Rick H Hoyle

Rick H Hoyle
Duke University | DU

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144
Publications
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Publications

Publications (144)
Article
This study examined the association between pubertal timing, daily affect, conduct problems, and the exposure to hassles across family, peer, and school contexts. Adolescents ( M age = 12.27; 49.7% female; 62.6% White) completed ecological momentary assessments across 14 consecutive days ( N = 388). Earlier maturing girls reported lower daily avera...
Article
Cognitive control is guided by learning, as people adjust control to meet changing task demands. The two best-studied instances of “control-learning” are the enhancement of attentional task focus in response to increased frequencies of incongruent distracter stimuli, reflected in the list-wide proportion congruent (LWPC) effect, and the enhancement...
Preprint
Public health officials and clinicians routinely advise social media users to avoid nighttime social media use due to the perception that this delays the onset of sleep and predisposes to the health risks of insufficient sleep. The evidence behind this advice mostly derives from surveys identifying an association between self-reported social media...
Preprint
Goal disengagement has been well studied in contexts where giving up is generally adaptive, and understudied in more ordinary situations. 1,201 American adults described up to five New Year’s resolutions and reported on their goal pursuit after six months and one year. Explicit goal disengagement was very rare and occurred in less than 7% of goals...
Preprint
Social media usage is both a potential influencer of human sleep and a research tool for understanding human sleep more generally. For both reasons, there is a growing interest in understanding the sleep patterns of social media users. These studies require both social media usage data and sleep data. There is ample social media data that are publi...
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Changes in depressive symptoms in response to the experience of a first high-impact stressor (i.e., a stressor rated as both very upsetting and very disruptive) in college were examined as an indicator of student resilience. Participants were 953 college undergraduates from four institutions participating in a larger longitudinal study of student r...
Chapter
Grounded in a developmental perspective, this chapter focuses, in particular, on food insecurity among adolescents. Using survey data from parents and adolescents in the same family (N = 581 families with both parent and adolescent reports), results show that though parents and adolescents largely agree about their families’ food insecurity, parent...
Article
Purpose Although studies have found associations between greater digital technology use and poorer sleep health among adolescents, these studies typically rely on self-reported sleep and cross-sectional designs. This study applied an ecological momentary assessment design to examine how adolescents’ daily digital technology use relates to self-repo...
Article
Many studies have documented the role of self-regulation in predicting academic outcomes. However, fewer have comprehensively measured self-regulation or considered it simultaneously with contextual variables to test formally the often-advanced "risk-buffering" hypothesis, wherein self-regulatory skill protects against contextual risk factors. In a...
Article
The Autobiographical Recollection Test (ART; Berntsen et al., 2019) measures individual differences in autobiographical memory. We here examined whether the ART correlates with characteristics of people’s specific autobiographical memories. Participants (Ns ≥ 475) completed the ART and rated recollective qualities of autobiographical memories cued...
Chapter
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We examine the fundamental role of visualizations and offer strategies and recommendations on how to use graphics to facilitate the use of SEM to fit models to data. We begin by reviewing aspects of model specification using the popular LISREL matrix notation highlighting the isomorphism between the algebraic representation of models and the path d...
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Background The infertility experience is often surrounded by frustration and discouragement associated with the thwarted goal to have a child. Though research has identified commonly used strategies to cope with infertility, this study is the first to examine how different goal attributes and processes associated with the experience of infertility...
Article
According to prior work, persistent goal pursuit is a continuous process where persisting is a matter of resisting the urge to give up. In everyday goals, however, persistence is often episodic, and its causes are more complex. People pause and resume pursuit many times. Whether people persist reflects more than will power and motivation, it also r...
Article
The aim of this study was to examine the association between traits associated with adaptive self-management and psychological distress in women experiencing infertility. A sample of 326 women reported on their infertility experience; their tendencies with respect to self-compassion, emotion regulation, and positivity; and their current psychologic...
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The performance and well-being of university students is influenced by many factors, including self-control and affect regulation, but little is known about how these factors relate. We therefore analyzed data from a multi-site research project that assessed trait self-control, affect regulation, and anxiety in a longitudinal cohort design ('N' = 1...
Article
Objective: To examine the cross-sectional associations between young adolescents' access, use, and perceived impairments related to digital technologies and their academic, psychological, and physical well-being. Study design: There were 2104 adolescents (ages 10-15 years), representative of the North Carolina Public School population, who compl...
