Rifat Atun

Rifat Atun
Harvard University | Harvard · Harvard School of Public Health

MBBS MBA DIC FRCGP FFPH FRCP

About

691
Publications
192,053
Reads
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26,357
Citations
Introduction
Research Interests: Health Systems; Innovation; Health Systems Performance; Non Communicable Diseases; Communicable Disease Control
Additional affiliations
January 2014 - present
Harvard University
Position
  • Professor (Full)
January 2013 - present
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
Position
  • Professor
September 2008 - February 2012
The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria
Position
  • Director, Strategy, Performance and Evaluation Cluster

Publications

Publications (691)
Article
Full-text available
Turkey has successfully introduced health system changes and provided its citizens with the right to health to achieve universal health coverage, which helped to address inequities in financing, health service access, and health outcomes. We trace the trajectory of health system reforms in Turkey, with a particular emphasis on 2003-13, which coinci...
Article
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In almost all countries, development of health systems that are responsive to the challenge of prevention and treatment of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is a priority. NCDs consist of a vast group of conditions, but in terms of premature mortality, emphasis has been on cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, and chronic respiratory diseases—di...
Article
Development assistance for health has increased every year between 2000 and 2010, particularly for HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria, to reach US$26·66 billion in 2010. The continued global economic crisis means that increased external financing from traditional donors is unlikely in the near term. Hence, new funding has to be sought from innovat...
Article
Background Alcohol is a leading risk factor for over 200 conditions and an important contributor to socioeconomic health inequalities. However, little is known about the associations between individuals’ socioeconomic circumstances and alcohol consumption, especially heavy episodic drinking (HED; ≥5 drinks on one occasion) in low-income or middle-i...
Article
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Objectives To determine the prevalence and frequency of using any tobacco product and each of a detailed set of tobacco products, how tobacco use and frequency of use vary across countries, world regions, and World Bank country income groups, and the socioeconomic and demographic gradients of tobacco use and frequency of use within countries. Desi...
Article
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Background This study aims to examine (1) province-level variations in the levels of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and behavioral risk for CVDs, (2) province-level variations in the management of cascade of care for hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidaemia, and (3) the association of province-level economic development and individual factors w...
Article
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There is a dearth of evidence on the epidemiology of multimorbidity in low- and middle-income countries. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of multimorbidity in India and its variation among states and population groups. We analyzed data from a nationally representative household survey conducted in 2015–2016 among individuals aged 15 to...
Article
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Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) may negatively impact surgery patients through reducing the efficacy of treatment of surgical site infections, also known as the “primary effects” of AMR. Previous estimates of the burden of AMR have largely ignored the potential “secondary effects,” such as changes in surgical care pathways due to AMR, such as differ...
Article
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This study aimed to determine levels of health insurance coverage in low- and middle-income countries and how coverage varies by people's sociodemographic characteristics. We conducted a population size-weighted, one-stage individual participant data meta-analysis of health insurance coverage, using a population-based sample of 2,035,401 participan...
Article
Background Effective equity-focused health policy for hypertension in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) requires an understanding of the condition’s current socioeconomic gradients and how these are likely to change in the future as countries develop economically. Objectives This cross-sectional study aimed to determine how hypertension pre...
Article
Climate change poses an unprecedented challenge to population health and health systems’ resilience, with increasing fluctuations in extreme temperatures through pressures on hospital capacity. While earlier studies have estimated morbidity attributable to hot or cold weather across cities, we provide the first large-scale, population-wide assessme...
Article
OBJECTIVE Diabetes prevalence is increasing rapidly in rural areas of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), but there are limited data on the performance of health systems in delivering equitable and effective care to rural populations. We therefore assessed rural-urban differences in diabetes care and control in LMICs. RESEARCH DESIGN AND MET...
Article
Background: Population-based cancer survival is a key metric of the effectiveness of health systems in managing cancer. Data from population-based cancer registries are essential for producing reliable and robust cancer survival estimates. Georgia established a national population-based cancer registry on 1 January 2015. This is the first analysis...
Article
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The report, Towards a Strategy for Improving Surgical Healthcare Worldwide, was developed under the guidance of Dr Geoff Ibbotson, Executive Director of the Global Surgery Foundation and Senior Health Advisor at the United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR). The ideas, insights and frameworks in the report are drawn from several d...
Article
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Background: Conversational agents (CAs) are increasingly used in health care to deliver behavior change interventions. Their evaluation often includes categorizing the behavior change techniques (BCTs) using a classification system of which the BCT Taxonomy v1 (BCTTv1) is one of the most common. Previous studies have presented descriptive summaries...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Conversational agents (CAs) are increasingly used in healthcare to deliver behavior change interventions. Their evaluation often includes categorizing the behavior change techniques (BCTs), using a classification system of which the BCT Taxonomy V1 is one of the most common. Previous studies have presented descriptive summaries of behavi...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Conversational agents (CAs), also known as chatbots are computer programs that simulate human conversations using predetermined rule-based responses or employing artificial intelligent algorithms. They are increasingly used in healthcare, particularly via smartphones. There is, at present no conceptual framework guiding the development o...
Article
