Richard E. Watts

Richard E. Watts
Sam Houston State University | SHSU · Department of Counselor Education

PhD
SHSU Distinguished Professor (Emeritus) and TSUS Regents’ Professor (Emeritus)

About

169
Publications
445,559
Reads
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1,758
Citations
Introduction
Distinguished Professor (Emeritus) at Sam Houston State University and Texas State University System Regents' Professor (Emeritus). My interests include the integration of Adlerian, cognitive, constructivist, humanistic-existential, and psychodynamic theories and applications to counseling. I am also interested in ethical, religious & spiritual issues related to various aspects of counseling. Most importantly, I am a follower of Jesus.
Additional affiliations
August 2016 - present
Sam Houston State University
Position
  • Texas State University System Regents' Professor and SHSU Distinguished Professor of Counseling
June 2005 - August 2016
Sam Houston State University
Position
  • Managing Director
August 2000 - May 2005
Baylor University
Position
  • Professor and Director of Counseling Program
Education
August 1989 - May 1994
University of North Texas
Field of study
  • Counseling (minor in Psychology)
September 1984 - May 1987
Southwestern Seminary
Field of study
  • Religious Education/Theology
August 1976 - December 1980
Sam Houston State University
Field of study
  • Choral Music

Publications

Publications (169)
Article
Full-text available
The authors discuss the overlooked similarities between the therapeutic process of solution-focused brief therapy (SFBT) and the Adlerian process of therapeutic encouragement SFBT and Adlerian therapy share common perspectives, albeit using different nomenclature, on maladjustment, the client–counselor relationship, and methods of facilitating chan...
Article
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This article demonstrates the remarkable similarity between Adler's social interest and Rogers' therapist-offered core conditions.
Article
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This brief, encouragement-focused counseling process integrates Adlerian and constructive theory and practice perspectives and can be useful for work with diverse populations in a variety of settings. An integration of cognitive, existential-humanistic, psychodynamic , and systemic perspectives, Adierian counseling theory is a holistic, phenomenolo...
Article
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The contemporary relevance of Adler’s thinking is evident in many streams of contemporary psychological thinking, including positive psychology. This article demonstrates the enormous common ground between Adler’s mature theoretical ideas and the positive psychology movement and argues for Adler’s acknowledgment as the original positive psychology....
Article
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It is suggested in this article that perhaps during those occasions in which some distance exists between ourselves and our problems in life, we might experience an opportunity for reflective thinking. It is also suggested that opportunities for reflective thinking might be of benefit to clients in counseling. This article reviews selected literatu...
Article
Full-text available
Richard E. Watts is an expert in the integration of Adlerian, cognitive-behavioral, constructivist, existential-humanistic, and systemic-ecological perspectives. This interview with him is focused on Adler's revolutionary approach to psychotherapy, the role it played in the development of effective therapeutic approaches in the 20th century, and th...
Article
The purpose of this study was to measure how body shame, sexual satisfaction, and relationship satisfaction predicted life satisfaction for female participants who have been in committed relationships for at least a year and who have engaged in sexual activity with their partners (N = 138). Researchers examined data to determine how body shame may...
Article
Counselor licensure portability models have focused primarily on academic training with only little discussion concerning postgraduate supervision. Using a qualitative content analysis, the authors analyzed the supervision rules and laws in all 53 licensing jurisdictions. The results of this study reflect the lack of a consistent set of supervision...
Chapter
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This chapter overviews Adlerian therapy and discusses how it is the original positive psychology and positive approach to counseling and psychotherapy.
Conference Paper
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This flyer lists all the workshops and education sessions for the 2018 North American Society for Adlerian Psychology Conference in Toronto, ON. Monica McGoldrick will be the opening keynote speaker. I am doing a preconference workshop on Integrative Adlerian Therapy and an education session on the counseling process I developed called Reflecting A...
Conference Paper
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This is the Booklet for the 51st Annual Rudolf Dreikurs Summer Institute this Summer (2018). I will be doing two classes during the first week of the Institute: (1) Tailoring Treatment to Clients' Needs and (2) Using Music in Therapy
Article
Although research on Adlerian theoretical constructs has grown exponentially in recent years, the same cannot be said for Adlerian counseling and therapy outcome efficacy research. This brief response article addresses this concern in the context of Sperry’s proposed outcome efficacy protocol. Keywords: Adlerian counseling, Adlerian therapy, outcom...
Presentation
Full-text available
This presentation briefly addresses (a) key tenets of Adler’s mature theory, including the enormous--but often overlooked-- influence of Adler of contemporary counseling theory and practice, (b) how Adler theory is a pioneering humanistic and positive psychology approach to counseling, and (c) the implications of Adler’s mature theory for contempor...
Article
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Article discusses the use of Imaginary Reflecting Team members in the Adlerian-based counseling process known as Reflecting As If.
Chapter
