Richard Willy

Richard Willy
University of Montana | UMT · Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science

PhD, PT

About

78
Publications
51,371
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
1,941
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2013 - August 2017
East Carolina University
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
August 2011 - August 2013
Ohio University
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
June 2007 - August 2011
University of Delaware
Position
  • Research Assistant, Doctoral studies

Publications

Publications (78)
Article
Full-text available
Patellofemoral pain (PFP) has historically been a complex and enigmatic issue. Many of the factors thought to relate to PFP remain after patients' symptoms have resolved making their clinical importance difficult to determine. The tissue homeostasis model proposed by Dye in 2005 can assist with understanding and implementing biomechanical intervent...
Article
Full-text available
We sought to determine if an in-field gait retraining program can reduce excessive impact forces and peak hip adduction without adverse changes in knee joint work during running. Thirty healthy at-risk runners who exhibited high-impact forces were randomized to retraining [21.1 (±1.9) years, 22.1 (±10.8) km/week] or control groups [21.0 (±1.3) year...
Article
Study Design Level 4: Controlled laboratory study. Background Little is known regarding potential differences between treadmill and overground running in regards to patellofemoral joint and Achilles tendon loading characteristics. Objectives We sought to compare measures of loading to the patellofemoral joint and Achilles tendon across treadmill...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose While partial meniscectomy results in a compromised tibiofemoral joint, little is known regarding tibiofemoral joint loading during running in individuals who are post-partial meniscectomy. It was hypothesized that individuals post-partial meniscectomy would run with a greater hip support moment, yielding reduced peak knee extension moments...
Article
Full-text available
We aimed to 1) compare pain, tendon structure, lower limb function, and Achilles tendon loads while running between limbs in runners with Achilles tendinopathy, and 2) explore the relations of pain, tendon structure, and lower limb function to Achilles tendon loads while running. Twenty runners with Achilles tendinopathy participated in this pilot...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives To compare beliefs of physical therapists (PTs) who read the clinical practice guideline (CPG) for the management of individuals with patellofemoral pain (PFP) to those who have not read the CPG. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Online survey. Participants 494 currently licensed/registered PTs or physiotherapists. Main outcome m...
Article
Objectives To confirm what impairments are present in runners with Achilles tendinopathy (AT) and explore the variance of AT severity in an adequately powered study. Design Case-control study. Setting Two private physiotherapy clinics in Australia and Spain. Participants Forty-four recreational male runners with AT and 44 healthy controls matche...
Article
Full-text available
The development of a pronounced iliotibial band (ITB) is an anatomically distinct evolution of humans. The mechanical behaviour of this “new” structure is still poorly understood and hotly debated in current literature. Iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS) is one of the leading causes of lateral knee pain injuries in runners. We currently lack a compreh...
Article
Full-text available
Context: To determine (1) whether physical function and fear of movement are prospectively associated with the risk of females developing patellofemoral pain (PFP) and (2) whether they change following development of PFP. Design: Prospective observational study. Methods: A total of 114 asymptomatic females (18-22 y old) completed assessment of...
Article
Background: Athletes, especially female athletes, experience high rates of tibial bone stress injuries (BSIs). Knowledge of tibial loads during walking and running is needed to understand injury mechanisms and design safe running progression programs. Purpose: To examine tibial loads as a function of gait speed in male and female runners. Study...
Article
Full-text available
Bone stress injuries (BSIs) occur at inopportune times to invariably interrupt training. All BSIs in runners occur due to an “error” in workload wherein the interaction between the number and magnitude of bone tissue loading cycles exceeds the ability of the tissue to resist the repetitive loads. There is not a single optimal bone workload, rather...
Article
Background: Low-risk bone stress injuries (BSIs) of the tibia and metatarsal diaphysis account for >50% of BSIs in runners. They interrupt training and are managed using non-invasive approaches. The desire by all involved is for a speedy, but safe return to running. Clinical question: What is the optimal load to manage low-risk tibial and metata...
