Riley Joseph Williams III

Riley Joseph Williams III
Hospital for Special Surgery · Department of Orthopaedic Surgery

Doctor of Medicine

About

208
Publications
45,367
Reads
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10,869
Citations
Additional affiliations
July 2017 - present
Weill Cornell Medical College
Position
  • Professor (Full)
July 1998 - present
Hospital for Special Surgery
Position
  • Professor
Description
  • Attending Orthopedic Surgeon and Professor of Orthopedic Surgery Program Director, Sports Medicine Institute at HSS (Sports Medicine & Shoulder Service)
Education
July 1987 - June 1992
Stanford Medicine
Field of study
  • Medicine
August 1983 - May 1987
Yale University
Field of study
  • Biochemistry

Publications

Publications (208)
Article
Applications of artificial intelligence, specifically machine learning, are becoming increasingly popular in Orthopaedic Surgery, and medicine as a whole. This growing interest is shared by data scientists and physicians alike. However, there is an asymmetry of understanding of the developmental process and potential applications of machine learnin...
Article
Due to its frequent misuse, the p value has become a point of contention in the research community. In this editorial, we seek to clarify some of the common misconceptions about p values and the hazardous implications associated with misunderstanding this commonly used statistical concept. This article will discuss issues related to p value interpr...
Article
Full-text available
The concept of returning to sport for a professional athlete is still under debate for the professional athlete in today’s sports environment. It is critical for the professional athlete to be able to return to sport at a highly competitive level but also to return in a safe and timely measure. With no “gold standard” of sport testing, it is diffic...
Article
Background Graft failure after osteochondral allograft transplantation (OCA) of the knee is a devastating outcome, often necessitating subsequent interventions. A comprehensive understanding of the risk factors for failure after OCA of the knee may provide enhanced prognostic data for the knee surgeon and facilitate more informed shared decision-ma...
Article
Background Chronic patellar tendinosis is an overuse injury of the patellar tendon that commonly afflicts jumping athletes. Indications For patients with refractory symptoms that do not respond to extensive physical therapy and rest, surgical management may be considered. Although both open and arthroscopic treatments have been described, arthrosc...
Article
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Background: Analyzing outcomes and the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is of increased interest in the orthopaedic literature. The purposes of this study were to report outcomes after ACLR at medium to long-term follow-up, identify the threshold preoperative outcome values that...
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Background: Understanding specific risk profiles for each patient and their propensity to experience clinically meaningful improvement after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is important for preoperative patient counseling and management of expectations. Purpose: To develop machine learning algorithms to predict achievement of the...
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Patellofemoral chondral lesions are common and can lead to significant pain. A tibial tubercle osteotomy (TTO) functions to mechanically unload the patellofemoral joint and improve the clinical success of cartilage restoration procedures. The type of TTO performed is based on several factors. There is a subset of patients with patellofemoral cartil...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Fresh osteochondral allograft transplantation (OCA) is an effective method of treating symptomatic cartilage defects of the knee. This cartilage restoration technique involves the single-stage implantation of viable, mature hyaline cartilage into chondral or osteochondral lesion. Predictive models for reaching the clinically meaningful o...
Article
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Objectives Over the past decade, there have been advances in arthroscopic-assisted approaches for coracoclavicular (CC) reconstruction with less surgical morbidity and enhanced visualization while also allowing for the treatment of concomitant glenohumeral pathology. Previous studies reporting outcomes using both open and arthroscopic-assisted tech...
Article
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For the treatment of large chondral and osteochondral defects of the knee, osteochondral allograft transplantation (OCA) is an effective solution with relatively high rates of return to sport. In professional athletes, rehabilitation following OCA is a critical component of the process of returning the athlete to full sports activity and requires a...
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Background Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are occurring with increasing frequency in the adolescent population. Outcomes after ACL reconstruction (ACLR) are inconsistently reported in homogeneous patient populations. Purpose/Hypothesis To evaluate outcomes after bone–patellar tendon–bone (BTB) autograft ACLR in competitive high school–a...
Article
Objective We sought to report on the demographics and epidemiology of knee cartilage injuries and preferred management in soccer players, across FIFA Medical Centers of Excellence (FMCE). Design A descriptive questionnaire focusing on characteristics of knee cartilage injuries and their management in soccer players during the 10-year period prior...
Article
Background: Fresh osteochondral allograft transplantation (OCA) is an effective method of treating symptomatic cartilage defects of the knee. This restoration technique involves the single-stage implantation of viable, mature hyaline cartilage into a chondral or osteochondral lesion. The extent to which preoperative imaging and patient factors pre...