Encouragement is one of the key concepts of Adlerian theory. It emphasizes the worth and dignity of every human being and has an optimistic outlook affirming that individuals are able to create, decide, and take action for change. Encouragement is often misunderstood as an Adlerian therapy technique or intervention. Encouragement is not a technique...
Article
The 2014 ACA Code of Ethics clearly states that a counselor cannot refer a client simply because he or she does not agree with the client's values. The context of the discussions regarding A.11.b of the code is typically couched in terms of values conflict between conservative religious counselors and GLBT clients. There are, however, other context...
Article
Objectification and sexualization of women starts at a young age and carries with it negative consequences for a woman’s self-worth. A person’s self-worth is one component on the Wheel of Wellness, but it can affect many other aspects of an individual. The lack of self-worth that a woman may experience can affect her ability to enjoy her sexual exp...
Article
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Interview article for Counseling Today Online, the professional online magazine of the American Counseling Association
Research
Full-text available
Link to my American Counseling Association Podcast on "Reflecting As If" (RAI). RAI is a brief, encouragement-focused counseling process I developed. This Podcast addresses the process and application of using RAI.
Article
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We see relational constructivism as a dialogic bridge between cognitive constructivist and social constructionist perspectives. Adlerian psychology and psychotherapy situates within this dialogic space in a flexible, integrative manner. Thus, Adlerian theory and therapy--explicitly and implicitly--share these assumptions of relational constructioni...
Article
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In addressing foundational perspectives, proponents of the current positive psychology movement typically identify Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, and Gordon Allport as precursors and ancestors. This article demonstrates that the Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler preceded the aforementioned ancestors of positive psychology and could be viewed as t...
Article
Los defensores de la Psicología Positiva, cuando abordan las perspectivas fundacionales, suelen identificar a Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers y Gordon Allport como precursores y predecesores. Este artículo demuestra que la Psicología Individual de Alfred Adler precedió a estos precursores de la Psicología Positiva y se podría considerar como la Psicolo...
Article
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This qualitative study explored the recovery experience of six women who have survived intimate partner violence. Interviews were used as an instrument to elicit the individual stories of each of these women. Qualitative analysis revealed two types of themes: process and supports. The process themes include (a) spirituality, (b) facing death, (c) f...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
(Revised 6-29-15) - Many counselors and counselor educators may not be aware of the evolution of Alfred Adler’s theory development: from his early psychoanalytic (1902-1911) and post-psychoanalytic (1911-WWI) phases, to his humanistic and constructivist post-WWI developments (ca. 1920-1937). This presentation (a) delineates key tenets of Adler’s ma...
Article
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This study examined the phenomenology of African American school counselors in predominantly White-culture school districts from a humanistic perspective. Interview data were collected and analyzed using Giorgi’s (1997) 4-step process. Six essential essence statements emerged, including recommendations for school counselors and implications for hum...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Based on their understanding of Encouragement, Adlerian therapists and supervisors have practiced strength-based counseling and supervision long before "strength-based" practice became fashionable. This presentation discussed the Adlerian understanding of Encouragement and how it is provides a strength-based environment for supervisee growth and de...
Article
Students' perceptions of their training to incorporate religious and spiritual issues into counseling sessions have received little attention in the counselor education literature. This descriptive phenomenological qualitative study provided counseling students with the opportunity to share their perceptions of their preparation to incorporate reli...
Chapter
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Introduction to Alfred Adler
Chapter
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Introduction to Adlerian Therapy
Conference Paper
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Reflecting As If (RAI) is an integration of Adlerian and constructivist (e.g., solution-focused, narrative) therapy ideas. It is a perceptual and procedural expansion of Adler’s “Acting As If” technique that employs several evidenced-based procedures. Participants will learn the theory and practice of RAI, see the process demonstrated, and discuss...
Conference Paper
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Being a therapeutic chameleon means that the counselor does what the client needs; not what the counselor prefers. After a brief discussion of Dr. Watts’ understanding of Adlerian encouragement, he addressed how encouragement can serve as a solid foundation for integrative Adlerian therapy. He also addressed how various techniques from both Adleria...
Conference Paper
The link in the title takes you to the video of my workshop on Reflecting As If presented at the Adler Graduate School on November 22, 2014. You may need to copy and paste the link into your browser.
Conference Paper
The link in the title takes you the video of my morning workshop at the Adler Graduate School on November 22, 2014. You may need to copy and paste the link into your browser.
Article
