Richard T. Watson

Richard T. Watson
University of Georgia | UGA · Department of Management Information Systems

PhD in MIS

About

381
Publications
282,425
Reads
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22,907
Citations
Education
August 1984 - May 1987
University of Minnesota Twin Cities
Field of study
  • Management Information Systems

Publications

Publications (381)
Article
The impact of climate change on cities poses a growing global threat, which is exacerbated by the urban heat island (UHI) effect. The optimal distribution of vegetation and buildings in urban areas is critical to control the UHI effect and stabilize long-term temperature changes. In this article, we develop an optimization model to maximize revenue...
Article
Full-text available
The transition to renewable energy requires organizations and governments to formulate and enact new energy policies. This emerging energy era is characterized by higher levels of supply and demand intermittency, which requires information systems to manage the electricity grid. We propose key policy elements for managing intermittency based on inf...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Scientific advancements in all fields, including IS, are built on previous accomplishment. Identifying similar causal models is critical for synthesizing research. However, the growing knowledge repository and inconsistencies in existing literature (i.e., jingle and jangle fallacies) challenge humans' bounded rationality. Humans need supporting inf...
Article
This study explores mechanisms of frugal knowledge sharing for frugal innovation diffusion drawing upon concepts from social capital and diffusion of innovation theories. Three frugal innovations projects from Uganda, Malawi, and Ethiopia are used to undertake a preliminary appraisal of a proposed theoretical model. The study identifies a frugal kn...
Article
Purpose This vision article alerts service managers to the potential of cognitive computing to reframe their value propositions. Humans are bounded in three ways: perception, rationality and physicality. Cognitive computing, hardware or software that transcends these three limits, offers many opportunities to improve the performance of service syst...
Article
Full-text available
Seller Labs was founded to improve the competitiveness of Amazon’s third-party sellers. The company’s core offerings had evolved from a messaging service facilitating communication between customers and sellers to an advanced suite of marketing, advertisement, and financial software tools. Since its inception, Seller Labs continually increased its...
Chapter
Forecasts of the future are often wildly wrong, so this chapter is short to avoid making too many errors.
Chapter
To a computer scientist, an object is something that can send and receive a set of standardized digital messages. Your maps app is an object
Chapter
Capital creation is dependent on energy.
Chapter
The measurement of performance is an essential feature of capital creation because management of a capital creation process requires knowing what was produced, the quality and value of the product, and what resources were consumed in the process.
Chapter
Systems are the engines of capital creation, and every organization should be very aware of the state of its critical systems. The emphasis in the prior chapter was on measuring outcomes, the capital created, and in this chapter attention is paid to assessing the processes that generate capital.
Chapter
Human capital is the general health, skills, knowledge, and abilities of the population, a workforce, or an individual. “A country’s ability to improve its standard of living over time depends almost entirely on its ability to raise output per worker,” according to Nobel Prize–winning economist Paul Krugman. The characteristics of a nation’s organi...
Chapter
Since life emerged, the earth has become a capital creation system. Capital creation has changed the face of the globe from a collection of rocks, gases, and water to an ensemble of forests, plains, cities, and other forms of capital
Chapter
When most people hear the word capital they usually think of economic capital and, in particular, its financial forms such as of cash, equities, and bonds.
Chapter
Social capital is the set of relationships, shared values, culture, and context that support group cohesion, trust, and teamwork in a society or organization.
Chapter
Symbolic capital consists of elements, such as brands, prestige, status, and reputation, that distinguish a person, organization, city, region, or country. Generally, entities aspire to have a positive image and a high level of symbolic capital in their peer group.
Chapter
Humans are a biologically evolved social species with advanced cognitive skills. While there are a number of social species, such as ants, humans are the most sophisticated in terms of creating societies. All species have some cognitive skills (e.g., a plant senses sunlight and orientates toward it), and some have very specialized skills (e.g., ech...
Chapter
Natural capital is the earth’s endowment. Some of this bounty is finite, such as the different types of minerals, and some renewable, such as forests. Renewable resources are all powered directly or indirectly by solar energy, and they are a valuable annuity for all life on earth.
