Robert Arko

Robert Arko
Columbia University | CU · Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory

M.S. Computer Science

About

82
Publications
4,800
Reads
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2,174
Citations
Citations since 2016
3 Research Items
1426 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
Additional affiliations
September 1998 - September 2017
Columbia University
Position
  • Analyst
Education
September 1995 - September 1998
Columbia University
Field of study
  • Computer Science

Publications

Publications (82)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The process of sampling, observing and analyzing physical samples is not unique to the geosciences. Physical sampling (taking specimens) is a fundamental strategy in many natural sciences, typically to support ex-situ observations in laboratories with the goal of characterizing real-world entities or populations. Observations and measurements are m...
Article
Full-text available
Within the field of ocean science there is a long history of using controlled vocabularies and other Semantic Web techniques to provide a common and easily exchanged description of datasets. As an activity within the European Union, United States, Australian-funded project “Ocean Data Interoperability Platform”, a workshop took place in June 2014 a...
Conference Paper
GeoLink is one of the building block projects within EarthCube, a major effort of the National Science Foundation to establish a next-generation knowledge infrastructure for geosciences. As part of this effort, GeoLink aims to improve data retrieval, reuse, and integration of seven geoscience data repositories through the use of ontologies. In this...
Article
Full-text available
Over the course of a scientific career, a large fraction of the data collected by scientific investigators turns into data at risk of becoming inaccessible to future science. Although a part of the investigators’ data is made available in manuscripts and databases, other data may remain unpublished, non-digital, on degrading or near obsolete digita...
Chapter
EarthCube is a major effort of the National Science Foundation to establish a next-generation knowledge architecture for the broader geosciences. Data storage, retrieval, access, and reuse are central parts of this new effort. Currently, EarthCube is organized around several building blocks and research coordination networks. OceanLink is a semanti...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on improved access to marine science data, enabling researchers to generate new information and knowledge products. The history of controlled vocabulary developments in marine sciences, from paper publications to the Semantic Web, is explored in detail. This history is being furthered through the publication of Linked Open Data...
Conference Paper
Today's scientific investigations are producing large numbers of scholarly products. These products continue to increase in diversity and complexity as researchers recognize that scholarly achievements are not only published articles but also datasets, software, and associated supporting materials. OceanLink is an online platform that addresses sch...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on improved access to marine science data, enabling researchers to generate new information and knowledge products. The history of controlled vocabulary developments in marine sciences, from paper publications to the Semantic Web, is explored in detail. This history is being furthered through the publication of Linked Open Data...
Conference Paper
The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program has the mission to capture, catalog, and describe the underway environmental sensor data from US oceanographic research vessels and submit the data to public long-term archives. Information about vessels, sensors, cruises, datasets, people, organizations, funding awards, logs, reports, etc. is published...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Data integration act as the preliminary entry point as we enter the era of big data in many scientific domains. However the reusefulness of various dataset has met the hurdle due to different initial of interests of different parties, therefore different vocabularies in describing similar or semantically related concepts. In this scenario it is vit...
Conference Paper
The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) works in partnership with ocean science investigators to publish data from research projects funded by the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Sections and the Office of Polar Programs Antarctic Organisms & Ecosystems Program at the U.S. National Science Foundation. Since 2006...
Article
Full-text available
The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program is developing infrastructure to ensure the underway sensor data from U.S. academic oceanographic research vessels are routinely and consistently documented, preserved in long-term archives, and disseminated to the science community. The entire R2R Catalog is published online as a Linked Data collection,...
Article
Marine science data collected using the U.S. academic research fleet support a diverse array of investigations across the ocean sciences, targeting important questions ranging from the impacts of global change on ocean chemistry and ecosystems, to the structure and dynamics of ocean circulation, to the nature of volcanic and earthquake processes at...
Article
Full-text available
EarthObserver (http://www.earth-observer.org/), developed by the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, brings a wealth of geoscience data to Apple iPad, iPhone and iPod Touch mobile devices. Built around an easy-to-use interface, EarthObserver allows users to explore and visualise a wide range of data sets superimposed upon a det...
Article
The U.S. academic research fleet is an essential mobile observing platform for ocean science. The NSF-funded Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program is working with the fleet community to routinely document, assess, and preserve data from the underway sensor systems on each vessel. The R2R facility maintains a master catalog of vessels, instrumen...