Background Conversational agents (CAs), also known as chatbots, are computer programs that simulate human conversations by using predetermined rule-based responses or artificial intelligence algorithms. They are increasingly used in health care, particularly via smartphones. There is, at present, no conceptual framework guiding the development of s...
Article
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Coordinating collective work and communicating a shared understanding of tasks is necessary to accomplishing organizational goals. Stigma could exacerbate coordination challenges between public and private organizations by further widening differences in goals and incentives among employees. Using relational coordination theory, we explore how stig...
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Background In the prevention of cardiovascular disease, a WHO target is that at least 50% of eligible people use statins. Robust evidence is needed to monitor progress towards this target in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), where most cardiovascular disease deaths occur. The objectives of this study were to benchmark statin use in LM...
Article
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Nonpharmaceutical interventions such as stay-at-home orders continue to be the main policy response to the COVID-19 pandemic in countries with limited or slow vaccine rollout. Often, nonpharmaceutical interventions are managed or implemented at the subnational level, yet little information exists on within-country variation in nonpharmaceutical int...
Article
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Background and Purpose Pancreatic islet autoantibodies (iAb) are the hallmark of autoimmunity in type 1 diabetes. A more comprehensive understanding of the global iAb prevalence could help reduce avertible morbidity and mortality among children and adolescents and contribute to the understanding in the observed differences in the incidence, prevale...
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Background: There is a lack of published studies on incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in Thailand. We aimed to estimate the national prevalence and incidence of T1D and DKA. Methods: Using Thailand's nationwide population-based longitudinal data covering 69 million individuals, we included the entire children and...
Article
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The majority of biomedical research is funded by public, governmental, and philanthropic grants. These initiatives often shape the avenues and scope of research across disease areas. However, the prioritization of disease-specific funding is not always reflective of the health and social burden of each disease. We identify a prioritization disparit...
Article
Background: For patients with type 2 diabetes in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), access to newer antidiabetic drugs (eg, sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 [SGLT2] inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 [GLP-1] receptor agonists, and insulin analogues) could reduce the incidence of diabetes-related complications. We aimed to estimate pri...
Article
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Background Decision making process for Official Development Assistance (ODA) for healthcare sector in low-income and middle-income countries involves multiple agencies, each with their unique power, priorities and funding mechanisms. This process at country level has not been well studied. Methods This paper developed and applied a new framework t...
Article
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Background Integration of HIV services with other health services has been proposed as an important strategy to boost the sustainability of the global HIV response. We conducted a systematic and comprehensive synthesis of the existing scientific evidence on the impact of service integration on the HIV care cascade, health outcomes, and cost-effecti...
Article
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• Sustainable Development Goal 3 aims to "ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages" and has set a target of achieving global universal health coverage, representing a major policy shift away from mostly disease-specific "vertical programmes". • While health service integration can be a promising strategy to improve healthcare...
Article
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Background: As the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia is increasing in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), detailed evidence is urgently needed to guide the response of health systems to this epidemic. This study sought to quantify unmet need for hypercholesterolemia care among adults in 35 LMICs. Methods and findings: We pooled individual...
Article
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Background Reducing socioeconomic inequalities in access to good quality health care is key for countries to achieve Universal Health Coverage. This study aims to assess socioeconomic inequalities in effective coverage of reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health (RMNCH) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Methods Using the most re...
Article
At the end of 2019, the first reports of a new respiratory virus appeared in China. The subsequent COVID-19 pandemic has affected every person, in every country, in the world. One early lesson was the crucial importance of timely accurate diagnosis. A second lesson was the widespread scarcity of such diagnostic capacity and capability. The second l...
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We present a new concept, Punt Politics , and apply it to the COVID-19 non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPI) in two epicenters of the pandemic: Mexico and Brazil. Punt Politics refers to national leaders in federal systems deferring or deflecting responsibility for health systems decision-making to sub-national entities without evidence or coordin...
Article
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Background The tuberculosis targets for the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) call for a 90% reduction in tuberculosis deaths by 2030, compared with 2015, but meeting this target now seems highly improbable. To assess the economic impact of not meeting the target until 2045, we estimated full-income losses in 120 countries, including those du...
Article
Background The COVID-19 pandemic has strained health system capacity worldwide due to a surge of hospital admissions, while mitigation measures have simultaneously reduced patients' access to health care, affecting the diagnosis and treatment of other diseases such as cancer. We estimated the impact of delayed diagnosis on cancer outcomes in Chile...
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Background: Given the increasing prevalence of diabetes in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), we aimed to estimate the health and cost implications of achieving different targets for diagnosis, treatment, and control of diabetes and its associated cardiovascular risk factors among LMICs. Methods: We constructed a microsimulation mod...
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Background In 2019, there are more than 290 million people who have ever migrated from rural to urban areas in China. These rural-to-urban internal migrants account for more than one-fifth of China’s population and is the largest internal migrant group globally. We present the first systematic review that examines whether internal migrants are more...
Article
