Riender Happee

Riender Happee
Delft University of Technology | TU · Department of Intelligent Vehicles / Cognitive Robotics

PhD

About

276
Publications
165,866
Reads
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7,105
Citations
Citations since 2016
165 Research Items
6118 Citations
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201620172018201920202021202202004006008001,0001,2001,400
201620172018201920202021202202004006008001,0001,2001,400
201620172018201920202021202202004006008001,0001,2001,400
Introduction
Human Factors, Biomechanics, Comfort, Automated Driving

Publications

Publications (276)
Article
Fast goal directed arm movements in the sagittal plane were analyzed with a three-dimensional shoulder model with 95 muscle elements. Dynamics of the muscle elements were described by a third-order nonlinear muscle model. Muscle forces and activation were estimated using the method of inverse muscular dynamics, an optimization scheme which uses onl...
Article
Full-text available
Vibration transmission is essential in the design of comfortable vehicle seats but knowledge is lacking on 3D trunk and head motion and the role of seat back and posture. We hypothesized that head motion is reduced when participants’ upper back is unsupported, as this stimulates active postural control. We developed an experimental methodology to e...
Article
Motor control deficits have been suggested as potential cause and/or effect of a-specific chronic low-back pain and its recurrent behavior. Therefore, the goal of this study is to identify motor control in low-back stabilization by simultaneously quantifying the intrinsic and reflexive contributions. Upper body sway was evoked using continuous forc...
Article
Full-text available
In the past, muscle activation has been identified as having an important effect on the head-neck response in dynamic conditions. However, this claim has been largely based on global observations, and not by accurate analysis. In this study, the influence of muscle activation on the head-neck response is investigated by mathematical modeling. The d...
Article
Full-text available
Driving simulators are an increasingly important tool to develop vehicle functionalities and to study driver or passenger responses. A major hindrance to the use and validity of such studies is Simulator Sickness (SS). Several studies have suggested a positive relation between improvements in simulator fidelity and the likelihood of sickness. We hy...
Preprint
Full-text available
Tesla’s Full Self-Driving Beta (FSD) program introduces technology that extends the operational design domain of standard Autopilot from highways to urban roads. This research conducted 103 semi-structured interviews with users of Tesla’s FSD Beta and standard Autopilot to evaluate the impact on user behavior and perception. It was found that drive...
Article
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Increasing levels of vehicle automation are envisioned to allow drivers to engage in other activities but are also likely to increase the incidence of Carsickness or Motion Sickness (MS). Ideally, MS is studied in a safe and controlled environment, such as a driving simulator. However, only few studies address the suitability of driving simulators...
Article
This study reports usage of supervised automation and driver attention from longitudinal naturalistic driving observations. Automation inexperienced drivers were provided with instrumented vehicles with adaptive cruise control (ACC) and lane keeping (LK) features (SAE level 2). Data was collected comparing one month of driving without support to tw...
Article
Full-text available
A prime concern for automated vehicles is motion comfort, as an uncomfortable ride may reduce acceptance of the technology amongst the general population. However, it is not clear how transient motions typical for travelling by car affect the experience of comfort. Here, we determine the relation between properties of vehicle motions (i.e., acceler...
Preprint
Full-text available
Augmented Reality (AR) technology could be utilised to assist pedestrians to navigate safely through traffic. However, whether potential users would understand and use such AR solutions is currently unknown. Nine novel AR interfaces for pedestrian-vehicle communication, previously developed using an experience-based design method, were evaluated th...
Article
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The use of driving simulators for training and for development of new vehicles is widely spread in the automotive industry. In the last decade, a few motorcycle riding simulators have been developed for similar purposes, with focus on maneuvering at high speed. This article presents the subjective and objective evaluation of a motorcycle riding sim...
Article
The operation of automated vehicles (AVs) on shared roads requires attention concerning their interactions with vulnerable road users (VRUs), such as cyclists. This study investigates the safety of cyclists when they interact with an AV and compares it with their interaction with a conventional vehicle. Overall, 29 cyclists participated in a contro...
