Richard E Zinbarg

Richard E Zinbarg
Northwestern University | NU · Department of Psychology

Doctor of Philosophy

About

205
Publications
59,264
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
12,668
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 1999 - June 2015
Northwestern University
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (205)
Article
Full-text available
Background Although worry is well-known to share a robust relationship with psychopathology, whether this association is higher in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) versus other anxiety disorders and depressive disorder, and clinical versus nonclinical populations is unclear.Methods We conducted a meta-analysis in which the association between wor...
Article
Full-text available
The Pavlovian-Instrumental Transfer (PIT) paradigm examines probabilistic and reinforcement learning. Disruptions in mechanisms that mediate PIT (i.e., cues not triggering adaptive behaviors) are thought to be contributors to psychopathology, making the study of probabilistic and reinforcement learning clinically relevant. The current study evaluat...
Article
The authors describe how contemporary learning theory and research provide the basis for models of the etiology and maintenance of anxiety and related disorders. They argue that contemporary learning theory accounts for much of the complexity associated with individual differences in the development and course of these disorders. These insights fro...
Article
Background Elevated defensive responding, through startle reflex (SR) and skin conductance response (SCR), may contribute to onset and maintenance of depression and anxiety. Most work examining SR and SCR has predicted psychiatric diagnoses. There is a paucity of research examining links between SR or SCR and dimensional measures of psychopathology...
Article
Full-text available
Early-life adversity is a major risk factor for psychopathology, but not all who experience adversity develop psychopathology. The current study evaluated whether the links between child and adolescent adversity and depression and anxiety were described by general benefits and / or buffering effects of interpersonal support. Data from 456 adolescen...
Article
Full-text available
Depression and anxiety are highly prevalent psychological disorders; our understanding of these conditions remains limited. Efforts to explain anxiety and depression have been constrained in part by binary classification systems. Dimensional approaches to understanding psychopathology may be more effective. The present study used latent profile ana...
Article
The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) is a quantitative nosological system that addresses shortcomings of traditional mental disorder diagnoses, including arbitrary boundaries between psychopathology and normality, frequent disorder co-occurrence, substantial heterogeneity within disorders, and diagnostic unreliability over time and...
Article
p>Experimental sleep deprivation has been shown to differentially affect behavioral indices of effort and temporal discounting, 2 domains of reward processing often observed to be impaired in depression. Experimental sleep deprivation is phenomenologically different from sleep deprivation in everyday life (e.g., poor quality sleep or habitual short...
Article
Background Due to high heterogeneity and comorbidity, the shared and unique neural mechanisms underlying the development of anxiety and major depressive disorders remain unclear. Using a dimensional model describing shared versus unique symptoms associated to anxiety and depression, the current study investigated how longitudinal changes in symptom...
Article
Full-text available
Altered functioning of the brain’s threat and reward circuitry has been linked to early life adversity and to symptoms of anxiety and depression. To date, however, these relationships have been studied in isolation and in categorical-based approaches. It is unclear to what extent early life adversity and psychopathology have unique effects on brain...
Article
Full-text available
Identifying state-sensitive measures of perceptual and cognitive processes implicated in psychosis may allow for objective, earlier, and better monitoring of changes in mental status that are predictive of an impending psychotic episode, relative to traditional self-report-based clinical measures. To determine whether a measure of visual perception...
Article
BACKGROUND Pavlovian learning processes are central to the etiology and treatment of anxiety disorders. Anhedonia and related perturbations in reward processes have been implicated in Pavlovian learning. Associations between anhedonia symptoms and neural indices of Pavlovian learning can inform transdiagnostic associations among depressive and anxi...
Article
Early life adversity influences the diurnal cortisol rhythm, yet the relative influence of different characteristics of adversity remains unknown. In this study, we examine how developmental timing (childhood vs. adolescence), severity (major vs. minor), and domain of early life adversity relate to diurnal cortisol rhythms in late adolescence. We a...
Article
Full-text available
Worry is a central feature of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Although worry is related to anxiety and maintained by beliefs that worry is uncontrollable, there is scarce research on how individuals with GAD react to worry episodes in their daily life and how their positive experiences might impact reactions to worry episodes. The current study...
Article
Full-text available
Language outcomes after speech and language therapy in post-stroke aphasia are challenging to predict. This study examines behavioral language measures and resting state fMRI (rsfMRI) as predictors of treatment outcome. Fifty-seven patients with chronic aphasia were recruited and treated for one of three aphasia impairments: anomia, agrammatism, or...
Article
Full-text available
Dimensional models of anxiety and depression highlight common and distinct symptom clusters that are thought to reflect disruptions in underlying functional processes. The current study investigated how functioning of threat neurocircuitry relates to symptom dimensions of anxiety and depression. Participants were aged 18-19 years (n = 229, 158 fema...
Article
Objective: There is little evidence-based knowledge of how psychotherapists should handle both sudden gains and more gradual session-by-session changes, either in general or in individuals suffering from generalized anxiety disorder. Methods: Using an ABAB crossed-therapist randomized clinical implementation trial design (N = 80 patients and 20...