Article
PurposeReturn to sport (RTS) after ACL reconstruction (ACLR) has been recognized as an important outcome, which is associated with success of the surgery. This study aimed to assess the methods used to determine return to sport after ACLR in the published literature, report on variability of methods and evaluate their strength in establishing accur...
Article
Artificial intelligence (AI) represents the fourth industrial revolution and the next frontier in medicine poised to transform the field of orthopaedics and sports medicine, though widespread understanding of the fundamental principles and adoption of applications remain nascent. Recent research efforts into implementation of AI in the field of ort...
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Background Osteochondral allograft (OCA) transplantation has evolved into a first-line treatment for large chondral and osteochondral defects, aided by advancements in storage protocols and a growing body of clinical evidence supporting successful clinical outcomes and long-term survivorship. Despite the body of literature supporting OCAs, there st...
Article
Background: Fresh osteochondral allograft transplantation (OCA) is an effective method of treating symptomatic cartilage defects of the knee. This cartilage restoration technique involves the single-stage implantation of viable, mature hyaline cartilage into the chondral or osteochondral lesion. Predictive models for reaching the clinically meanin...
Article
Full-text available
Osteochondral autograft transfer (OAT) allows for the treatment of focal chondral lesions of the femoral condyles. Patients undergoing OAT have been shown to have the greatest rate and quickest return to sport of any cartilage-restoration procedure. Disadvantages encountered with the OAT procedure include limited donor sources, small treatable lesi...
Article
Purpose To report clinical and functional outcomes including return to pre-injury activity level following arthroscopic-assisted coracoclavicular (CC) ligament reconstruction (AA-CCR) and to determine associations between return to pre-injury activity level, radiographic outcomes and patient-reported outcomes following AA-CCR. Methods A institutio...
Article
Objective To compare clinical outcomes for patients who underwent osteochondral allograft transplantation (OCA) based on the presence or absence of one or more self-reported drug allergies. Design Prospective data were collected from 245 consecutive patients after OCA of the knee from one large academic institution. Patient-reported allergies were...
Article
Full-text available
Background Fresh osteochondral allograft transplant (OCA) has good outcomes in the knee. However, donor tissue for patellar OCA is limited. Outcomes after nonorthotopic OCA of the patella using more readily available femoral condylar allograft (FCA) tissue have not been previously reported. Purpose To assess short-term magnetic resonance imaging (...
Article
Background: Osteochondral allograft (OCA) transplantation is an increasingly common treatment for patients with symptomatic focal chondral lesions of the knee. There has been increasing interest in determining predictive factors to maximize patient benefit after this operation. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the predictive association...
Article
Full-text available
Background The opportunity to quantitatively predict next-season injury risk in the National Hockey League (NHL) has become a reality with the advent of advanced computational processors and machine learning (ML) architecture. Unlike static regression analyses that provide a momentary prediction, ML algorithms are dynamic in that they are readily c...
Article
Artificial intelligence (AI), including machine learning (ML), has transformed numerous industries through newfound efficiencies and supportive decision-making. With the exponential growth of computing power and large datasets, AI has transitioned from theory to reality in teaching machines to automate tasks without human supervision. AI-based comp...
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Objectives Osteochondral allograft transplantation (OCA) is a proven cartilage restoration procedure for patients with large chondral defects. However, elongated condylar lesions pose a challenge for dowel OCA in restoring articular surface congruity. Recently, instrumentation to harvest a single, elliptical allograft has been developed for treatin...
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Objectives Management of full-thickness cartilage defects of the patella remains a significant clinical challenge. Osteochondral allograft transplantation (OCA) is a reliable cartilage restoration procedure for large chondral defects of the knee. OCA reports good long-term outcomes for condylar defects but limited literature on outcomes of patellar...
Article
PurposeThe purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of various methods of treatment of stable and unstable ramp lesions compared to patients with no meniscal pathology at the time of primary ACL reconstruction.Methods All patients with a preoperative MRI performed at our facility who were enrolled in an institutional ACL registry...
Article
Introduction: Understanding and meeting the patients' preoperative expectations for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (ACLR) is critical for achieving successful patient-centered outcomes. There is currently no standardized method to assess preoperative expectations of ACLR based on the patient-derived methods. The purpose of this st...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a standardized patient satisfaction measurement tool for adult patients undergoing primary anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Methods A four-phase iterative process that included item generation and pilot survey development, item reduction, survey readability, and survey validat...
