Rik Leemans

Rik Leemans
Wageningen University & Research | WUR · Faculty of Environmental Sciences

Prof. Dr.

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327
Publications
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Publications

Publications (327)
Chapter
This chapter reviews the climate change impacts on biodiversity, species, and ecosystems. However, other threats, such as land use change and habitat destruction, also contribute to the global decline of biodiversity. This chapter uses an integrated approach by singling out climatic factors where ever possible and combining them with other relevant...
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With this letter, we respond to the commentary by Kamp et al. on our paper (Nunez et al. in Reg Environ Chang 20:39, 2020) that reports on potential biodiversity change in Central Asian grasslands using climate and land-use change scenarios. In their commentary, Kamp et al. criticize data and methods employed and discuss several shortfalls of our a...
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Central Asian grasslands are extensively used for pastoral livestock grazing. This traditional land use is nowadays characterized by intensifying grasslands into more productive pastures. This change affects biodiversity and diminishes grasslands’ ecological role. Biodiversity impacts are probably also exacerbated by climate change. These changes i...
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Large changes in biodiversity are expected to occur if climate change continues at its current pace. Adverse effects include changes in species habitats and compositions, and consequently changes in ecosystem functioning. We assessed the magnitude of expected changes of biodiversity by performing a meta-analysis of the responses of species distribu...
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Responses to future changes in climatic and socio-economic conditions can be expected to vary between sectors and regions, reflecting differential sensitivity to these highly uncertain factors. A sensitivity analysis was conducted using a suite of impact models (for health, agriculture, biodiversity, land use, floods and forestry) across Europe wit...
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Open Access This study explores the effects of observed changes in rainfall, temperature and land cover on the physical and sightseeing aspects of trekking in Kilimanjaro National Park. The impact analysis is organised around hazard-activity pairs approach, combinations of environmental change aspects (such as higher temperatures) and tourism activ...
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Shani and Arad (2014) claimed that tourism scholars tend to endorse the most pessimistic assessments regarding climate change, and that anthropogenic climate change was a “fashionable” and “highly controversial scientific topic”. This brief rejoinder provides the balance that is missing from such climate change denial and skepticism studies on clim...
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This final response to the two climate change denial papers by Shani and Arad further highlights the inaccuracies, misinformation and errors in their commentaries. The obfuscation of scientific research and the consensus on anthropogenic climate change may have significant long-term negative consequences for better understanding the implications of...
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Shani and Arad (2014) claimed that tourism scholars tend to endorse the most pessimistic assessments regarding climate change, and that anthropogenic climate change was a “fashionable” and “highly controversial scientific topic”. This brief rejoinder provides the balance that is missing from such climate change denial and skepticism studies on clim...
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Free copy: http://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/jQtkPypX6w8WGG2IAdWg/full The period leading to and immediately after the release of the IPCC's fifth series of climate change assessments saw substantial efforts by climate change denial interests to portray anthropogenic climate change (ACC) as either unproven theory or a negligible contribution to nat...
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Quantification of climate change impacts on food safety requires food safety assessment with different past and future climate scenario data to compare current and future conditions. This study presents a tool to prepare climate and climate change data for local food safety scenario analysis and illustrates how this tool can be used with impact mod...
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The quality of the environment in the city of Kampala is deteriorating. The city needs a novel waste management approach to improve the environmental quality in its heterogeneous settlement patterns. Earlier, an integrated urban waste flow model (IUWFM) was applied to project the future waste flows and their impacts on the environment of Kampala us...
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Executive summary During the course of this century the resilience of many ecosystems (their ability to adapt naturally) is likely to be exceeded by an unprecedented combination of change in climate, associated disturbances (e.g., flooding, drought, wildfire, insects, ocean acidification) and in other global change drivers (especially land-use ch...
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Traditional impact models combine exposure in the form of scenarios and sensitivity in the form of parameters, providing potential impacts of global change as model outputs. However, adaptive capacity is rarely addressed in these models. This paper presents the first spatially explicit scenario-driven model of adaptive capacity, which can be combin...
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The challenges formulated within the Future Earth framework set the orientation for research programmes in sustainability science for the next ten years. Scientific disciplines from natural and social science will collaborate both among each other and with relevant societal groups in order to define the important integrated research questions, and...
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The quality of the indoor environment has been a matter of concern for some considerable time, because people spend a good deal of their time indoors, and the indoor environment affects their health. The government has tackled detrimental influences by means including the introduction of legislation on the composition of building materials, and the...
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In nearly all domains of Global Change Research (GCR), the role of humans is a key factor as a driving force, a subject of impacts, or an agent in mitigating impacts and adapting to change. While advances have been made in the conceptualisation and practice of interdisciplinary Global Change Research in fields such as climate change and sustainabil...
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Ecosystem services that sustain human well-being depend on the continued functioning of ecosystems, proper management and supporting institutions. However, the interaction between these factors and ecosystem services is poorly understood. Therefore, we assessed how ecosystem services are represented in policy measures, recognized by local populatio...
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This paper explores the potential of minimizing wood waste to reduce the environmental impact in the timber sector i.e. forestry and timber industry subsystem of Ghana. This study is a follow up of 3 earlier studies on the timber sector. These studies consistently identified minimizing wood waste as a major point of departure for reducing the envir...