Article
Introduction The high rate of comorbidity between alcohol use and emotional disorders is well demonstrated, but the mechanisms underlying their relationship remain largely unidentified. One possibility is maladaptive responding to negative affect, such as worry and rumination. The present study sought to examine worry and rumination as putative med...
Article
Full-text available
The present study examines the longitudinal association between cortisol (dys)regulation – mean cortisol awakening response (CAR) and area under the curve with respect to ground (AUCg) for total daily cortisol – and autobiographical memory. 135 participants (mean age at baseline = 16.1; Females = 78.5%) provided cortisol samples (T1). Seven months...
Article
Background: Stressful life experiences and personality can influence one another. Personality may contribute to the amount and type of stress individuals experience, which is referred to as a selection effect. Life stress may also impact one's personality, which is referred to as a socialization effect. It was hypothesized that neuroticism would pr...
Article
Full-text available
Early detection and intervention with young people at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis is critical for prevention efforts focused on altering the trajectory of psychosis. Early CHR research largely focused on validating clinical interviews for detecting at-risk individuals; however, this approach has limitations related to: (1) specificity (i...
Article
Full-text available
Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by remarkable volatility and comorbidity in internalizing disorders. Delineating internalizing symptom change in a manner that accounts for symptoms' shared versus distinctive features is imperative to an understanding of their development. An additional question concerns how vulnerabilities for i...
Article
Internalizing (anxiety and depressive) disorders, and the symptoms that comprise them, are known for being chronic and recurrent. Neuroticism, reflecting dispositional tendencies toward negative affect, is a personality trait that bears durable cross-sectional and prospective associations with internalizing symptoms. There are also indications that...
Article
Whereas there is extensive research on factors that contribute to vulnerability for depression and anxiety, research on how to promote mental health or offset risk effects in individuals likely to develop these disorders is lacking. Resilience models focus on risk, resource, and protective factors and their relationships. The current longitudinal s...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Language outcomes after speech and language therapy in post-stroke aphasia are challenging to predict. This study examines behavioral language measures and resting state fMRI (rsfMRI) as prognostics for response to language therapy. Methods: Seventy patients with chronic aphasia were recruited and treated for one of three deficits: anom...
Article
Full-text available
Open access: https://bmcpsychiatry.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12888-020-02694-x Background Previous research has suggested that worry is negatively associated with working memory performance. However, it is unclear whether these findings would replicate across different worry levels and in individuals with anxiety and depressive disorders...
Article
The past decades of research on predictors of depression have frequently emphasized interactive diathesis-stress questions: What kinds of vulnerabilities under stressful circumstances increase risk of developing depression? This study addresses 3 theoretically important gaps in our knowledge regarding diathesis-stress models of depression: the role...
Article
Neuroticism has been associated with depression and anxiety both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Interpretive bias has been associated with depression and anxiety, primarily in cross-sectional and bias induction studies. The purpose of the current study was to examine the role of interpretive bias as a prospective risk factor and a mediator o...
Article
Investigating the neurobiology of language impairment and treatment in chronic stroke aphasia using fMRI requires an understanding of measurement variability within and between participants. In this multicenter study we evaluated the scan‐rescan reliability of an auditory and visual (written) story comprehension paradigm in stroke participants with...
Article
Full-text available
The current study examined a novel computerized cognitive reappraisal paradigm (REAP) for worry management in college-aged adults with a range of PSWQ scores (n = 98). Participants listed three current worries and were randomized to either REAP or a worry condition. For the REAP condition, participants selected positive reappraisal statements of th...
Article
Evaluation of facial and vocal emotional cues is vital in social interactions but can be highly influenced by characteristics of the observer, such as sex, age, and symptoms of affective disorders. Our evaluations of others' emotional expressions are likely to change as we get to know them and anticipate how they are likely to behave. However, the...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to examine the covarying relationship between commitment and sexual satisfaction in committed relationships throughout the course of couple therapy. A sample of 366 heterosexual couples completed questionnaires regarding sexual satisfaction and commitment at each of the first five sessions of couple therapy. Cross-lagg...
Article
Routine Outcome Monitoring (ROM) is recommended as a psychotherapy procedure to serve as clinical feedback in order to improve client treatment outcomes. ROM can work as a warning signal to the therapist if the client shows signs of no change or deterioration. This study has investigated whether any difference in outcome could be detected between t...
Article
The study of aggression in juvenile offenders, a high priority from clinical and public health standpoints, depends on properly measuring and modeling aggression. The Aggressive Behaviors scale from the Youth Self-Report (YSR–AB) has been widely used to measure youth aggression, often functioning as a stand-alone scale in analyses (of note, even wh...
Article
Full-text available
The Systemic Therapy Inventory of Change (STIC) is a multisystemic and multidimensional feedback system that provides therapists feedback about systemic domains of client change in individual, couple, and family therapy over time. The goal of the present study is to investigate the sensitivity to change of the scores of the STIC Initial Scales. In...