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Background Cartilage lesions of the patellofemoral joint constitute a frequent abnormality. Patellofemoral conditions are challenging to treat because of complex biomechanics and morphology. Purpose To develop a consensus statement on the functional anatomy, indications, donor graft considerations, surgical treatment, and rehabilitation for the ma...
Article
Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the results of a biphasic synthetic scaffold (TruFit, Smith & Nephew) to microfracture for the treatment of knee cartilage defects and identify patient- and lesion-specific factors that influence outcomes. Design Prospectively collected data from 132 patients (mean age, 41.8 years; 69% male) with...
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Purpose of review: To review the current basic science and clinical literature on mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy for articular cartilage defects and osteoarthritis of the knee. Recent findings: MSCs derived from bone marrow, adipose, and umbilical tissue have the capacity for self-renewal and differentiation into the chondrocyte lineage. In...
Article
Osteochondral graft failure, whether an autograft or allograft, can be a challenging condition for treatment, with revision surgeries showing inferior outcomes. Optimizing the primary procedure is of paramount importance and will require following well accepted guidelines that are outlined in this chapter. When a revision surgery is indicated, the...
Article
Introduction: Given the expansion of commercial and recreational space exploration, orthopaedic surgeons will need to understand the implications of microgravity on cartilaginous damage and to anticipate the resulting pathology from accelerated chondrolysis. The purpose of this systematic review is to evaluate the effects of space and microgravity...
Article
Purpose: To determine the clinical significance of fluid imbibition at the bone-cartilage interface seen on postoperative MRI scans after osteochondral grafting of chondral lesions of the knee. Methods: Retrospective review of patients enrolled in a prospective cartilage repair registry. Included patients underwent osteochondral autografting or...
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Purpose The purpose was to characterize the independent effect of procedure length on the rates of 30-day perioperative complications, hospital readmissions, and overnight hospital stay in patients undergoing arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). We hypothesized that longer procedure length in primary ACLR increases the ris...
Article
Background The incidence and effect of sports-related concussions (SRCs) within the global sport of professional soccer is poorly described. Purpose To comparatively examine the effects of SRC on athletes in Major League Soccer (MLS) and the English Premier League (EPL) in terms of incidence, return to play (RTP), performance, and career longevity...
Article
Purpose: To critically review recent literature on outcomes following primary surgical repair of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Methods: In December 2018, a search of the MEDLINE database was conducted for English language articles reporting clinical outcomes of ACL repair from 2003 to 2018. Included studies were evaluated for patient dem...
Article
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Objectives Many studies have focused on the long-term impact of concussions in professional sports, but few have investigated short-term effects. This study examines concussion effects on individual players in the Major League Soccer (MLS) and English Premier League (EPL) by assessing 1) return-to-play (RTP) time, 2) career length, and 3) performan...
Article
Case: Extensive and multiple symptomatic chondral lesions in the knee of a professional athlete presents unique challenges when considering optimal management. We present the case of a professional National Basketball Association player with symptomatic and extensive patellofemoral chondral lesions, who failed 24 months of nonoperative management...
Article
Objective: To identify preoperative imaging-based indicators of knee degeneration that correlate with graft failure risk and postoperative clinical outcome scores after osteochondral graft treatment for chondral defects of the knee. Design: Prospectively collected data from 113 patients (mean age, 34 years; 65% male) treated with mosaicplasty or...
Article
When it comes to return to high-level sports participation, articular cartilage surgical treatment outcomes were historically abysmal, whereas osteochondral allografts have allowed return to sport at rates as high as 88%. However, although osteochondral allograft transplantation effectively reconstructs the damaged articular surface in affected kne...
Article
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Background: Variables affecting return to sport after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) are multifactorial. The nonphysical factors germane to successful return to play (RTP) are being increasingly recognized. Purpose: To (1) evaluate the available evidence base for psychological factors relating to RTP after ACLR, (2) identify ps...
Article
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Background: Ramp lesions are peripheral tears of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus that involve the meniscocapsular attachments or red-red zone and typically occur in conjunction with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures. Purpose: To identify the prevalence of, and risk factors for, ramp lesions in a large cohort of patients undergo...
Article
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Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) lesions of the knee are a significant source of pain and disability. Although the pathologic process for this condition remains poorly understood, histologic studies suggest vascular insufficiency of the subchondral bone may be the underlying cause for focal necrosis and subsequent compromise of the overlying articul...