Article
While most Antarctic data are housed at an established disciplinary-specific data repository, there are data types for which no suitable repository exists. In some cases, these "orphan" data, without an appropriate national archive, are served from local servers by the principal investigators who produced the data. There are many pitfalls with data...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The International Geo Sample Number (IGSN) is a unique identifier for samples and specimens collected from our natural environment. It was developed by the System for Earth Sample Registration SESAR to overcome the problem of ambiguous naming of samples that has limited the ability to share, link, and integrate data for samples across Geoscience da...
Article
With its global capability and diverse array of sensors, the U.S. academic research fleet is an integral component of ocean exploration. The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) Program provides a central shore-side gateway for underway data from the U.S. academic research fleet, with the primary goal of preserving and documenting routine underway data...
Article
Full-text available
Bathymetric data products generated with deep submergence technology can be of meter to sub-meter resolution, providing an unprecedented view of seafloor features. Data at this resolution provide near photo-quality information that can be used to not only quantify morphologic features and create geologic maps, but can also be used to develop and re...
Article
There is a general need in the ocean science community for a widely accepted standards-based ``cruise-level'' metadata profile that describes the basic elements of a seagoing expedition (e.g. cruise identifier, vessel name, operating institution, dates/ports, navigation track, survey targets, science party, funding sources, scientific instruments,...
Article
With its global capability and diverse array of sensors, the academic research fleet is an integral component of ocean exploration. The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) Program provides a central shore-side gateway for underway data from the U.S. academic research fleet. In addition to ensuring preservation and documentation of routine underway dat...
Article
The goal of the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R; rvdata.us) program is to develop and implement a fleet-wide information management system to preserve and provide access to routine underway data collected by U.S. academic research vessels. One of the program's primary challenges is to develop a workflow for routinely gathering data from a fleet wit...
Article
A new era of ocean exploration brings with it a challenge to take the next step, making the discoveries available to a wider audience. Mapmakers, artists and collectors were on board the voyages of discovery of the eighteenth century, and the resulting atlases and exhibits captured the public's imagination, laid the foundation for scientific inquir...
Article
Development and operation of digital data collections are needed across all areas of the earth and ocean sciences to ensure access and preservation of data sets collected in support of earth and ocean sciences in order to maximize the return on research investments, while enabling verification of research results and contributing to new science ini...
Article
The Healy is the primary U.S. research icebreaker working in the Arctic. In 2003, the UNOLS Arctic Icebreaker Coordinating Committee (AICC) endorsed a plan to replace the aging SeaBeam 2112 multibeam echosounder that was purchased for the Healy at the beginning of construction and delivered with the vessel. Replacement was judged necessary due prim...
Article
A wide range of plate boundary data sets compiled over the years has been augmented more recently by data collected through the 1999-2010 NSF MARGINS program and through the on-going Ridge 2000 program. GeoMapApp (http://www.geomapapp.org), a free, map-based data discovery and visualisation tool has been developed as part of the MARGINS and Ridge 2...
Article
The availability of user-friendly, effective cyber-information resources for accessing and manipulating geoscience data has grown rapidly in recent years. Based at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory the MGDS group has developed a number of free tools that have wide application across the geosciences for both educators and researchers. A simple web pa...
Article
Full-text available
The Marine Metadata Interoperability (MMI) project has developed an ontology for devices to describe sensors and sensor networks. This ontology is implemented in the W3C Web Ontology Language (OWL) and provides an extensible conceptual model and controlled vocabularies for describing heterogeneous instrument types, with different data characteristi...
Article
The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) project was recently launched with the ambitious goal of documenting ``routine underway data'' from the US academic research fleet and delivering those data to established national archives. Data distributions will be submitted by 18 operating institutions for 30 vessels, from hundreds of cruises per year. R2R w...
Article
Our shipboard data systems have been using UDP/IP broadcast datagrams for distributing real-time underway data starting on the R/V Conrad in 1987 and expanding to include the Ewing, Palmer, Gould, Healy and Langseth among others. This approach has many advantages including: ease of implementation; simplicity; and isolation of the clients from the r...
Article
GeoMapApp (http://www.geomapapp.org) and Virtual Ocean (http://www.virtualocean.org/) are free data exploration and visualisation tools that work on any computer and have wide application across the geosciences for both research and education. As map-based interactive tools, they allow users to plot, manipulate and represent data in an intuitive ge...
Article
NSF-supported oceanographic research expeditions support diverse scientific investigations across all disciplines of ocean sciences, targeting important questions ranging from the impacts of global change on ocean chemistry and ecosystems, to the structure and dynamics of ocean circulation and the nature of volcanic and earthquake processes at the...
Article
In recent years data sharing has become much more common in the Marine Science Community, and data are frequently being re-used without the direct involvement of the original data collector. Whereas ``in the old days'' you used to go to sea, collect your own data, work it up, publish it and then exchange reprints, it is now common to combine data f...