Recent challenges to counselor education and the ACA Code of Ethics (American Counseling Association, 2005) provided impetus for this article, which is focused on how 3 major Western religions address counseling and counselor training with diverse clients. Jewish, Christian, and Muslim perspectives are highlighted as related to counseling and train...
Article
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Bullying behaviors among youth in the United States are epidemic. Professional counselors need effective interventions founded upon evidence-based practices to help truncate perpetrator bullying behaviors. The “Reflecting As If” (RAI) intervention provides a relatively simple to implement, evidence-based intervention that holds significant clinical...
Presentation
Full-text available
Cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) approaches have their roots in the theory and practice of Adlerian therapy (AT). This presentation addresses (a) the common ground between AT and CBT and (b) various ideas and interventions from CBT that usefully integrate into Adlerian therapy.
Article
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The purpose of our study was to understand, document, and report conservative Christian parents’ perceptions of the effectiveness of an intensive 5-week filial therapy program, Child−Parent Relationship Therapy (CPRT). A transcendental phenomenological approach (C. Moustakas, 1994, Phenomenological Research Methods, Thousand Oaks, CA. Sage) was use...
Article
The purpose of our study was to explore the alignment of the Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs School Counseling Diversity Standards with items on the School-Wide Cultural Competence Observation Checklist (SCCOC). A modified Delphi study methodology was chosen which resulted in one or more of the CACREP Sc...
Article
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The demographics and perceptions of supervision fees of Licensed Professional Counselor (LPC) Interns in Texas were explored using a mixed-method online survey. Internships for LPC Interns were most commonly undertaken in agency settings, whereas the most common setting for LPC supervision was the LPC Supervisor's private practice. Over half of the...
Chapter
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Chapter addressing the theory and practice of Adlerian counseling and psychotherapy.
Article
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A lo largo de la historia, los niños de todas las épocas han utilizado el juego como forma de enfrentarse a dificultades y situaciones carentes de significado en su vida. Como los niños pequeños no tienen suficiente desarrollo cognitivo o habilidades expresivas para poder expresarse verbalmente sobre sus emociones, pensamientos y reacciones, normal...
Article
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Following an appropriate personal and professional model of supervision is an integral part of conducting ethical and effective supervision. A model of supervision helps guide a supervisor in facilitating growth of the counseling trainee, teaching counseling skills, and evaluating the trainee's growth professionally. The authors describe an integra...
Article
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http://www.counseling.org/Resources/Library/VISTAS/vistas12/Article_8.pdf
Article
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The authors discuss the Israeli Adler Institute. The Institute was established by Rudolph Dreikurs almost 50 years ago, and it is well integrated in Israeli society today. Its services encompass parent education, including parent training in prisons; training of parent education leaders; training of coaches; psychotherapy for individuals, couples,...
Article
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Given that constructivist approaches to counseling and religious faith traditions have divergent views regarding the understanding and perception of reality, the question arises, “Can a counselor embrace both a constructivist counseling approach and a particular religious tradition?” Using a diversity within unity perspective, the author argues tha...
Article
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This article seeks to help authors better understand the purpose, process, and procedures for developing a conceptual manuscript for publication in counseling journals. The author explains the basis of a conceptual article, discusses how authors may generate ideas for writing such articles, and describes a process for developing a conceptual articl...
Article
The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand the perceptions of adult male substance offenders who experienced sand tray therapy as an adjunct to their cognitive behavioral rehabilitative treatment. Results indicate a positive experience for participants. Implications for counselors are discussed.
Article
Hispanics are the largest and fastest growing minority group in the United States, and numerous and varied interested constituencies stress that preventive intervention with Hispanic families is imperative. Filial therapy as an intervention and prevention counseling approach shows promise as an effective way to help these families. This article exp...
Article
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In 2009, leaders in the Association for Spiritual, Ethical and Religious Values in Counseling (ASERVIC) developed new competencies for addressing spiritual and religious issues in counseling. This article briefly addresses the need for new ASERVIC competencies, provides an overview of the process whereby the new competencies emerged, and concludes...
Article
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We investigated the training of licensed professional counselors in Texas by focusing on how students receive expertise in specialty areas such as substance abuse, sexual concerns, domestic violence, play therapy, family therapy, and art and music therapy. A mail survey elicited responses from department chairs or program directors of community cou...
Article
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While open-forum family counseling has been a part of Adlerian practice and training for many years, ethical issues related to open forums have not been published. The authors describe the right to privacy as a central ethical concern with open-forum family counseling and address issues related to family preparation, audience preparation, and posts...