Article
Background: Poor osseous integration after fresh osteochondral allograft transplantation (OCA) may be associated with graft subsidence and subchondral bone collapse after implantation. The augmentation of OCA with bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC) has been hypothesized to improve osseous incorporation of the implanted allograft. Purpose: T...
Article
Background:: Mosaicplasty and fresh osteochondral allograft transplantation (OCA) are popular cartilage restoration techniques that involve the single-stage implantation of viable, mature hyaline cartilage-bone dowels into chondral lesions of the knee. Recently, there has been greater focus on what represents a clinically relevant change in outcom...
Article
This article is a critical analysis of a study, “Minimally Manipulated Bone Marrow Concentrate Compared with Microfracture Treatment of Full-Thickness Chondral Defects: A One-Year Study in an Equine Model,” by Chu et al. (J Bone Joint Surg Am. 100(2):138–146, 2018). The investigation compared two interventions in the management of full-thickness ch...
Article
Background: Fresh osteochondral allograft transplantation is an appealing option to address a failed cartilage repair surgical procedure, given the ability to treat large lesions and to address the subchondral osseous changes commonly seen in the revision setting. We hypothesized that osteochondral allograft transplantation after failed cartilage...
Article
Full-text available
Upper limb injuries in soccer represent only a marginal portion of injuries, however this is mainly true for outfield players. Goalkeepers are reported to have up to 5 times more upper extremity injuries, many of them requiring substantial time-loss for treatment and rehabilitation. The most common upper extremity injury locations are the shoulder/...
Article
Objectives: There is a paucity of reporting on surgical outcomes of isolated posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (PCLR). We hypothesize that isolated PCL injuries failing nonoperative treatment achieve good outcomes and are able to return to sport following PCLR. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed to identify patients with isola...
Article
Background As the use of biologic therapies for the management of knee pathology continues to expand, it is more likely that patients will turn to the Internet to gather information on this topic. Given the lack of scientific consensus on the use of biologics, care providers must understand what information is available online. Questions/Purposes...
Article
Background: For the treatment of femoral condyle cartilage defects with osteochondral allograft transplantation (OCA), many surgeons have relaxed their graft-recipient size-matching criteria given the limited allograft supply. However, since the anteroposterior (AP) length is typically correlated with the radius of curvature for a given condyle, a...
Article
Full-text available
Fresh osteochondral allograft (OCA) transplantation is a successful single-stage procedure for the treatment of symptomatic cartilage defects of the knee. Although long-term studies reveal reliable improvements in patient-reported outcome scores and graft survival, the limitations of the procedure include graft availability and timely use prior to...
Article
Full-text available
Background Osteochondral allograft transplantation (OCA) is a recognized option for full-thickness articular cartilage defects of the knee, especially in the setting of large lesions or those involving the subchondral bone. Previous heterogenous studies of athletes have shown a 75% to 79% rate of return to play after the procedure. Purpose To defi...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives For the treatment of femoral condyle cartilage defects, anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) dimension matching in osteochondral allograft transplantation (OCA) pairs donor and recipient condyles to minimize articular incongruity. This aims to reduce the potential risk of graft failure and improve clinical outcomes. However, size m...
Article
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Objectives Fresh osteochondral allograft transplantation (OCA), which transfers viable, mature hyaline cartilage and subchondral bone into full-thickness chondral defects, has demonstrated good long-term results in the knee. However, incomplete osseous trabecular integration of allograft bone with the host bone is correlated with inferior patient-r...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Osteochondral autograft transfer (OAT) and fresh osteochondral allograft transplantation (OCA) are popular cartilage restoration techniques that involve the single-stage implantation of viable, mature hyaline cartilage into focal chondral defects of the knee. Both techniques have demonstrated good results, as defined by statistically sig...
Conference Paper
Chronic knee injuries are especially common in jumping athletes, and in particular high-level basketball players. In this work, we developed an advanced quantitative MRI protocol to longitudinally study early degenerative changes in high-level basketball players across multiple sites. Studying these changes, between high and low impact athletes, wi...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose of review: To review the current practices of nonoperative management of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries, the natural history of conservative care, and the latest PCL rehabilitation strategies. Recent findings: PCL injuries often occur as part of a multiligamentous knee injury and occasionally occur in isolation. Although pati...
Article
Introduction: Delamination of the chondral surface of an osteochondral allograft (OCA) from the underlying cancellous bone has been described as a mode of failure after implantation in the knee. Our hypothesis was that increased storage time of the OCA is associated with increased risk of graft delamination after implantation. Methods: Prospecti...