Article
Achieving an integrated, holistic understanding of global mid-ocean ridge (MOR) processes through the Ridge 2000 Program relies heavily on the sharing of data across disciplinary boundaries. Although most Ridge 2000 research has been focused on three Integrated Study Sites (ISSs), data from throughout the global mid-ocean ridge (MOR) system will al...
Article
The NSF MARGINS program, a decade-long multi-disciplinary investigation covering major scientific questions in the evolution of continental margins (http://www.margins-nsf.org), has produced a number of key results that are changing our view of these complex systems. Whilst it will be some time before these key findings are incorporated in next-gen...
Article
Since the late 1940's thousands of sediment cores have been extracted from the global ocean floor. In the process of describing these cores, the color of the sediment has often been recorded using the Munsell Soil color scheme. This observation has been routine for >14,000 cores in the Deep-Sea Sample Repository at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observat...
Article
The NSF-funded Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) project envisions the academic research fleet as an integrated global observing system, with routine ``underway'' sensor data flowing directly from research vessels to a central shore-side repository. It is a complex endeavor involving many stakeholders - technicians at sea, data managers on shore, sh...
Article
The data assembly center (DAC) for the SAMOS initiative has developed and implemented an automated data management system that collects, formats, quality controls, distributes, and archives near real-time surface marine data from research vessels. A SAMOS is a computerized data logging system that continuously records navigational (ship’s position,...
Article
Full-text available
Seafloor bathymetric data acquired with modern swath echo sounders provide coverage for only a small fraction of the global seabed yet are of high value for studies of the dynamic processes of seafloor volcanism, tectonics, mass wasting, and sediment transport that create and shape the undersea landscape. A new method for compilation of global seaf...
Article
The National Deep Submergence Facility (NDSF) operates the Human Occupied Vehicle (HOV) Alvin, the Remote Operated Vehicle (ROV) Jason 2, and the Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Sentry. Data acquired with these platforms is provided both to the science party on each expedition, and to the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) Data Library...
Article
Relational databases containing geospatially referenced data enable the construction of robust data access pathways that can be customized to suit the needs of a diverse user community. Web-based search capabilities driven by radio buttons and pull-down menus can be generated on-the-fly leveraging the power of the relational database and providing...
Article
The Marine Geoscience Data System Media Bank (http://media.marine-geo.org) was constructed to enable the sharing of high quality images, illustrations and animations among members of the science community and to provide a new forum for education and public outreach (EPO). The initial focus of Media Bank was to serve Ridge 2000 research and EPO effo...
Article
The NSF-supported academic research fleet collectively produces a large and diverse volume of scientific data, which are increasingly being shared across disciplines and contributed to regional and global syntheses. As both Internet connectivity and storage technology improve, it becomes practical for ships to routinely deliver data and documentati...
Article
The USCG cutter Healy is the U.S. Arctic research icebreaker. Prior to the 2008 season, a number of upgrades and improvements were made to the science systems. These included the addition of two Bell BGM-3 marine gravity meters. The vessel's existing meterological sensors were enhanced with two RM Young model 85004 heated ultrasonic anemometers; a...
Article
Data gathered during NSF-supported scientific research cruises represent an important component of the overall oceanographic data collection. The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) pilot project aims to improve access to basic shipboard data and ultimately reduce the work required to provide that access. Improved access will be achieved through ident...
Article
Broadening the experience of undergraduates can be achieved by enabling free, unrestricted and convenient access to real scientific data. With funding from the U.S. National Science Foundation, the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS) (http://www.marine-geo.org/) serves as the integrated data portal for various NSF-funded projects and provides free...
Article
Data are now being re-used by a far wider circle of researchers and students than ever before, across a broader range of disciplines. Before, during, and after a field program, the exchange and merging of information is a dynamic, iterative and sometimes anonymous process that may occur years, or decades, after the data were initially acquired. Col...
Article
With funding from the U.S. National Science Foundation, the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS) (http://www.marine-geo.org/) is developing GeoMapApp (http://www.geomapapp.org) - a computer application that provides wide-ranging map-based visualization and manipulation options for interdisciplinary geosciences research and education. The novelty co...
Article
With funding from the U.S. National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs, the Antarctic Multibeam Bathymetry Synthesis (AMBS, http://www.marine-geo.org/antarctic/) is an integrated web-accessible bathymetry and geophysical database for the Southern Ocean and Antarctica, serving data from the US research vessels Nathaniel B. Palmer and Lauren...
