Ritske de Jong

Ritske de Jong
University of Groningen | RUG · Department of Psychology

About

63
Publications
10,850
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
4,644
Citations

Publications

Publications (63)
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies have shown that the prospect of a resit opportunity lowers hypothetical study-time investments for a first exam, as compared to a single-chance exam (i.e., the resit effect). The present paper describes a first experiment in which we aimed to generalize this effect from hypothetical study-time investments to a learning task allowin...
Preprint
Previous studies have shown that the prospect of a resit opportunity lowers hypothetical study-time investments for a first exam, as compared to a single-chance exam (i.e., the resit effect). The present paper describes a first experiment in which we aimed to generalize this effect from hypothetical study-time investments to a learning task allowin...
Article
Full-text available
Certain EEG components (e.g., the contingent negative variation, CNV, or beta oscillations) have been linked to the perception of temporal magnitudes specifically. However, it is as of yet unclear whether these EEG components are really unique to time perception or reflect the perception of magnitudes in general. In the current study we recorded EE...
Article
Full-text available
Action and perception are optimized by exploiting temporal regularities, and it has been suggested that the attentional system prioritizes information that contains some form of structure. Indeed, Zhao, Al-Aidroos, and Turk-Browne (Psychological Science, 24(5), 667–677, 2013) found that attention was biased towards the location and low-level visual...
Article
Full-text available
Magnitudes or quantities of the different dimensions that define a stimulus (e.g., space, speed or numerosity) influence the perceived duration of that stimulus, a phenomenon known as (temporal) interference effects. This complicates studying the neurobiological foundation of the perception of time, as any signatures of temporal processing are tain...
Article
Full-text available
In accordance with a rational model of study-time investment, we previously found that the prospect of a resit exam leads to lower investments of fictional study-time for a first exam opportunity in an investment game utilizing simulated exams. In the current study, we investigated whether the depreciation of one’s first-exam investment reduces the...
Article
Full-text available
Stimulus contrast and duration effects on visual temporal integration and order judgment were examined in a unified paradigm. Stimulus onset asynchrony was governed by the duration of the first stimulus in Experiment 1, and by the interstimulus interval in Experiment 2. In Experiment 1, integration and order uncertainty increased when a low contras...
Article
Full-text available
Although many educational institutions allow students to resit exams, a recently proposed mathematical model suggests that this could lead to a dramatic reduction in study-time investment, especially in rational students. In the current study, we present a modification of this model in which we included some well-justified assumptions about learnin...
Article
Full-text available
When multiple strategies can be used to solve a type of problem, the observed response time distributions are often mixtures of multiple underlying base distributions each representing one of these strategies. For the case of two possible strategies, the observed response time distributions obey the fixed-point property. That is, there exists one r...
Article
Full-text available
A passive Brain Computer Interface (BCI) is a system that responds to the spontaneously produced brain activity of its user and could be used to develop interactive task support. A human-machine system that could benefit from brain-based task support is the driver-car interaction system. To investigate the feasibility of such a system to detect cha...
Data
Full-text available
A passive Brain Computer Interface (BCI) is a system that responds to the spontaneously produced brain activity of its user and could be used to develop interactive task support. A human-machine system that could benefit from brain-based task support is the driver-car interaction system. To investigate the feasibility of such a system to detect cha...
Data
Full-text available
A passive Brain Computer Interface (BCI) is a system that responds to the spontaneously produced brain activity of its user and could be used to develop interactive task support. A human-machine system that could benefit from brain-based task support is the driver-car interaction system. To investigate the feasibility of such a system to detect cha...
Article
Presents an obituary for Bert Mulder, who lost his struggle with illness on 12 December 1999. His fascination with the neural basis of cognition and action led Mulder to found one of the first laboratories in The Netherlands for research on event-related brain potentials. Bert Mulder was a convinced and true cognitive neuroscientist and one of the...
