. placebo (PL) as a function of clinical improvement in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Methods: Twenty adults with ADHD were included in a randomized cross-over stud...
Article
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Background Conduct disorder (CD) has been associated with dysfunction in reinforcement-based decision-making. Two forms of affective traits that reflect the components of CD severity are callous-unemotional (CU; reduced guilt/empathy) traits and irritability. The form of the reinforcement-based decision-making dysfunction with respect to CD and CU...
Article
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Background: It has been proposed that individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) show dysfunctional computations related to approach-avoidance decision-making. However, few studies have examined the neural basis of this impairment, particularly in adolescents with GAD. The goal of the current study was to address this gap in the literatur...
Article
Severe irritability is common in youths with psychiatric disorders and results in significant dysfunction across domains (academic, social, and familial). Prior structural MRI studies in the pediatric population demonstrated that aberrations of cortical thickness (CT) and gray matter volume (GMV) in the fronto-striatal-temporal regions which have b...
Article
Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by a constellation of affective, interpersonal, lifestyle and antisocial features whose antecedents can be identified in a subgroup of young people showing severe antisocial behaviour. The prevalence of psychopathy in the general population is thought to be ~1%, but is up to 25% in prisoners. The...
Article
Objective: A preliminary investigation of the impact of a serotonergic agent (fluoxetine) on symptom profile and neural response in youths with disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) and a history of trauma exposure. Methods: There were three participant groups: (i) Youths with DBDs and trauma exposure who received fluoxetine treatment for 8 weeks (...
Article
Full-text available
Background: While neuro-cognitive work examining aggression has examined patients with conditions at increased risk for aggression or individuals self-reporting past aggression, little work has attempted to identify neuro-cognitive markers associated with observed/recorded aggression. The goal of the current study was to determine the extent to wh...
Article
Full-text available
Two of the most commonly used illegal substances by adolescents are alcohol and cannabis. Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and cannabis use disorder (CUD) are associated with poorer decision-making in adolescents. In adolescents, level of AUD symptomatology has been negatively associated with striatal reward responsivity. However, little work has explore...
Article
Full-text available
Background Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) can significantly impair quality of life and is associated with a relatively poor long‐term prognosis. Anxiety disorders are often associated with hyper‐responsiveness to threat, perhaps coupled with impaired executive functioning. However, GAD, particularly adolescent GAD, has been the focus of little...
Article
Background Alcohol and cannabis are commonly used by adolescents in the United States. Both Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) and Cannabis Use Disorder (CUD) have been associated with an increased risk for aggression. One form of aggression seen during retaliation is reactive aggression to social provocation. The current study investigated the association...
Poster
Full-text available
Background: Suicide is the second leading cause of death for adolescents in the United States. However, relatively little is known about the neural correlates of suicide or suicidal ideation (SUI), and there are currently no objective markers of risk or treatment efficacy based on patient neurobiology. Instead, clinicians rely entirely on patients’...
Article
Objectives: Temporal reward discounting impulsivity (TDI) reflects a propensity to choose smaller immediate rather than larger delayed rewards relative to age/IQ-matched peers. Previous work with adults has linked TDI to an increased risk for antisocial behavior but also psychopathology in general. However, little work has examined TDI in adolescen...
Article
Sahil Bajaj,1,2 Karina S Blair,1,2 Ru Zhang,1,2 Johannah Bashford-Largo,1,2 Matthew Dobbertin,1,2 R James Blair1,2 1Multimodal Clinical Neuroimaging Laboratory (MCNL), Center for Neurobehavioral Research, Boys Town National Research Hospital, Boys Town, NE, USA; 2Program for Trauma and Anxiety (PTAC), Center for Neurobehavioral Research, Boys Town...
Article
Full-text available
The ENIGMA group on Generalized Anxiety Disorder (ENIGMA‐Anxiety/GAD) is part of a broader effort to investigate anxiety disorders using imaging and genetic data across multiple sites worldwide. The group is actively conducting a mega‐analysis of a large number of brain structural scans. In this process, the group was confronted with many methodolo...
Article
Full-text available
Background Irritability and anxiety frequently co-occur in pediatric populations. Studies separately looking at the neural correlates of these symptoms have identified engagement of similar neural systems – particularly those implicated in emotional processing. Both irritability and anxiety can be considered negative valence emotional states that m...
Article
Full-text available
Childhood sexual abuse is associated with significant subsequent pathology and neurodevelopmental disruption. In particular, childhood sexual abuse has been associated with heightened threat sensitivity. However, little work has directly investigated this issue. In this study, we examine the association of childhood sexual abuse to neural and behav...
Poster
Full-text available
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) can significantly impair quality of life and is associated with a relatively poor long-term prognosis. Anxiety disorders are often associated with hyper-responsiveness to threat, perhaps coupled with impaired executive functioning. However, GAD, particularly adolescent GAD has been the focus of little functional n...
Preprint
The ENIGMA group on Generalized Anxiety Disorder (ENIGMA-Anxiety/GAD) is part of a broader effort to investigate anxiety disorders using imaging and genetic data across multiple sites worldwide. The group is actively conducting a mega-analysis of a large number of brain structural scans. In this process, the group was confronted with many methodolo...
Article
Two of the most commonly used substances by adolescents in the United States are cannabis and alcohol. Cannabis use disorder (CUD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) are associated with impairments in decision‐making processes. One mechanism for impaired decision‐making in these individuals is thought to be an inability to adequately represent future e...
Article
Background The two most commonly used illegal substances by adolescents in the United States are alcohol and cannabis. Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and cannabis use disorder (CUD) have been associated with dysfunction in decision-making processes in adolescents. One potential mechanism for these impairments is thought to be related to abnormalities i...