Article
Full-text available
To encourage appropriate use of driving automation, we need to understand and monitor driver’s trust and risk perception. We examined (1) how trust and perceived risk are affected by automation, driving conditions and experience and (2) how well perceived risk can be inferred from behaviour and physiology at three levels: over traffic conditions, a...
Preprint
Full-text available
Data on actual behavior of drivers in partially automated cars is rare. The present online survey investigated reported automation usage, performance of partially automated cars, perceived safety, trust, secondary task engagement and motives for disengaging partial automation among drivers of SAE Level 2 partially automated cars. The substantial in...
Preprint
Full-text available
Vibration transmission is essential in the design of comfortable vehicle seats but knowledge is lacking on 3D trunk and head motion and the role of seat back and posture. We hypothesized that head motion is reduced when participants upper back is unsupported, as this stimulates active postural control. We developed an experimental methodology to ev...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper presents a novel methodology to auto-tune an Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF). It involves using a Two-Stage Bayesian Optimisation (TSBO), based on a t-Student Process to optimise the process noise parameters of a UKF for vehicle sideslip angle estimation. Our method minimises performance metrics, given by the average sum of the states' and...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper provides a comprehensive comparison of model-based and data-driven approaches and analyses the benefits of using measured tyre forces for vehicle sideslip angle estimation. The model-based approaches are based on an extended Kalman filter and an unscented Kalman filter, in which the measured tyre forces are utilised in the observation mo...
Article
Full-text available
In future automated vehicles we will often engage in non-driving tasks and will not watch the road. This will affect postural stabilization and may elicit discomfort or even motion sickness in dynamic driving. Future vehicles will accommodate this with properly designed seats and interiors, whereas comfortable vehicle motion will be achieved with s...
Preprint
Full-text available
In future automated vehicles we will often engage in non-driving tasks and will not watch the road. This will affect postural stabilization and may elicit discomfort or even motion sickness in dynamic driving. Future vehicles shall accommodate this by properly designed seats and interiors whereas comfortable vehicle motion shall be achieved with sm...
Article
Full-text available
The relationship between the amplitude of motion and the accumulation of motion sickness in time is unclear. Here, we investigated this relationship at the individual and group level. Seventeen participants were exposed to four oscillatory motion stimuli, in four separate sessions, separated by at least 1 week to prevent habituation. Motion amplitu...
Article
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The L3Pilot project tested SAE Level 3 (L3) conditionally automated driving functions addressing driving and travel behaviour, impacts on safety, efficiency, environment and socio-economics, and user acceptance. To investigate individual variance in acceptance of conditionally automated cars, an online survey was performed among 18,631 respondents...
Article
Full-text available
High levels of vehicle automation are expected to increase the risk of motion sickness, which is a major detriment to driving comfort. The exact relation between motion sickness and discomfort is a matter of debate, with recent studies suggesting a relief of discomfort at the onset of nausea. In this study, we investigate whether discomfort increas...
Article
Full-text available
Perceived risk and trust are crucial for user acceptance of driving automation. In this study, we identify important predictors of perceived risk and trust in a driving simulator experiment and develop models through stepwise regression to predict event-based changes in perceived risk and trust. 25 participants were tasked to monitor SAE Level 2 dr...
Article
Full-text available
Experiments and human rider models were used to investigate bicycle balance and steering using visuo/vestibular motion and proprioceptive feedback taking into account sensory delays. An instrumented steer-by-wire bicycle designed and built at the TU Delft bicycle laboratory was used to investigate rider responses with and with reduced steering torq...
Article
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We present a novel method for vehicle-pedestrian path prediction that takes into account the awareness of the driver and the pedestrian towards each other. The method jointly models the paths of vehicle and pedestrian within a single Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN). In this DBN, sub-graphs model the environment and entity-specific context cues of th...
Article
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The present online study surveyed drivers of SAE Level 2 partially automated cars on automation use and attitudes towards automation. Respondents reported high levels of trust in their partially automated cars to maintain speed and distance to the car ahead ( M = 4.41), and to feel safe most of the time ( M = 4.22) on a scale from 1 to 5. Responden...