Article
The processing of successive targets requires that attention be engaged and disengaged. Whereas attentional engagement can be studied by means of the N2pc component of the event-related potential (ERP), no ERP component has been linked to attentional disengagement. Here, we report the finding of such a component using an RSVP paradigm with multiple...
Article
Lien, Ruthruff, Remington, & Johnston (2005) reported residual switch cost differences between stimulus-response (S-R) pairs and proposed the partial-mapping preparation (PMP) hypothesis, which states that advance preparation will typically be limited to a subset of S-R pairs because of structural capacity limitations, to account for these differen...
Article
Frequency tagging has been often used to study intramodal attention but not intermodal attention. We used EEG and simultaneous frequency tagging of auditory and visual sources to study intermodal focused and divided attention in detection and discrimination performance. Divided-attention costs were smaller, but still significant, in detection than...
Article
Frequency tagging is an EEG method based on the quantification of the steady state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) elicited from stimuli which flicker with a distinctive frequency. Because the amplitude of the SSVEP is modulated by attention such that attended stimuli elicit higher SSVEP amplitudes than do ignored stimuli, the method has been used...
Article
Different aspects of preparation, especially processes related to knowing what to prepare versus applying that foreknowledge effectively, may be reflected in different types of brain activity, e.g., the lateralized readiness potential (LRP), beta-band event-related desynchronization and phase locking. In a previous study in which subjects had to sw...
Article
Full-text available
Frequency tagging is an EEG method based on the quantification of the steady state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) elicited from stimuli which flicker with a distinctive frequency. Because the amplitude of the SSVEP is modulated by attention such that attended stimuli elicit higher SSVEP amplitudes than do ignored stimuli, the method has been used...
Article
Full-text available
A sentence verification task (SVT) was used to test whether differences in neural activation patterns that have been attributed to IQ may actually depend on differential strategy use between IQ groups. Electroencephalograms were recorded from 14 low (89 < IQ < 110) and 14 high (121 < IQ < 142) IQ individuals as they performed the SVT with either a...
Article
Three experiments were conducted with 10 grapheme-colour synaesthetes and 10 matched controls to investigate (a) whether awareness of the inducer grapheme is necessary for synaesthetic colour induction and (b) whether grapheme-colour synaesthesia may be bidirectional in the sense that not only do graphemes induce colours, but that colours influence...
Article
Changes in coherence with aging during cognitive tasks have, until now, not been investigated. However, several fMRI and positron emission tomography studies of cognitive tasks have found increased bilateral activity in elderly subjects. Changes in coherence with aging during a cognitive task were investigated to see if EEG coherence was present in...
Article
Lateralized readiness potential (LRP) and time-frequency domain LRP-type measures, called motor-related amplitude asymmetries (MRAA), in the mu band (9-13 Hz; mu-MRAA) and the beta band (18-26 Hz; beta-MRAA) were used to study the time course of preparation in a task-switching task and a response precuing task. Several dissociations between LRP and...
Article
Full-text available
A clenched fist is a gesture often seen both within and outside sports that seems to communicate success or to function in self-encouragement or the encouragement of others. This "encouragement gesture" involves the contraction of forearm flexors, similar to the grasping action that is part of acquisitive approach actions. This gesture may be part...
Article
The task-switching paradigm provides an opportunity to study whether oscillatory relations in neuronal activity are involved in switching between and maintaining task sets. The EEG of subjects performing an alternating runs [Rogers, R.D., Monsell, S., 1995. Costs of a predictable switch between simple cognitive tasks. Journal of Experimental Psycho...
Article
The instantaneous amplitude of the theta and alpha bands of the electroencephalogram (EEG) was studied during preparation periods in a task-switching experiment. Subjects had to switch between tasks in which they were to respond to either the visual or the auditory component of the stimulus. 11-13 Hz occipital amplitude increased prior to auditory,...
Article