Article
Full-text available
INTRODUCTION: Most running-related injuries are believed to be caused by abrupt changes in training load, compounded by biomechanical movement patterns. Wearable technology has made it possible for runners to quantify biomechanical loads (e.g. peak positive acceleration; PPA) using commercially available inertial measurement units (IMUs). However,...
Article
Full-text available
Background Altered patellofemoral joint (PFJ) loading and elevated kinesiophobia are commonly reported in people with patellofemoral pain (PFP). However, the relative relationship of these physical‐psychological variables with pain and disability in people with PFP is unknown. Aim To explore the relationship of PFJ loading during stair ascent and...
Article
Objectives: Investigate the association of fear of movement and (re)injury with clinical outcomes in women with patellofemoral pain (PFP). Methods: This cross-sectional study included 92 women with PFP who completed the TAMPA scale for kinesiophobia. The TAMPA score and its two subscales - activity avoidance and somatic focus were correlated wit...
Article
Background: Quantifying total running distance is valuable, as it comprises some aspects of the mechanical/neuromuscular, cardiovascular, and perceptual/psychological loads that contribute to training stress and is partially predictive of distance running success. However, running distance is only one aspect contributing to training stress. Clini...
Article
Full-text available
Background Treadmills are often used in research, clinical practice, and training. Biomechanical investigations comparing treadmill and overground running report inconsistent findings. Objective This study aimed at comparing biomechanical outcomes between motorized treadmill and overground running. Methods Four databases were searched until June...
Article
Full-text available
Current frameworks on running-related injury (RRI) aetiology emphasise the relation between exposure to training load, internal tissue loads, and tissue capacity; with tissue load exceeding its capacity being the key biological mechanism in the development of RRI. Despite this, runners and clinicians commonly attribute improper prescription of runn...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose of review: Movement retraining in rehabilitation is the process by which a motor program is changed with the overall goal of reducing pain or injury risk. Movement retraining is an important component of interventions to address patellofemoral pain. The purpose of this paper is to review the methods and results of current retraining studie...
Article
Full-text available
Wearable devices are ubiquitous among runners, coaches, and clinicians with an ever-increasing number of devices coming on the market. In place of gold standard measures in the laboratory, these devices attempt to provide a surrogate means to track running biomechanics outdoors. This review provides an update on recent literature in the field of we...
Article
Full-text available
Background A return to running after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL-R) is critical to the clinical success of any cutting and pivoting athlete who wishes to return to sport. Knowledge of specific alterations during running after ACL-R is required to optimise rehabilitation for improving outcomes and long-term disability. Objective...
Article
Full-text available
Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is a common musculoskeletal-related condition that is characterized by insidious onset of poorly defined pain, localized to the anterior retropatellar and/or peripatellar region of the knee. The onset of symptoms can be slow or acutely develop with a worsening of pain accompanying lower-limb loading activities (eg, squatti...
Article
Objectives: To examine the feasibility of recommended education and exercise supplemented by a hopping intervention implemented based on self-reported pain over 12 weeks for recreational runners with Achilles tendinopathy. Design: Single cohort feasibility study. Setting: One private physiotherapy clinic in Melbourne, Australia. Participants:...
Article
Full-text available
High impact forces during running have been associated with tibial stress injuries. Previous research has demonstrated increasing step rate will decrease impact forces during running. However, no research has determined the cognitive demand of gait retraining. The primary purpose was to determine the cognitive demand and effectiveness of field-base...
Article
Full-text available
Background Treadmills are routinely used to assess running performance and training parameters related to physiological or perceived effort. These measurements are presumed to replicate overground running but there has been no systematic review comparing performance, physiology and perceived effort between treadmill and overground running. Objecti...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Longer steps with load carriage is common in shorter Soldiers when matching pace with taller Soldiers whereas shorter steps are hypothesized to reduce risk of injury with load carriage. The effects of load carriage with and without step length manipulation on loading patterns of three commonly injured structures were determined: Achill...