Article
Full-text available
Background The serotonin system and hypothalamic pituitary‐adrenal (HPA)‐axis are each implicated in the pathway to depression; human and animal research support these systems’ cross‐talk. Our work implicates a 5‐variant additive serotoninergic multilocus genetic profile score (MGPS) and separately the cortisol awakening response (CAR) in the prosp...
Article
Full-text available
Sharing specific autobiographical events is likely to influence the support people give us; a person who shares little detail of their lives may be unlikely to attract social support and this may in turn contribute towards anxious and depressive symptoms. Participants (N = 142) reported memories evoked by negative and positive cue words and these m...
Preprint
The wide array of symptoms of unipolar depressive and anxiety disorders has raised questions about the relationship between these disorders, and factor analysis provides one approach to examining these relationships. In this paper, we replicate the tri-level model of symptoms of anxiety and depression first proposed by Prenoveau et al. (2010) in a...
Article
Individual differences in one's propensity to engage the behavioral activation system (BAS) and behavioral inhibition system (BIS) have primarily been studied with Caver and White's (1994) BIS/BAS scale. Whereas, Carver and White identified the BIS as a unidimensional scale, they identified three separable BAS group factors - drive, fun seeking, an...
Article
Research has demonstrated that better value-based decision making (e.g., waiting or working for rewards) relates to greater executive function (EF) ability. However, EF is not a static ability, but is influenced by the emotional content of the task. As such, EF ability in emotional contexts may have unique associations with value-based decision mak...
Article
Though cognitive behavioral techniques are generally effective in the treatment of anxiety disorders, some people fail to benefit from exposure therapy or experience a return of fear after terminating exposure therapy. The burgeoning field of non-invasive brain stimulation provides a potential method of augmenting exposure therapy so that it is mor...
Article
Full-text available
Research has demonstrated that stressors play a critical role in the development of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social anxiety disorder (SAD), and major depressive disorder (MDD). Separately, deficits in positive affect (PA) have been identified in GAD, SAD, and MDD. Whereas previous research has linked the buffering effects of PA in chroni...
Article
With the urgent need to increase and improve mental health care of the growing population of older adults in the United States, clinical research is warranted to further the knowledge and improve the relevant training for mental health professionals working with older adults. This study drew from two diverse clinical samples of adults ages 18 years...
Article
Background Negative symptoms occur early in the clinical high risk (CHR) state and indicate increased risk of conversion to psychotic disorder and poor functional outcome. However, while the negative symptom domain has shown to be parsimoniously explained by a 2-factor construct in schizophrenia, there has yet to be an established factor structure...
Poster
Full-text available
Background: Anxiety and depression are highly comorbid possibly because they share a common core of general distress or negative affect. Consistent with this viewpoint, Prenoveau and colleagues (2010) identified a broad general factor common to both anxiety and depression (general distress), two factors of intermediate breadth (anhedonia and fears)...
Article
Though theoretical models propose that courage can be ‘activated,’ little experimental work exists to support this idea. The current study examines a writing intervention that asks individuals to reflect on experiences in which they faced their fears (thus demonstrating courage) to determine if such reflection would promote more approach-oriented c...
Poster
Full-text available
The present study examined the relation between early life adversity and working memory among young adults. We found that the number of overall major adversities significantly predicted impaired working memory for neutral stimuli, while the number of instances of abuse significantly predicted impaired working memory for negative stimuli.
Article
Theoretical models of depression posit that, under stress, elevated trait rumination predicts more pronounced or prolonged negative affective and neuroendocrine responses, and that trait rumination hampers removing irrelevant negative information from working memory. We examined several gaps regarding these models in the context of lab-induced stre...
Article
Full-text available
Open access download: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-018-1666-2 There is a lack of sensitivity to heterogeneity in therapists’ effectiveness (i.e. therapist effects) and a lack of systematized knowledge about how therapists implement their treatments within the over 25,000 hits in relevant data bases during the past 5 years referring to randomized...
Article
Objective There is a largely unmet need for evidence-based interventions that reduce future aggression and incarceration in clinically aggressive juvenile offenders serving probation. We addressed this gap using a group randomized controlled trial. Offenders both with and without clinical aggression were included, enabling comparison of interventio...
Article
Objective: The Systemic Therapy Inventory of Change (STIC(®)) is the first multi-systemic and multi-dimensional measurement and feedback system designed for assessment in family, couple, and individual functioning. Patients fill out the STIC Initial before the first session to identify treatment targets and provide starting values for subsequent a...
Article
Full-text available
Stroke-induced alterations in cerebral blood flow (perfusion) may contribute to functional language impairments and recovery in chronic aphasia. Using MRI, we examined perfusion in the right and left hemispheres of 35 aphasic and 16 healthy control participants. Across 76 regions (38 per hemisphere), no significant between-subjects differences were...