We argue that a general control process, responsible for the activation and maintenance of task goals, is central to the concept of executive function. Failures of this process can become manifest as goal neglect: disregard of a task requirement even though it has been understood (Duncan, 1995). We discuss the results of several published and new e...
Article
The primary purpose of the study was to identify event-based prospective-memory tasks that provide sensitive and reliable tools for assessing effects of normal aging in prospective-memory performance. Four prospective-memory tasks were selected from the literature or were newly developed, with the tasks differing on various dimensions that, for the...
Article
Neuro-imaging studies in OCD report the orbitofrontal cortex to be functionally abnormal. As these areas are presumed to be involved in decision making, studying this behavior in OCD may provide further insight into the cognitive deficits accompanying the disorder. Performance of 27 drug-free OCD patients and 26 healthy volunteers was compared on t...
Article
According to the goal-neglect hypothesis of age-related decrements in cognitive control advocated in this paper, such decrements can be usefully and parsimoniously attributed to a reduced capacity for goal selection and goal maintenance in working memory. A selective review of research findings on age-related differences in exogenous and endogenous...
Article
Full-text available
Young and older adults' control of saccadic eye movements was compared using an antisaccade task, which requires the inhibition of a reflexive saccade toward a peripheral onset cue followed by an intentional saccade in the opposite direction. In 2 experiments, an age-related decline was found in the suppression of reflexive eye movements, as indica...
Article
The effects of mental fatigue on planning and preparation for future actions were examined, using a task switching paradigm. Fatigue was induced by "time on task," with subjects performing a switch task continuously for 2 hr. Subjects had to alternate between tasks on every second trial, so that a new task set was required on every second trial. Ma...
Article
Neuropsychological tests known to reveal abnormalities in patients with frontal lobe damage were used to explore cognitive function in 20 chronic schizophrenic patients. Eleven control subjects, matched on age and NLV-IQ (NLV is the Dutch version of the NART) were also tested. No impairments of planning ability were found on either the Action Progr...
Article
Residual switch costs are performance costs associated with a shift of task that persist even when there is ample time to prepare in advance for the new task. I present a mixture-model approach for evaluating the contributions of two possible causes of residual switch costs: (1) failures to take advantage of opportunities for advance preparation, a...
Article
Interference effects on task performance in conflict situations might reflect real limitations in inhibitory capabilities or failures to fully or consistently utilize such capabilities in executive control of task performance. We propose that useful clues regarding the actual cause of interference effects may be obtained from examination of their r...
Article
Full-text available
scheduling task controls subjective measurement of fatigue scheduling task 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 HT TB mixture Percentage exclusive strategy use PRE POST controls 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 HT TB mixture Percentage exclusive strategy use PRE POST Strategy choice Individual differences (low-Raven versus high-Raven) dif = 0 Source activation (...
Article
Several studies are described that explored compatibility effects in dynamic task settings that require flexible and adaptive reactions to sudden and unpredictable changes in perceptual inputs or task requirements. In some cases, dynamic task settings gave rise to emergent organizational demands that caused performance of individual tasks, and mani...
Article
How is an aiming movement toward a visual target amended when the target suddenly steps to a new position just before or after the movement has started? Three hypotheses are examined: (1) the initial movement needs to be actively terminated before the new movement can be planned and executed, (2) substitution of the initial target position code res...
Article
Full-text available
Motor inhibition was studied in 3 versions of the stop-signal paradigm, with the stop signal requiring inhibition of any response (stop-all), a fixed alternative response (stop-change), or selective inhibition of only 1 of the responses (selective-stop). The lateralized readiness potential was used in Experiment 1 to distinguish between a selective...
Article
Three experiments were conducted to investigate why effects of stimulus-response compatibility (SRC) disappear when the mapping rule is varied randomly and provided only briefly before the imperative stimulus arrives. Three alternative explanations were tested by manipulating automatic response priming, relative probabilities of the mappings, and d...