Chapter
Human ingenuity over the millennia, and particularly in recent centuries, has developed methods for raising Cʹ that have transformed the quality of human life by creating a highly effective and efficient capital creation system.
Chapter
Agriculture society was a catalyst for capital creation. Society became more structured because a degree of continuing leadership and organization is required for farming. Farmers were entrepreneurs. They needed to plan, acquire resources, and develop procedures for seeding, harvesting, and threshing grains. In other words, they had to create organ...
Chapter
Organizational capital refers to the wide collection of resources that some label as intellectual capital. It is the knowledge, software, and methods that a firm can deploy to convert capital. It can be organized into databases, applications, procedures, and patents. It is also closely associated with human capital expertise and experience, and it...
Article
In June, 2019, the Association for Information Systems (AIS) adopted a new approach to addressing global sustainability issues by establishing the AIS Sustainability Task Force (AIS STF). This initiative focuses on building on the outcomes from the United Nations (UN) Millennium Development Goals (MDG, 2000-2015) and applying them to address the ch...
Article
Compared to Covid-19, the climate and environmental crises are vastly different—as is the needed response. The impact of climate change and environmental degradation appears slowly and affects a public good, the environment. The cause-and-effect relationships related to climate change are complex and nonlinear. The effectiveness of interventions in...
Article
Full-text available
Algorithms have begun to encroach on tasks traditionally reserved for human judgment and are increasingly capable of performing well in novel, difficult tasks. At the same time, social influence, through social media, online reviews, or personal networks, is one of the most potent forces affecting individual decision-making. In three preregistered...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Achievement of an efficient, resilient, safe, and sustainable maritime ecosystem is a multi-year, multi-stage project that requires a sequence of interlocking actions. Attainment of the ultimate goals of any major project requires a series of intermediate steps where accomplishment of one step establishes the foundations for the achievement of subs...
Article
Policy and technology responses to increased temperatures in urban heat islands (UHIs) are discussed in a variety of research; however, their interaction is overlooked and understudied. This is an important oversight because policy and technology are often developed in isolation of each other and not in conjunction. Therefore, they have limited syn...
Conference Paper
For centuries, the maritime industry has continually upgraded its information sources and processing capabilities to improve safety, efficiency, and reliability. The global positioning system and satellite communication have become essential information sources for modern navigation in the digital era. Today, shipping is a capital, energy, and info...
Chapter
Ports have an important role for global trade. They serve as locations for transhipments to be made and as intermodal connection points between sea-based and land-based transportation. Some ports also offer additional services of refinement of goods that pass through them. For the port, there exist great challenges to balance between a large degree...
Chapter
Shipping, perhaps the original sharing economy, is a self-organising ecosystem (SOE). The maritime ecosystem is a capital creation process. It creates capital by moving products from the producer to consumer through a series of episodic tight couplings, such as a ship with a berth. Such coupling requires sharing data about the time, location, and i...
Chapter
Organizational capital refers to the wide collection of resources that some label as intellectual capital. It is the knowledge, software, and methods that a firm can deploy to convert capital. It can be organized into databases, applications, procedures, and patents.
Chapter
Natural capital is the earth’s endowment. Some of this bounty is finite, such as the different types of minerals, and some renewable, such as forests. Renewable resources are all powered directly or indirectly by solar energy, and they are a valuable annuity for all life on earth.
Chapter
Capital creation is dependent on energy. Thus, civilization has long sought to find ways of increasing energy efficiency in order to raise capital productivity. Eʹ is a critical input to the quality of human life.
Chapter
The measurement of performance is an essential feature of capital creation because management of a capital creation process requires knowing what was produced, the quality and value of the product, and what resources were consumed in the process.
Chapter
Humans are a biologically evolved social species with advanced cognitive skills. While there are a number of social species, such as ants, humans are the most sophisticated in terms of creating societies. All species have some cognitive skills (e.g., a plant senses sunlight and orientates toward it), and some have very specialized skills (e.g., ech...