Article
Full-text available
The Master runner (age 35 y and above) represents a unique athletic patient. Lifelong participation in endurance running slows the inevitable age-related decline in aerobic function and muscular strength. Still, the Master runner does not escape the inevitable effects of aging. Master runners experience a steady decline in running performance, that...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Needling has been shown to decrease pain in the short term; however, its effects on muscle force production are unclear. Objective: To evaluate the evidence regarding the comparative effects of needling on muscle force production. Methods: In this systematic review, an electronic search was performed using key words related to need...
Article
Background: Wearable devices validly assess spatiotemporal running parameters (cadence, vertical oscillation and ground contact time), but the relationship between these parameters and lower limb loading parameters (loading rate, peak vertical ground reaction force [vGRF] and braking impulse) is unknown. Purpose: To characterize changes in lower...
Article
Study Design Cross sectional, laboratory study. Background Asymmetrical knee loading has been reported in individuals post-Achilles tendon rupture during jogging and hopping. Yet, no studies have examined knee loads in individuals post-Achilles tendon rupture during high demand tasks, such as single limb landings. Objectives We sought to determine...
Conference Paper
Background & Purpose: Dry needling (DN) involves the insertion of a monofilament needle into various soft tissue structures in the body with the goal of decreasing neuromusculoskeletal pain and improving function. DN has been shown to decrease pain in the short-term; however, its effects on muscle function are unclear. The purpose of this systemati...
Article
Background: Our aims were to (1) Evaluate sex-specific contributions of peak knee flexion moment (pKFM) and peak knee adduction moment (pKAM) in medial tibiofemoral joint (TFJ) force during walking and running; (2) identify kinematic variables to estimate peak medial TFJ force. Methods: Eighty-seven runners participated (36 females, 51 males; ag...
Article
Full-text available
Running-related injuries are common and are associated with a high rate of reoccurrence. Errors in applied training loads are often cited as a primary cause of running-related injuries. Clinicians and runners are beginning to utilize wearable technologies to quantify training loads with the hope of reducing the incidence of running-related injuries...
Article
Background: It is unknown whether the height of a heel-rise performed in the single-leg standing heel-rise test 1 year after an Achilles tendon rupture (ATR) correlates with ankle biomechanics during walking, jogging, and jumping in the long-term. Purpose: To explore the differences in ankle biomechanics, tendon length, calf muscle recovery, and...
Article
Background: Deficits in plantarflexor function are common after an Achilles tendon rupture. These deficits may result in an altered distribution of joint loads during lower extremity tasks. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that, regardless of treatment, the Achilles tendon-ruptured limb would exhibit deficits in ankle kinematics and joint power while...
Article
Background: Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is associated with early onset knee osteoarthritis. Running is a typical activity following this surgery, but elevated knee joint contact forces are thought to contribute to osteoarthritis degenerative processes. It is therefore clinically relevant to identify interventions to reduce contact fo...
Article
Full-text available
Frontal plane knee alignment can influence the development and management of various knee pathologies. Valid and reliable clinical methods for assessment are needed. The primary purposes of this study were to assess the validity and reliability of inclinometer-based frontal plane tibial orientation as a limb alignment measure, and secondarily to es...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of step length and foot strike pattern along with their interaction on tibiofemoral joint (TFJ) and medial compartment TFJ kinetics during running. Nineteen participants ran with a rear foot strike pattern at their preferred speed using a short (-10%), preferred, and long (+10%) step length. Thes...
Poster
Full-text available
Objectives It is still unknown how heel-rise height during the single leg heel-rise height one year after an Achilles tendon rupture (ATR) affects ankle biomechanics during jumping in the long-term. The aim of this study was to compare ankle biomechanics five years after an ATR injury in patients with > 30 % side differences (>30-group) in heel-ris...