Article
We examined how performance of two overlapping discrete tasks is organized and controlled. Experiment 1 showed that when stimuli were presented in an unexpected order, expectations rather than actual presentation order determined the order in which the two stimuli were processed. In Experiment 2, when task order was unpredictable, performance was f...
Article
Distributional analyses and event-related brain potential were used to show that effects of irrelevant spatial stimulus-response correspondence consist of 2 qualitatively different automatic components that can be distinguished on the basis of their dependencies on relative response speed and on computational requirements of the primary task. One c...
Article
Distributional analyses and event-related brain potentials were used to show that effects of irrelevant spatial stimulus–response correspondence consist of 2 qualitatively different automatic components that can be distinguished on the basis of their dependencies on relative response speed and on computational requirements of the primary task. One...
Article
Full-text available
In four experiments, we tested whether perceptual identification is impeded by temporal overlap with another task. The results demonstrate that temporal overlap with an auditory task consistently impaired the identification of the highest digit in a briefly presented and masked array of digits. The impairment was especially pronounced when we empha...
Article
A dual-bottleneck model for overlapping-task performance is proposed. A central bottleneck prevents central processes in overlapping tasks from operating in parallel. A response-initiation bottleneck prevents 2 responses from being initiated in close succession. Response requirements of the overlapping tasks were manipulated in order to demonstrate...
Article
The speed-accuracy decomposition technique was developed by Meyer, Irwin, Osman, and Kounios (1988) to examine the time course of information processing. The technique allows for the estimation of the accuracy of guesses that are induced by the presentation of a response signal on a proportion of trials. Estimated guessing accuracy has been found t...
Article
Full-text available
The speed-accuracy decomposition technique was developed by Meyer, Irwin, Osman, and Kounios (1988) to examine the time course of information processing. The technique allows for the estimation of the accuracy of guesses that are induced by the presentation of a response signal on a proportion of trials. Estimated guessing accuracy has been found t...
Article
Full-text available
Control processes underlying response inhibition were examined. Six Ss performed a visual choice reaction task and were occasionally presented with a tone that told them to withhold the response. Reaction time results were in agreement with a model that assumes a race between response activation and response inhibition processes. Event-related brai...
Article
We examined the reaction time benefit that is obtained when salient features of the stimulus set and response set correspond. Components of the event-related brain potentials were used to measure the timing of stimulus-related and response-related processes in order to determine the locus of this effect. Of particular importance was the development...
Article
We have studied the effects of three antihistamines on task performance in two separate experiments. Healthy subjects were tested at weekly intervals in a double-blind, Latin square design. In Experiment I the subjects were treated orally with loratadine 10 mg, clemastine 1 mg, terfenadine 60 mg, or placebo. In Experiment II 5 mg diazepam was given...
Article
Full-text available
The Eriksen flanker task is often used to test the effectiveness of spatial attention. Objects are capable of influencing perceptual organization and spatial attention. We used Kanizsa objects (illusory rectangles created by pacmen inducers) to create different surrounding contexts onto which we presented the letter arrays. Our aim was to provoke i...
Article
We used Kanizsa and Amodal rectangles to test whether the spatial distribution of attention was influenced by subjective figures, analogue to the seminal experiments of Egly, Driver, & Rafal (1994). We precued one of four ends of two (subjective) rectangles before subjects had to detect a luminant target. This target was either presented at the pos...
Article
Full-text available
A mixture of fast and slow I N THE TASK SWITCH paradigm people perform two tasks alternately. The time to prepare for the upcoming task is often manipulated. In this paradigm, a mixture of fast and slow responses is found on trials that demand a task switch and have ample time for advance preparation. Typically, the fast re-sponses are as fast as o...
Article
Thesis (M.A.)--Ohio State University, 1992. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 57-60). Advisor: Ritske De Jong, Dept. of Psychology.

Network

Cited By