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When predicting success, how important are personal attributes other than cognitive ability? To address this question, we capitalized on a full decade of prospective, longitudinal data from n = 11,258 cadets entering training at the US Military Academy at West Point. Prior to training, cognitive ability was negatively correlated with both physical...
Article
Commercially available wearable devices are marketed as a means of objectively capturing daily sleep easily and inexpensively outside of the laboratory. Two ecological momentary assessment studies—with 120 older adolescents (aged 18–19) and 395 younger adolescents (aged 10–16)—captured nightly self‐reported and wearable (Jawbone) recorded sleep dur...
Article
We introduce the Autobiographical Recollection Test (ART) to examine individual differences in how well people think they remember personal events. The ART comprises seven theoretically motivated and empirically supported interrelated aspects of recollecting autobiographical memories: reliving, vividness, visual imagery, scene, narrative coherence,...
Article
Adolescents in the United States live amid high levels of concentrated poverty and increasing income inequality. Poverty is robustly linked to adolescents' mental health problems; however, less is known about how perceptions of their social status and exposure to local area income inequality relate to mental health. Participants consisted of a popu...
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Extending the growing literature on the role of grit in different life domains, this research explores the relationship between grit and involvement in entrepreneurship. The research highlights the role of personal income and satisfaction with one's current financial situation as moderators of the relationship between grit and entrepreneurial behav...
Preprint
The authors review the empirical literature showing associations between personality traits and trait self-control. They introduce a new measure of trait self-control, the Capacity for Self-Control Scale, which provides a fuller account of the construct than other measures and, in so doing, reveals additional associations with personality.
Article
The Centrality of Event Scale (CES) was introduced to examine the extent to which a traumatic or stressful event is perceived as central to an individual's identity and life story, and how this relates to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms. In addition, the CES has been examined in relation to a range of other conditions and dispositions...
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This paper describes the development and initial validation of a Spanish version of the Short Grit (Grit-S) Scale. The Grit-S Scale was adapted and translated into Spanish using the Translation, Review, Adjudication, Pre-testing, and Documentation model and responses to a preliminary set of items from a large sample of university students (N = 1,12...
Article
Objective: To test whether exposure to violence is associated with same-day increases in obesogenic behaviors among young adolescents, including unhealthy food and beverage consumption, poor quality sleep, and lack of physical activity. Methods: Young at-risk adolescents between 12 and 15 years of age were recruited via telephone screening from...
Article
Four studies examined intellectual humility—the degree to which people recognize that their beliefs might be wrong. Using a new Intellectual Humility (IH) Scale, Study 1 showed that intellectual humility was associated with variables related to openness, curiosity, tolerance of ambiguity, and low dogmatism. Study 2 revealed that participants high i...
Chapter
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A large array of constructs, processes, and behaviours are relevant to self regulation. The processes and behaviours that are relevant for the broad goal of acquiring skills and knowledge can be arrayed in a three-phase process. Widely used measure of self-control that emphasises inhibition of impulses predicts better academic performance, less bin...
Article
This study examined the relationship between recognition memory and intellectual humility, the degree to which people recognize that their personal beliefs are fallible. Participants completed the General Intellectual Humility Scale, an incidental old/new recognition task, and a task that assessed the tendency to over-claim one's knowledge. Signal...
Article
Although significant progress has been made in the conceptualization and measurement of intellectual humility, little is known about intellectual humility with respect to specific opinions, beliefs, and positions. We offer a conceptualization of specific intellectual humility and present three studies that examine its key tenets. Study 1 developed...
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Mediation analysis is a popular framework for identifying underlying mechanisms in social psychology. In the context of simple mediation, we review and discuss the implications of three facets of mediation analysis: (a) conceptualization of the relations between the variables, (b) statistical approaches, and (c) relevant elements of design. We also...
Article
Complex research questions often cannot be addressed adequately with a single data set. One sensible alternative to the high cost and effort associated with the creation of large new data sets is to combine existing data sets containing variables related to the constructs of interest. The goal of the present research was to develop a flexible, broa...
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We discuss the articles of this special issue with reference to an important yet previously only implicit dimension of study quality: alignment across the theoretical and methodological decisions that collectively define an approach to self-regulated learning. Integrating and extending work by leaders in the field, we propose a framework for evalua...