Article
Purpose of review: To review recent neuro-imaging findings with respect to conduct disorder and callous-unemotional traits in childhood and comparable psychopathy in adult-hood that deepen the literature in important ways. Recent findings: Recent structural findings particularly bring clarity to the literature. First, they reinforce previous wor...
Article
Full-text available
Patients with anxiety disorders suffer from impaired concentration, potentially as a result of stronger emotional interference on attention. Studies using behavioural measures provide conflicting support for this hypothesis. Elevated state anxiety may be necessary to reliably document differences in emotional interference in patients vs. healthy co...
Article
Objective: A cognitive neuroscience perspective seeks to understand behavior, in this case the comorbidity of cannabis abuse and conduct disorder/conduct problems, in terms of dysfunction in cognitive processes underpinned by neural processes. The goal of this review is to articulate a cognitive neuroscience account of this comorbidity. Methods: Li...
Article
Despite extensive behavioral evidence of impairments in face processing and expression recognition in adults with alcohol or cannabis use disorders (AUD/CUD), neuroimaging findings have been inconsistent. Moreover, relatively little work has examined the relationship of AUD or CUD symptoms with face or expression processing within adolescents. Give...
Article
The main goal of this review is to consider the main forms of dysfunctional neurocognition seen in individuals with clinically significant psychopathic traits (ie, reduced guilt/empathy and increased impulsive/antisocial behavior). A secondary goal is to examine the extent to which these forms of dysfunction are seen in both adults with psychopathi...
Article
Trauma screening is an important element for providing trauma-informed services to youth in residential care. Unfortunately, lack of time and resources may deter clinicians from conducting trauma screening at intake. This study tested the psychometric properties of the Brief Trauma Symptom Screen for Youth (BTSSY), which could be used during intake...
Article
Objective: Two of the most commonly abused substances by adolescents in the United States are alcohol and cannabis, both of which are associated with adverse medical and psychiatric outcomes throughout the lifespan. Both are assumed to impact the development of emotional processing although findings on the direction of this impact have been mixed....
Article
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Importance Childhood maltreatment is associated with serious developmental consequences that may be different depending on the form of maltreatment. However, relatively little research has investigated this issue despite implications for understanding the development of psychiatric disorders after maltreatment. Objective To determine the associati...
Article
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Poverty exposure has been linked to difficulties in emotion expression recognition, which further increases risks for negative emotional outcomes among children. The current study aimed to investigate whether the difficulties in emotion expression recognition among children experiencing poverty may be emotion specific or expression intensity specif...
Article
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Objective: Conduct disorder (CD) is a serious neurodevelopmental disorder marked by notably higher prevalence rates for boys than girls. Converging evidence suggests that CD is associated with impairments in emotion recognition, learning, and regulation. However, it is not known whether there are sex differences in the relationship between CD and...
Article
Background: Attentional disruptions are common in PTSD, but findings across neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies have been variable. Few PTSD studies have investigated abnormalities in attention networks using a multi-modal imaging approach and attentional tasks that include emotionally-salient images. This study combined a behavioral task...
Article
Background Callous‐Unemotional (CU) and psychopathic traits are consistently associated with impaired recognition of others’ emotions, specifically fear and sadness. However, no studies have examined whether the association between CU traits and emotion recognition deficits is due primarily to genetic or environmental factors. Methods The current...
Article
Background: Callous-unemotional (CU) traits represent the affective features of psychopathy used to delineate youth at high risk for externalizing pathology. The genetic etiology CU traits is not currently well-understood. Methods: The current review surveyed the literature for studies on the genetic underpinnings of CU traits and integrated inf...
Article
Full-text available
Alcohol and cannabis are two of the most commonly used substances by adolescents and are associated with adverse medical and psychiatric outcomes. These adverse psychiatric outcomes may reflect the negative impact of alcohol and/or cannabis abuse on neural systems mediating reward and/or error detection. However, work indicative of this has mostly...
Article
Full-text available
Background The functional significance of the impairment shown by patients with ADHD on response inhibition tasks is unclear. Dysfunctional behavioral and BOLD responses to rare no-go cues might reflect disruption of response inhibition (mediating withholding the response) or selective attention (identifying the rare cue). However, a factorial go/n...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Prior functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) work has revealed that children/adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) show dysfunctional reward/non-reward processing of non-social reinforcements in the context of instrumental learning tasks. Neural responsiveness to social reinforcements during instrumental learning,...
Article
Objective: Prior functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) work has revealed that children/adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) show dysfunctional reward/non-reward processing of non-social reinforcements in the context of instrumental learning tasks. Neural responsiveness to social reinforcements during instrumental learning, d...
Article
Full-text available
Dissociative phenomena are frequently experienced by psychologically traumatized people. However, little is known about the cognitive profiles of highly dissociative traumatized individuals, and corresponding patterns of neural connectivity when attentional networks are engaged in the context of emotion. One hundred seventeen traumatized women comp...
Article
Full-text available
Alcohol and cannabis are two substances that are commonly abused by adolescents in the United States and which, when abused, are associated with negative medical and psychiatric outcomes across the lifespan. These negative psychiatric outcomes may reflect the detrimental impact of substance abuse on neural systems mediating emotion processing and e...
Article
Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) show deficits in recruiting neural regions associated with cognitive control. In contrast, trauma exposed individuals (TEIs) show increased recruitment of these regions. While many individuals who experience a trauma exhibit some PTSD symptoms, relatively few develop PTSD. Despite this, no work...