Article
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Today, the decision to prepare clinical case material for publication is one that cannot be taken lightly. The decision involves reviewing ethical considerations and choosing an appropriate option to safeguard client privacy. These options include seeking the client's permission, disguising case material, and developing composite case material. We...
Article
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Alfred Adler was one of the first theorists to use birth-order position in his conceptualization of clients. Birth order continues to inform professionals practicing from an Individual Psychology framework; however, the wealth of research on the topic can seem overwhelming. Using a modified version of Light and Smith's (1971) vote-counting methodol...
Article
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In this phenomenological study the authors examined perceptions of Hispanic parents who received child–parent relationship training (CPRT). Results present the essence of the participants’ largely affirmative experience of CPRT in regard to structure of the sessions, general applicability and helpfulness, and interrelatedness between the child–pare...
Article
This article describes how the authors use prayer with clients who self-identify their personal faith in God and who have used prayer as a helpful recovery agent or who believe prayer would be helpful to their personal recovery.
Article
Chronic pain is an exponentially increasing issue for aging adults in the United States and has stretched the limits of technology and the ability of health care professionals to provide adequate care. Chronic pain deprives individuals of their independence, confidence, quality of life, and often their primary support groups while leaving them with...
Article
Although 95% of married couples identify with a particular religion, there is great variation in how couples rely on their religion to define or structure their relationship. Various denominations will imply particular "rules" or will shape how the couple deals with interpersonal and family challenges, such as sexuality, parenting, and power. In th...
Chapter
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Brief introduction to Adlerian counseling theory.
Article
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The Multiple Heritage Couple Questionnaire (MHCQ) is a revision and extension of the Interracial Couple Questionnaire (ICQ). It is designed to help counseling professionals attend to crucial information that is often overlooked when working with multiple-heritage couples.
Article
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The authors present an introduction to the Best Practices section in the Journal of Counseling & Development. The section, announced in the fall of 2003, updates counselors on the latest research evidence to support their counseling practices. Four invited experts in the counseling profession (D. Bubenzer, J. G. Garci, T. Sexton, & J. West) discuss...
Article
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According to the most recent U.S. Surgeon General's report on mental health, it is crucial for family counselors to use parents and families as partners in delivery of mental health services for children. Filial therapy, a unique, evidenced-based approach, may be useful for fulfilling the aforementioned mandate because filial therapy teaches parent...
Book
Adlerian Therapy: Theory and Practice introduces the reader to Alfred Adler's seminal approach to psychotherapy. Starting from the principle that human behavior is goal oriented and socially embedded, Adlerian therapy is a brief psychoeducational approach that emphasizes understanding individuals' characteristic ways of moving through life--the lif...
Chapter
Full-text available
Excerpt from Adlerian Therapy: Theory and Practice addressing the common ground between Adlerian therapy and the transtheoretical (common) factors.
Article
The effects of adult attachment on emotional empathy were investigated using a sample of master's‐degree level counseling students. Through structural equation modeling, the authors found that the latent attachment dimensions of avoidance and anxiety work in tandem in their effects on empathy. Lower avoidance and higher anxiety were associated with...
Article
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The postmodern counseling literature contains numerous interventions that may help to create a neutral place for client reflection. Andersen suggested the use of “reflecting teams” for helping clients become more reflective in their thinking. A reflecting team is made up of individuals (usually other counselors) who observe and reflect on the thera...

Questions

Questions (3)
Question
The 2014 ACA Code of Ethics states that it is unethical and discriminatory for a professional to refer a client because the professional disagrees with the client's values.
The 2014 ACA Code of Ethics and Ethics Information:

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Projects

Projects (3)
Project
The purpose of this chapter is to introduce mental health professionals to various ways they can use the sacred text(s) from a client’s spiritual tradition in the process of spiritually sensitive counseling. The examples and case studies will not only be from the Christian tradition, but also Jewish, Islamic, Hindu, and Buddhist traditions. After a brief overview of the sacred texts from these five traditions, I will discuss (a) setting the stage for using sacred texts, (b) assessment and sacred texts, and (c) various uses of sacred texts with clients.
Archived project
Book chapter for "Positive Counseling" (Garrett McAuliffe, Editor). The chapter overviews Adlerian therapy and discussing how it is a positive psychology and positive approach to counseling and psychotherapy; arguably, the first positive psychology and counseling approach.
Archived project
An article for a forthcoming special issue of the JOURNAL OF INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGY addressing the common ground between Adlerian and constructivist therapies and Adler's pioneering and precursory constructivist ideas.