Article
Topographic maps provide a backdrop for research in nearly every earth science discipline. There is particular demand for bathymetry data in the ocean basins, where existing coverage is sparse. Ships and submersibles worldwide are rapidly acquiring large volumes of new data with modern swath mapping systems. The science community is best served by...
Article
To facilitate effective science planning and decision making, we have developed a real-time geospatial browser and other displays widely used by many if not all members of USCGC Healy's science cruises and some officers and crew since 2004. In order to enable a 'zero-configuration' experience to the end user with nearly any modern browser, on any p...
Article
Web-based digital databases are being developed by a number of academic and governmental groups to improve the ability of researchers and students to access geoscience data in a convenient and user-friendly manner. With funding from the U.S. National Science Foundation, the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS) (http://www.marine-geo.org/) serves as...
Article
Effectively teaching Earth science requires not only a broad understanding of geoscience topics but also strategies and tools to help students learn. For example, a teacher planning a lesson on the hydrologic cycle should know students' common misconceptions (e.g., groundwater flows as underground rivers), how studying the water cycle can contribut...
Article
With funding from the Office of Polar Programs of the U.S. National Science Foundation, the Antarctic Multibeam Bathymetry Synthesis (AMBS, http://www.marine-geo.org/antarctic/) is an integrated web-accessible bathymetry and geophysical database for the Southern Ocean and Antarctica, serving data from the US research vessels Nathaniel B. Palmer and...
Article
In August 2005 the Marine Metadata Initiative (MMI) held a workshop to coordinate the mapping of science domain vocabularies. The sensor team at the workshop identified that there was not an existing comprehensive ontology for sensors used by the marine science community. However, they identified that the best starting point for the creation of suc...
Article
Hosted at Lamont by the marine geoscience Data Management group, mgDMS, the NSF-funded Ridge 2000 electronic database, http://www.marine-geo.org/ridge2000/, is a key component of the Ridge 2000 multi-disciplinary program. The database covers each of the three Ridge 2000 Integrated Study Sites: Endeavour Segment, Lau Basin, and 8-11N Segment. It pro...
Article
Data interoperability in the marine geosciences has long been hampered by the heterogeneity of our data sets (i.e. the large number and variety of expeditions, platforms, instruments, data types, etc); the corresponding lack of metadata standardization; and a tendency to focus on graphical user interfaces (because geoscience data is highly visual i...
Article
Full-text available
The initiation of dedicated databases for the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF)-supported Ridge2000 and MARGINS programs provides the opportunity to develop a data management system capable of handling the primary data types of marine geoscience research.Ridge2000 and MARGINS are broad initiatives focused on fundamental problems of crustal cre...
Article
The National Science Foundation is currently supporting dedicated databases for the Ridge 2000, MARGINS, and U.S. Antarctic Programs. We are developing an integrated Marine Geoscience Data Management System (MG-DMS; www.marine-geo.org) which supports the full range of data types for all of these programs. Construction of a single system allows us t...
Article
The current rate of data acquisition in the ocean sciences precludes the manual generation of appropriate metadata after the fact. Recognizing this fact, we have begun to implement methods for creating metadata and inserting them into relational databases in real-time. We have also created web-based tools for watchstanders and maintenance personnel...
Article
We are developing a simple Web-based browser for the search and display of earth science metadata. Our design goals are: 1. to permit both map-based (geographical) and forms-based (textual) searching; 2. to integrate a wide variety of data types in a hierarchical fashion; 3. to conform to the FGDC metadata standard; 4. to take advantage of existing...
Article
Full-text available
We use aerogeophysical data to estimate the distribution of marine subglacial sediments and fault-bounded sedimentary basins beneath the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS). We find that significant ice flow occurs exclusively in regions covered by subglacial sediments. The onsets and lateral margins of ice streams coincide with the limit of marine sed...
Article
Full-text available
Airborne gravimetry has become an important geophysical tool primarily because of advancements in methodology and instrumentation made in the past decade. Airborne gravity is especially useful when measured in conjunction with other geophysical data, such as magnetics, radar, and laser altimetry. The aerogeophysical survey over the West Antarctic i...
Article
Full-text available
The U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) has agreed to support the development of a new generation gravity map of Antarctica (ADGRAV - Antarctic Digital Gravity Synthesis), funding the development of a web based access tool. The goal of this project is the creation of an on-line Antarctic gravity database which will facilitate access to improved...
Article
Full-text available
The community-centered creation of ontologies is an essential process to increase semantic interoperation across disciplines. The Marine Metadata Interoperability Project (MMI) is keenly aware of the need for such ontologies to advance the sophisticated interaction of research communities and their data systems. This paper presents the creation of...