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The development of effective agricultural monitoring networks is essential to track, anticipate and manage changes in the social, economic and environmental aspects of agriculture. We welcome the perspective of Lindenmayer and Likens (J. Environ. Monit., 2011, 13, 1559) as published in the Journal of Environmental Monitoring on our earlier paper, "...
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Shifting societal needs drive and shape landscapes and the provision of their services. This paper presents a modelling approach to visualize the regional spatial and temporal dynamics in landscape service supply as a function of changing landscapes and societal demand. This changing demand can result from different policy targets. In this paper we...
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The large majority of biofuels to date is "first-generation" biofuel made from agricultural commodities. All first-generation biofuel production systems require phosphorus (P) fertilization. P is an essential plant nutrient, yet global reserves are finite. We argue that committing scarce P to biofuel production involves a trade-off between climate...
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The Earth system is an integrated, self-regulating system under increasing pressure from anthropogenic transformation. The Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP), which was established by the international global environmental change research programs (i.e., DIVERSITAS, IGBP, IHDP and WCRP) facilitates the study of this system in order to understa...
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Highlights ► The international global change programmes have been essential global change knowledge developers and brokers over the last decades and will continue to do so. ► Integration of disciplines from the social, natural and engineering sciences, and the humanities, is growing. ► There is an urgent need to develop better linkages with user co...
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Stikstof is noodzakelijk voor alle vormen van leven. Het is bijvoorbeeld een belangrijke bouwsteen van eiwitten. Planten, dieren en mensen nemen het op als reactief stikstof. Dat moet uit stikstof in de buitenlucht worden gevormd. In de natuur wordt reactief stikstof slechts op beperkte schaal gevormd, hoofdzakelijk door micro-organismen. De kunstm...
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The 2012 United Nations Rio+20 Summit must be seen in the context of a significant expansion of the scientific knowledge base since the 1992 Rio Earth Summit. We now know definitively that humans have become a prime driver of change at the planetary level, significantly altering Earth’s biological, chemical and physical processes. There is increasi...
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Conceptual models are useful for facing the challenges of environmental sciences curriculum and course developers and students. These challenges are inherent to the interdisciplinary and problem-oriented character of environmental sciences curricula. In this article, we review the merits of conceptual models in facing these challenges. These models...
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Whereas the literature on adaptation is rich in detail on the impacts of, vulnerability to, and constraints of climate adaptation, less is known about the conditions that facilitate adaptation in practice. We examined the constraints and opportunities for adaptation in water and land use planning in three regions: the Guadiana River Basin in Spain...
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IN THEIR POLICY FORUM “THE BIODIVERsity and ecosystem services science-policy interface” (4 March, p. 1139), C. Perrings et al. frame the new Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) as a body responsible primarily for assessment. They consistently base their elaboration of the work of IPBES on the experiences of pa...
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Purpose Most life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) approaches in life cycle assessment (LCA) are developed for western countries. Their LCIA approaches and characterization methodologies for different impact categories may not be necessarily relevant to African environmental conditions and particularly not for the timber sector in Ghana. This study r...
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The expansion of human populations and their increasing consumption rate and access to technology have led to two general environmental concerns (NRC 1994); (Vitousek et al. 1997): (1) the increasing human impact on the earth’s environment and ecosystems through changes in the carbon pools of the biosphere, element cycling, and climate, and (2) cha...
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The alarming decline of the world’s biological diversity, or biodiversity, is perceived by many as an irreversible process that could eventually obliterate the very foundation of human existence. Humans strongly depend on biological resources for food, construction materials, medicine, and energy. Humans currently directly or indirectly use most of...
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Human activities now match (and often exceed) the natural forces of the Earth System (Steffen/Sanderson/ Tyson/Jäger/Matson/Moore/Oldfield/Richardson/ Schellnhuber/Turner/Wasson 2004). Recent ice core data show that current levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane are well outside the range of natural variability over the last 800,000 years (Luth...
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This paper provides an overview and a thorough understanding of the sustainability issues in the timber sector of Ghana. This understanding will help to identify and bridge the sustainability gap to avoid the imminent depletion of the natural forest resources. The sector was assessed by means of a structured closed-ended questionnaire, followed by...
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The socio-economic impacts of environmental stresses associated with global environmental change depend to a large extent on how societies organize themselves. Research on climate-related societal impacts, vulnerability and adaptation is currently underdeveloped, prompting international global environmental change research institutions to hold a se...
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Background, aim, and scope The timber sector, i.e., forestry and timber industry, plays an important role in the socioeconomic development of Ghana through timber products export. Timber production in this sector is associated with increasing environmental burdens in terms of use of materials and energy, production of emissions and waste, and land...
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The current quality assurance and control tools and methods to prevent and/or to control microbiological risks associated with fresh produce are challenged due to the following pressures upon the food supply chain, i.e. changing consumption patterns, globalization and climate change. It demonstrates the need for scientific research and development...
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To feed the world without further damaging the planet, Jeffrey Sachs and 24 foodsystem experts call for a global data collection and dissemination network to track the myriad impacts of different farming practices.
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Climatic conditions and hence climate change influence agriculture. Most studies that addressed the vulnerability of agriculture to climate change have focused on potential impacts without considering adaptation. When adaptation strategies are considered, socio-economic conditions and farm management are often ignored, but these strongly influence...