Chapter
Systems are the engines of capital creation, and every organization should be very aware of the state of its critical systems. The emphasis in the prior chapter was on measuring outcomes, the capital created, and in this chapter attention is paid to assessing the processes that generate capital.
Chapter
Agriculture society was a catalyst for capital creation. Society became more structured because a degree of continuing leadership and organization is required for farming. Farmers were entrepreneurs.
Chapter
Social capital is the set of relationships, shared values, culture, and context that support group cohesion, trust, and teamwork in a society or organization. At the personal level, it describes a person’s ability to benefit from personal connections. It might mean helping a friend in Uruguay connect with a contact in Atlanta to help explore a busi...
Chapter
When most people hear the word capital they usually think of economic capital and, in particular, its financial forms such as of cash, equities, and bonds. More broadly, economic capital also includes tangible assets, such as commercial buildings and factories.
Chapter
Forecasts of the future are often wildly wrong, so this chapter is short to avoid making too many errors.
Chapter
Since life emerged, the earth has become a capital creation system. Capital creation has changed the face of the globe from a collection of rocks, gases, and water to an ensemble of forests, plains, cities, and other forms of capital.
Chapter
Human ingenuity over the millennia, and particularly in recent centuries, has developed methods for raising C′ that have transformed the quality of human life by creating a highly effective and efficient capital creation system. Organizations are the centers of innovation, because they import capital, convert it from one form to another (e.g., recr...
Chapter
Human capital is the general health, skills, knowledge, and abilities of the population, a workforce, or an individual. “A country’s ability to improve its standard of living over time depends almost entirely on its ability to raise output per worker,” according to Nobel Prize–winning economist Paul Krugman.
Chapter
To a computer scientist, an object is something that can send and receive a set of standardized digital messages. Your maps app is an object. It can receive a message containing the latitude and longitude of your current location from a GPS app and then send a message to your map app to show your position on a map. Software is a collection of commu...
Book
This first book on Maritime Informatics describes the potential for Maritime Informatics to enhance the shipping industry. It examines how decision making in the industry can be improved by digital technology, and introduces the technology required to make Maritime Informatics a distinct and valuable discipline. Based on participating in EU funded...
Book
This book provides a set of integrated frameworks—capital, systems, and objects—that transcend managerial or technology hype by focusing on the long-term fundamentals that sustain organizational success. Many organizations are currently addressing two important transformational issues: ecological sustainability and digitization. Sustainability is a...
Book
Shipping is the world’s oldest sharing economy and is conducted in a self-organizing manner. Shipping is capital, energy, and information intensive, and with the growing impact of digitalization and climate change, there is a need to rethink the management and operations of this critical global industry - assisted in no small way by maritime inform...
Book
This book provides a set of integrated frameworks—capital, systems, and objects—that transcend managerial or technology hype by focusing on the long-term fundamentals that sustain organizational success, and it contains cases from South East Asia to elaborate this concept. Many organizations are currently addressing two important transformational i...
Technical Report
Full-text available
There are two key measures central to transforming the maritime industry to increase its sustainability and profitability. In this article, we introduce both of them, Eʹ (E prime) and Cʹ (C prime), and we discuss their relevance to operational efficiency, predictability, and strategic competitiveness.
Article
This roadmap identifies two developments for improving the pro- cess of literature reviewing. First, a method for systematically digi- tally encoding papers’ core knowledge contributions in the form of a graph is proposed. Second, the creativity literature is reviewed as a source of inspiration for crafting theoretical contributions.
Technical Report
Full-text available
A digital twin is a dynamic digital representation of an object or a system. It uniquely describes in a binary format a person, product, or environment’s key characteristics and properties and can be rendered in one or more physical or digital spaces. In this article, we elaborate on the key fundamentals of digital twinning followed by how it may i...
Conference Paper
Over the past decade, research on IS solutions for environmental sustainability evolved and produced a modest but firm body of knowledge. Despite this progressive understanding about ICT’s solution potential for environmental sustainability, our research practices seem widely unaffected by these insights. Most of us travel by air for work several t...