Background Female breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in the world, with wide variations in reported survival by country. Women in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) in particular face several barriers to breast cancer services, including diagnostics and treatment. We aimed to estimate the potential impact of scaling up...
Article
Background: The prevalence of overweight, obesity, and diabetes is rising rapidly in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), but there are scant empirical data on the association between body-mass index (BMI) and diabetes in these settings. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we pooled individual-level data from nationally representa...
Article
Background: Health professions education has undergone major changes with the advent and adoption of digital technologies worldwide. Objective: This study aims to map the existing evidence and identify gaps and research priorities to enable robust and relevant research in digital health professions education. Methods: We searched for systemati...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Health professions education has undergone major changes with the advent and adoption of digital technologies worldwide. OBJECTIVE This study aims to map the existing evidence and identify gaps and research priorities to enable robust and relevant research in digital health professions education. METHODS We searched for systematic revi...
Article
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Importance The COVID-19 pandemic is the greatest global test of health leadership of our generation. There is an urgent need to provide guidance for leaders at all levels during the unprecedented preresolution recovery stage. Objective To create an evidence- and expertise-informed framework of leadership imperatives to serve as a resource to guide...
Article
Background As screening programs in low‐ and middle‐income countries (LMICs) often do not have the resources to screen the entire population, there is frequently a need to target such efforts to easily identifiable priority groups. This study aimed to determine (1) how hypertension prevalence in LMICs varies by age, sex, body mass index, and smokin...
Article
Background: Variation in the approaches taken to contain the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic at country level has been shaped by economic and political considerations, technical capacity, and assumptions about public behaviours. To address the limited application of learning from previous pandemics, this study aimed to analyse perceived facilitator...
Article
Background: Strategic planning is critical for successful pandemic management. This study aimed to identify and review the scope and analytic depth of situation analyses conducted to understand their utility, and capture the documented macro-level factors impacting pandemic management. Methods: To synthesise this disparate body of literature, we...
Book
Building a High-Value Health System presents a practical, general approach to designing a health system that provides comprehensive, effective, and affordable healthcare for nations across the globe. This book systematically leads readers through the steps of designing a system around a developed country’s needs by describing what a health systems...
Article
Although Value-Based Health Care (VBHC) is widely debated and cited, there are few empirical studies focused on how its concepts are understood and applied in real-world contexts. This comparative case study of two prominent adopters in Brazil and Sweden, situated at either end of the spectrum in terms of contextual prerequisites, provides insights...
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Background Approximately 80% of the 463 million adults worldwide with diabetes live in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). A major obstacle to designing evidence-based policies to improve diabetes outcomes in LMICs is the scarce availability of nationally representative data on the current patterns of treatment coverage. The objectives...
Article
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Background Multimorbidity (the presence of two or more non-communicable diseases) is a major growing challenge for many low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). Yet, its effects on health care costs and financial burden for patients have not been adequately studied. This study investigates the effect of multimorbidity across the different pe...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Priority setting process for the health care sector in low- and middle-income countries involves multiple agencies, each with their unique power, decision-making and funding mechanisms. Methods This paper developed and applied a new framework to analyze priority setting processes in Ethiopia, Nigeria, and Tanzania, from a scoping review...
Article
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Background COVID-19 spread rapidly in Brazil despite the country's well established health and social protection systems. Understanding the relationships between health-system preparedness, responses to COVID-19, and the pattern of spread of the epidemic is particularly important in a country marked by wide inequalities in socioeconomic characteris...
Article
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Background: Global cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden is high and rising, especially in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). Focussing on 45 LMICs, we aimed to determine (1) the adult population's median 10-year predicted CVD risk, including its variation within countries by socio-demographic characteristics, and (2) the prevalence of...
Article
Background: In addition to increased availability of treatment modalities, advanced imaging modalities are increasingly recommended to improve global cancer care. However, estimates of the costs and benefits of investments to improve cancer survival are scarce, especially for low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). In this analysis, we aim...
Article
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There is an interest to understand how social impact bonds (SIBs), a type of innovative financing instrument used in impact investment, can be used to finance the prevention of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This is the first scoping review that explores the evidence of SIBs for NCDs and their key characteristics and performance. The review used...
Article
The diagnosis and treatment of patients with cancer requires access to imaging to ensure accurate management decisions and optimal outcomes. Our global assessment of imaging and nuclear medicine resources identified substantial shortages in equipment and workforce, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). A microsimulation mo...
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Introduction Artificial intelligence (AI) offers great potential for transforming healthcare delivery leading to better patient-outcomes and more efficient care delivery. However, despite these advantages, integration of AI in healthcare has not kept pace with technological advancements. Previous research indicates the importance of understanding v...
Preprint
Full-text available
Health and economic benefits possible with emerging tuberculosis vaccines are not fully known. We estimated gains possible with novel post-exposure vaccines, in India and Indonesia. We modeled vaccine impact on TB incidence, TB mortality, and on national income growth and the intrinsic value of living longer, known as Full-income. We considered sev...