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Due to changes in cannabis policies, concerns about cannabis use (CU) in adolescents have increased. The population of nonwhite groups is growing quickly in the United States. We examined perceived CU norms and their association with CU and CU disorder (CUD) for White, Black, Hispanic, Native-American, Asian-American, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Island...
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The goal of this manuscript is to describe strategies for maximizing the yield of data from small samples in prevention research. We begin by discussing what "small" means as a description of sample size in prevention research. We then present a series of practical strategies for getting the most out of data when sample size is small and constraine...
Article
Objective: The clinical presentation of anorexia nervosa (AN) is characterized by preoccupation with body experience, intrusive concerns regarding shape, and pathological fears of weight gain. These symptoms are suggestive of unrelenting self-focused attention. No research to date has characterized self-focused attention (SFA) in AN nor examined n...
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Identifying and understanding the goal pursuit strategies that distinguish effective self-regulators from less-effective self-regulators are important for elucidating how individuals achieve their goals. We suggest that the timing of plans for difficult goal pursuits is one differentiation. A pilot study shows that effective self-regulators tend to...
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There are concerns over nonmedical use of prescription stimulants among youths, but little is known about the extent of use among young Asian-Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs), and mixed-race individuals-the fastest growing segments of the U.S. population. We examined prevalences and correlates of nonmedical stimulant use (NMS...
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Background Little is known about weekly variability in medication nonadherence both between and within persons. Purpose To characterize medication nonadherence across repeated, closely spaced occasions. Methods This prospective cohort study comprised four unannounced telephone assessment occasions, each separated by approximately 2 weeks. On each...
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In the 12 years since scholars first investigated the link between self-control and forgiveness (Finkel & Campbell, 2001), the literature investigating this relation has grown rapidly. The present article reports a meta-analytic review of this link across 40 independent samples and 5,105 independent observations. In addition, it investigates an arr...
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When the goal of prevention research is to capture in statistical models some measure of the dynamic complexity in structures and processes implicated in problem behavior and its prevention, approaches such as multilevel modeling (MLM) and structural equation modeling (SEM) are indicated. Yet the assumptions that must be satisfied if these approach...
Article
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Impulsiveness is a personality trait that reflects an urge to act spontaneously, without thinking or planning ahead for the consequences of your actions. High impulsiveness is characteristic of a variety of problematic behaviors including attention deficit disorder, hyperactivity, excessive gambling, risk-taking, drug use, and alcoholism. Researche...
Article
Intellectual humility, a recognition of the fallibility of one's own views and an openness to changing those views when warranted, is a construct with roots in philosophy that is only now beginning to receive attention from psychological scientists. We focus on intellectual humility in the domain of religious belief and conduct an initial test of t...
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Reactions to stressful negative events have long been studied using approaches based on either the narrative interpretation of the event or the traits of the individual. Here, we integrate these 2 approaches by using individual-differences measures of both the narrative interpretation of the stressful event as central to one's life and the personal...
Article
We thank Dr. Molloy for his commentary, which raises two important issues to consider when addressing medication nonadherence. First, he suggests that our measure should classify reasons for nonadherence as intentional or unintentional because this distinction might indicate whether behavior is influenced more by reflective or automatic processes....
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Psychological research typically involves the analysis of data (e.g., questionnaire responses, records of behavior) using statistical methods. The description of how those methods are used and the results they produce is a key component of scholarly publications. Despite their importance, these descriptions are not always complete and clear. In ord...
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In the study reported here, we examined posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in 746 Danish soldiers measured on five occasions before, during, and after deployment to Afghanistan. Using latent class growth analysis, we identified six trajectories of change in PTSD symptoms. Two resilient trajectories had low levels across all five times, a...
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Factor analysis is a family of statistical strategies used to model unmeasured sources of variability in a set of scores. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), otherwise referred to as restricted factor analysis, structural factor analysis, or the measurement model, typically is used in a deductive mode to test hypotheses regarding unmeasured sources...
Article
Background: Self-report measures of medication nonadherence confound the extent of and reasons for medication nonadherence. Each construct is assessed with a different type of psychometric model, which dictates how to establish reliability and validity. Objectives: To evaluate the psychometric properties of a self-report measure of medication no...
Article
We present and test a theory in which self-control is distinguished from broader acts of self-regulation when it is both effortful and conscious. In two studies, we examined whether acts of behavioral management that do not require effort are exempt from resource depletion. In Study 1, we found that a self-regulation task only reduced subsequent se...