Article
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A realistic steering feel is one of the key elements to guarantee fidelity on a driving simulator in general, and in particular to replicate on-centre vehicle handling. This requires precise modelling of the steering dynamics, a high bandwidth control loading system, and coupling of virtual and physical components in agreement with computational re...
Preprint
Full-text available
The present online study surveyed drivers of SAE Level 2 partially automated cars on automation use and attitudes towards automation. Respondents reported high levels of trust in their partially automated cars to maintain speed and distance to the car ahead (M = 4.41), and to feel safe most of the time (M = 4.22) on a scale from 1 to 5. Respondents...
Article
Full-text available
: Surrogate measures of safety (SMoS) play an important role in detecting traffic conflicts and in traffic safety assessment. However, the underlying assumptions of SMoS are different and a certain SMoS may be adequate/inadequate for different applications. A comprehensive approach to evaluate the validity and applicability of SMoS is lacking in th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The future urban environment may consist of mixed traffic in which pedestrians interact with automated vehicles (AVs). However, it is still unclear how AVs should communicate their intentions to pedestrians. Augmented reality (AR) technology could transform the future of interactions between pedestrians and AVs by offering targeted and individualiz...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Previous literature has reported moderate losses in performance on cognitive tasks in the presence of mild motion sickness and concluded that motion sickness likely affected task motivation. These studies have used simple fundamental cognitive tasks, unlike the activities users of automated vehicles are expected to engage in. In this study we us...
Article
Full-text available
Previous literature suggests a relationship between individual characteristics of motion perception and the peak frequency of motion sickness sensitivity. Here, we used well-established paradigms to relate motion perception and motion sickness on an individual level. We recruited 23 participants to complete a two-part experiment. In the first part,...
Preprint
Full-text available
The future urban environment may consist of mixed traffic in which pedestrians interact with automated vehicles (AVs). However, it is still unclear how AVs should communicate their intentions to pedestrians. Augmented reality (AR) technology could transform the future of interactions between pedestrians and AVs by offering targeted and individualiz...
Article
Full-text available
In automated driving, the user interface plays an essential role in guiding transitions between automated and manual driving. This literature review identified 25 studies that explicitly studied the effectiveness of user interfaces in automated driving. Our main selection criterion was how the user interface (UI) affected take-over performance in h...
Article
Full-text available
The present study investigated the attitudes and acceptance of automated shuttles in public transport among 340 individuals physically experiencing the automated shuttle ‘Emily’ from Easymile in a mixed traffic environment on the semi-public EUREF (Europäisches Energieforum) campus in Berlin. Automated vehicle acceptance was modelled as a function...
Article
Full-text available
Automated driving research over the past decades has mostly focused on highway environments. Recent technological developments have drawn researchers and manufacturers to look ahead at introducing automated driving in cities. The current position paper examines this challenge from the viewpoint of scientific experts. Sixteen Human Factors researche...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated and modeled the temporal evolution of motion sickness in a highly dynamic sickening drive. Slalom maneuvers were performed in a passenger vehicle, resulting in lateral accelerations of 0.4 g at 0.2 Hz, to which participants were subjected as passengers for up to 30 min. Subjective motion sickness was recorded throughout the sickenin...
Article
Full-text available
Percepts of verticality are thought to be constructed as a weighted average of multisensory inputs, but the observed weights differ considerably between studies. In the present study, we evaluate whether this can be explained by differences in how visual, somatosensory and proprioceptive cues contribute to representations of the Head In Space (HIS)...
Preprint
Full-text available
Automated driving research over the past decades has mostly focused on highway environments. Recent technological developments have drawn researchers and manufacturers to look ahead at introducing automated driving in cities. The current position paper examines this challenge from the viewpoint of scientific experts. Sixteen Human Factors researche...
Article
Full-text available
We present a simulation-based approach to assess the safety impacts of vehicles equipped with Automated Driving Systems (ADS) in mixed traffic with Human-driven Vehicles (HV). Specifically, we compare two generic longitudinal strategies of ADS to handle a cut-in: Reactive ADS acting only when the cut-in vehicle crosses the target lane boundary, and...