Article
Gait modifications are often proposed to reduce average loading rate (AVLR) during running. While many modifications may reduce AVLR, little work has investigated secondary gait changes. Thirty-two rearfoot runners [16M, 16F, 24.7 (3.3) years, 22.72 (3.01) kg/m(2) , >16 km/week] ran at a self-selected speed (2.9 ± 0.3 m/s) on an instrumented treadm...
Conference Paper
Abstract ABSTRACT BODY: Purpose/Hypothesis : It is still unknown how the heel-rise height performed in the standing single leg heel- rise test 1- year after an Achilles tendon rupture (ATR) affects ankle biomechanics during jumping in the long- term. The aim of this study was to compare the ankle biomechanics 5 years after an ATR injury in patients...
Conference Paper
Abstract ABSTRACT BODY: Purpose/Hypothesis : It is still unknown how the heel-rise height performed in the standing single leg heel- rise test 1- year after an Achilles tendon rupture (ATR) affects ankle biomechanics during jumping in the long- term. The aim of this study was to compare the ankle biomechanics 5 years after an ATR injury in patients...
Article
Full-text available
Identification of the impact peak (IP) from the vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) is required to calculate indices of impact loading during running. The IP, however, is not always clearly discernible. Previous researchers have estimated the timing of the IP using surrogate methods, the most common of which is a set time point of 13% stance (TPS...
Article
Full-text available
We evaluated the efficacy of an in-field gait retraining programme using mobile biofeedback to reduce cumulative and peak tibiofemoral loads during running. Thirty runners were randomised to either a retraining group or control group. Retrainers were asked to increase their step rate by 7.5% over preferred in response to real-time feedback provided...
Article
Full-text available
Patellofemoral joint pain (PFP) is a common running-related injury that is more prevalent in females and thought to be associated with altered running mechanics. Changes in running mechanics have been observed following an exhaustive run but have not been analyzed relative to the sex bias for PFP. The purpose of this study was to test if females de...
Conference Paper
PURPOSE/HYPOTHESIS: Individuals who are post–partial meniscectomy (IPM) for a traumatic meniscal tear are at high risk for knee osteoarthritis. Post procedure, IPM demonstrate quadriceps strength deficits and walk with high peak knee external adduction moments (KEAM), likely resulting in greater contact forces in the medial tibiofemoral compartment...
Article
Full-text available
Elevated patellofemoral joint kinetics during running may contribute to patellofemoral joint symptoms. The purpose of this study was to test for independent effects of foot strike pattern and step length on patellofemoral joint kinetics while running. Effects were tested relative to individual steps and also taking into account the number of steps...
Article
Full-text available
Study design: Case report. Background: The underlying mechanism of the changes in running mechanics after gait retraining is presently unknown. This case report assesses changes in muscle coordination and kinematics during treadmill running and step ascent in 2 female runners with patellofemoral pain after mirror gait retraining. Case descripti...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to determine if running in a minimalist shoe results in a reduction in ground reaction forces and alters kinematics over standard shoe running. The secondary purpose of this study was to determine if within-session accommodation to a novel minimalist shoe occurs. Subjects were 14 male, rearfoot striking runners who had...
Article
Full-text available
Pathological mechanics are thought to play a role in many common running injuries. A review of the biomechanical literature reveals that a given running injury may be associated with multiple faulty running mechanics. Traditional rehabilitation programs have focused their efforts on addressing the injured anatomical structure. By focusing rehabilit...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Abnormal hip mechanics are often implicated in female runners with patellofemoral pain. We sought to evaluate a simple gait retraining technique, using a full-length mirror, in female runners with patellofemoral pain and abnormal hip mechanics. Transfer of the new motor skill to the untrained tasks of single leg squat and step descent...
Article
Patellofemoral pain (PFP) has often been attributed to abnormal hip and knee mechanics in females. To date, there have been few investigations of the hip and knee mechanics of males with PFP. The purpose of this study was to compare the lower extremity mechanics and alignment of male runners with PFP with healthy male runners and female runners wit...