Article
Here we examine the effects of both self-reported and independent observer-reported environmental risk indices, the serotonin transporter gene promoter (5HTTLPR) polymorphism, and their interaction on self-esteem. This trait was assessed during early and mid adolescence (mean age=14 and 16.5, respectively) and young adulthood (mean age=21.8) in a p...
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Parenting styles such as authoritarian, disengaged, or permissive are thought to be associated with greater adolescent obesity risk than an authoritative style. This study assessed the relationship between parenting styles and changes in body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. The study included self-reported data from adolescent...
Chapter
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Our goal in this chapter is to complement earlier publications on reporting structural equation modeling results by offering guidance on five specific model types. We begin with item factor analysis, the modeling of latent variables with noncontinuous indicators. Coverage of this model type provides a basis for some general comments about reporting...
Article
In this chapter, we first consider the historical and conceptual roots of the tripartite, but at times rocky, marriage of the fields of personality, social, and abnormal psychology. After briefly describing the hopes of early 20th-century scholars to array the study of normal and abnormal behavior, thought, and feeling on the same conceptual contin...
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Parental alcoholism is generally found to be a strong predictor of alcohol misuse. Although the majority of siblings agree on the presence of parental alcohol issues, there is a significant minority who do not. The current study analyzed sibling data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth using multilevel modeling, which accounts for t...
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Despite the considerable influence of situational factors and the resulting variability in behavior, individuals maintain stable average ways of acting. The purpose of the current research was to investigate one possible explanation for this stability. It was hypothesized that behaviors that are at levels different from the actor’s average trait le...
Article
Individual differences in affect intensity are typically assessed with the Affect Intensity Measure (AIM). Previous factor analyses suggest that the AIM is comprised of four weakly correlated factors: Positive Affectivity, Negative Reactivity, Negative Intensity and Positive Intensity or Serenity. However, little data exist to show whether its four...
Article
Medication nonadherence is a significant clinical problem in chronic disease management. Self-report measures have inadequate reliability and poor distributional properties. We demonstrate how two fundamental measurement issues have limited the usefulness of self-reported medication nonadherence measures and offer recommendations for improving meas...
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Much research has identified how people react to receiving threatening information about the self. The purpose of this article is to discuss such experiences in the context of a model of state self-esteem regulation. The authors propose that people engage in one of three regulatory responses to threat: compensation, resistance, and breaking. They c...
Article
Previous research suggests that individuals closely monitor information about their own social standing, particularly when their social value is threatened. We posit that information perceived as most relevant to social relationships is particularly monitored when a threat occurs and that the information that is most relevant to social relationship...
Article
To develop and test a biopsychosocial model using structural equation modeling for predicting orofacial pain symptoms in a sample of patients with masticatory muscle pain (MMP). Data were collected from clinic records of 251 adult patients who presented for initial evaluation to the Orofacial Pain Center at the University of Kentucky College of Den...
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Lengthy scales or testlets pose certain challenges for structural equation modeling (SEM) if all the items are included as indicators of a latent construct. Three general approaches (parceling, latent scoring, and shortening) to modeling lengthy scales in SEM were reviewed and evaluated. A hypothetical population model was simulated containing two...
Chapter
Because people are not in complete control of the physical and social environments they encounter in daily life, it is inevitable that discrepancies arise between what their identities, goals, and preferences lead them to expect or desire in specific situations and what transpires in those situations. People generally find such discrepancies at lea...
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The purpose of the research was to investigate the social information processing patterns of individuals with domain-contingent self-worth. We proposed that individuals with domain-contingent self-worth would associate cognitions about outcomes in that domain with cognitions about social relationships. We expected this to be a bidirectional relatio...
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The current work examined how social factors influence self-control. Current conceptions of state self-control treat it largely as a function of regulatory capacity. The authors propose that state self-control might also be influenced by social factors because of regulatory accessibility. Studies 1 through 4 provide evidence that individuals' state...
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The factor structure and psychometric properties of the Children's Negative Cognitive Error Questionnaire (CNCEQ) were examined with 427 adolescents ages 12 to 18 (193 boys) with current major depressive disorder. Results of confirmatory factor analysis supported a four-factor model comprised of three content area factors (i.e., social, academic, a...