Article
Full-text available
Freeway merging of heavy goods vehicles (HGV) is a safety-critical manoeuvre. However, at present, it is largely unknown how HGV drivers perceive and execute the merging manoeuvre, and how current advanced driver support and automation systems (ADAS) contribute. We performed semi-structured in-depth interviews with 15 HGV drivers to assess their vi...
Article
Full-text available
Existing microscopic traffic models represent the lane-changing maneuver as a continuous and uninterrupted lateral movement of the vehicle from its original to the target lane. We term this representation as Continuous Lane-Changing (CLC). Recent empirical studies find that not all lane-changing maneuvers are continuous; the lane-changer may pause...
Article
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Objective: To investigate how well gaze behavior can indicate driver awareness of individual road users when related to the vehicle's road scene perception. Background: An appropriate method is required to identify how driver gaze reveals awareness of other road users. Method: We developed a recognition-based method for labeling of driver situ...
Article
Full-text available
Recent developments in the concept of UAS operations in urban areas have led to risk concerns of UAS collision with human. To better understand this risk, head and neck injuries due to UAS collisions have been investigated by different research teams using crash dummies. Because of the limitations in biofidelity of a crash dummy, head injury level...
Article
Full-text available
The study investigated the interrelationships between the UTAUT2 (Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology) constructs predicting intentions to use driverless automated shuttles. Survey data was gathered from individuals physically experiencing an automated shuttle in a mixed traffic environment on public roads in Trikala (Greece) as part...
Article
Full-text available
PurposeThe goal of this study was to assess differences in low back stabilization and underlying mechanisms between patients with low back pain (LBP) and healthy controls. It has been hypothesized that inadequate trunk stabilization could contribute to LBP through high tissue strains and/or impingement. Evidence to support this is inconsistent, and...
Article
Full-text available
We present an approach to assess the risk taken by on-road vehicles within the framework of artificial field theory, envisioned for safety analysis and design of driving support/automation applications. Here, any obstacle (neighboring entity on the road) to the subject vehicle is treated as a finite scalar risk field that is formulated in the predi...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated public acceptance of conditionally automated (SAE Level 3) passenger cars using a questionnaire study among 9,118 car-drivers in eight European countries, as part of the European L3Pilot project. 71.06% of respondents considered conditionally automated cars easy to use while 28.03% of respondents planned to buy a conditionally autom...
Preprint
Full-text available
The present study investigated the attitudes and acceptance of automated shuttles in public transport among 340 individuals physically experiencing the automated shuttle ‘Emily’ from Easymile in a mixed traffic environment on the semi-public EUREF (Europäisches Energieforum) campus in Berlin. The highest mean rating was obtained for believing that...
Article
Full-text available
In highly automated driving, drivers occasionally need to take over control of the car due to limitations of the automated driving system. Research has shown that visually distracted drivers need about 7 s to regain situation awareness (SA). However, it is unknown whether the presence of a hazard affects SA. In the present experiment, 32 participan...
Article
Full-text available
In highly automated driving, the driver can engage in a nondriving task but sometimes has to take over control. We argue that current takeover quality measures, such as the maximum longitudinal acceleration, are insufficient because they ignore the criticality of the scenario. This paper proposes a novel method of quantifying how well the driver ex...
Preprint
Full-text available
We investigated public acceptance of conditionally automated (SAE Level 3) passenger cars using a questionnaire study among 9,118 car-drivers in eight European countries, as part of the European L3Pilot project. 71.06% of respondents considered conditionally automated cars easy to use while 28.03% of respondents planned to buy a conditionally autom...
Article
Full-text available
A necessary condition for the effective integration of automated vehicles in our daily lives is their acceptance by passengers inside and pedestrians and cyclists outside the automated vehicle. 119 respondents experienced an automated shuttle ride with a ‘hidden steward on board’ in a mixed traffic environment in Berlin-Schöneberg. A mixed-method a...