Article
While it is seldom spoken about openly, opportunism always prevails in client–agency relationships and could lead to their demise. This study directs attention to client–agency opportunism by describing how it happens and ends with a discussion on how today’s client–agency dynamics can be improved.
Article
In the context of IS consulting, this study applies the principles of engaged scholarship to examine the perennial problem of constraining opportunism. Using constructs proposed by the theory of relationship constraints, this paper examines the relative effectiveness of different constraint mechanisms on information systems (IS) consultants in Chin...
Article
Full-text available
A short concept note on capital creation. The first of three.
Article
Full-text available
The sustainability of Short Sea Shipping (SSS) is central to a clean, safe, and efficient European Union (EU) transport system. We report on key challenges for advancing reliability, quality, and safety, and removing unnecessary costs and delays at SSS hubs, with a particular focus on Cyprus and the Eastern Mediterranean. Specifically, we consider...
Article
Carestream Health sought to transform ordering supplies through an online system. The goal was to convert all customers to the new system, but adoption stalled at around 20%. It had failed to recognize the complexity of building and implementing a system to serve customers in 168 countries. Local differences and regulations meant it had more than 1...
Book
The Value Proposition Organizations face a continuing barrage of new ideas and technologies. In recent years, you have likely heard multiple references to digitization, blockchain, sharing economy, and a host of other managerial and technological innovations. These are means and not goals. It is too easy to become enchanted with a means that seems...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
With the continuous rise of global urbanization, city planners and policymakers are increasingly concerned with urban heat islands (UHI), which are metropolitan areas that are significantly warmer than their surrounding rural areas. We address the United Nation’s Sustainable Development Goal 11 “Sustainable Cities and Communities,” and we design an...
Article
Full-text available
Greenhouse agriculture is a highly efficient method of food production that can greatly benefit from supplemental electric lighting. The needed electricity associated with greenhouse lighting amounts to about 30% of its operating costs. As the light level of LED lighting can be easily controlled, it offers the potential to reduce energy costs by pr...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Previously, we have described the shipping industry as a self-organizing ecosystem characterised by no dominating actor managing the ecosystem. This is in contrast to coordinated ecosystems where a keystone contributing firm or organization, in effect, orchestrates the work of the others. Some good examples of the latter are the ecosystems of smart...
Technical Report
Full-text available
7 Mediterranean Shipping Company, USA Sea Traffic Management (STM) was introduced as a concept for the maritime sector to enhance efficiency, safety, and environmental sustainability in berth-to-berth sea transport. To realize the desired effects (including, route optimization, green steaming, shorter turnaround times, just-in-time operations, and...
Technical Report
Full-text available
7 Mediterranean Shipping Company, USA Sea Traffic Management (STM) was introduced as a concept for the maritime sector to enhance efficiency, safety, and environmental sustainability in berth-to-berth sea transport. To realize the desired effects (including, route optimization, green steaming, shorter turnaround times, just-in-time operations, and...
Technical Report
Full-text available
A sense of urgency The maritime transport industry faces strong competitive pressure from other modes of transport with many of them benefitting from entire new infrastructure (for example, China's Belt and Road; autonomous transport systems, and new airports such as in Berlin, Beijing, Mexico City, and Sydney). In order to remain an attractive and...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The STM concept is born A core shipping problem is a lack of means to share and communicate desired events and the times thereof due to problems in information exchange during sea passage. This has made sea transport an isolated and unique industry. Observe, almost 90% of world trade travels by sea. With today's technology, it is possible to increa...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The knowledge society Decision-making is the central activity of modern society, and high-quality decision-making is based upon a trifecta of data, information, and knowledge. A knowledgeable person requests information to enable decision-making. To fulfil the request, data are converted into information. Personal knowledge, which includes expertis...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Collaboration is essential Collaboration requires a willingness to share data. 1 Maritime transport has a strong legacy based on autonomous, often competing, actors in a self-organizing ecosystem. This has meant that shipping's actors are often oriented towards keeping data within their organization. Thus, outsiders make less informed (operational...