Richard van Dyck

Richard van Dyck
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam | VU · Department of Psychiatry

MD. PhD

About

330
Publications
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21,171
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Publications

Publications (330)
Article
Introduction: Depression and anxiety disorders have been associated with hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. However, lower cortisol levels have also been observed in depressed patients. Whether cortisol level predicts the course of these disorders has not been examined in detail. We examined whether salivary cortisol i...
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Comorbidity among anxiety and depressive disorders is the rule rather than the exception. The Integrative Hierarchical Model proposes that each of these disorders contains general (common to all), specific (common to some) and unique components. However, research into this model is limited and hampered by small (clinical) sample sizes. The aim of t...
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This study examines the importance of job characteristics on absence and on-the-job performance in a large group of employees with diagnosed depressive and anxiety disorders. In a sample of 1522 employees (1129 persons with and 393 persons without psychopathology) participating in Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA, n=2981) we exami...
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Despite growing concerns of over-treatment, the under-diagnosis and undertreatment of major depressive disorders is still prevalent. Causal attributions are thought to be involved in help seeking behavior, time to diagnosis and the chance for successful referral. Yet, little is known about the extent to which these processes are influenced by causa...
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The first generation of genome-wide association studies (GWA studies) for psychiatric disorders has led to new insights regarding the genetic architecture of these disorders. We now start to realize that a larger number of genes, each with a small contribution, are likely to explain the heritability of psychiatric diseases. The contribution of a la...
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Whether course trajectories of depressive and anxiety disorders are different, remains an important question for clinical practice and informs future psychiatric nosology. This longitudinal study compares depressive and anxiety disorders in terms of diagnostic and symptom course trajectories, and examines clinical prognostic factors. Data are from...
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Although attrition is inevitable in longitudinal epidemiological studies, psychiatric studies are thought to be especially sensitive to attrition. This study aimed to evaluate the sociodemographic and psychiatric determinants of attrition at 2-year follow-up in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Logistic regression was used to examine...
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It was previously shown that antidepressants are associated with diminished vagal control over the heart. Longitudinal studies are needed to test the causality of this association further. Longitudinal data were obtained in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. At baseline and at 2-year follow-up, heart rate and cardiac vagal control as...
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Dysfunctional self-schemas are assumed to play an important role in suicidal ideation. According to recent information-processing models, it is important to differentiate between 'explicit' beliefs and automatic associations. Explicit beliefs stem from the weighting of propositions and their corresponding 'truth' values, while automatic association...
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It is unclear whether altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation, which frequently accompanies depression and anxiety disorders, represents a trait rather than a state factor. To examine whether HPA axis dysregulation represents a biological vulnerability for these disorders, we compared cortisol levels in unaffected people with a...
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Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a moderately heritable disorder with a high lifetime prevalence. At present, laboratory blood tests to support MDD diagnosis are not available. We used a classifier approach on blood gene expression profiles of a unique set of unmedicated subjects (MDD patients and control subjects) to select genes with expression...
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This article presents the results of a large efficacy study comparing different forms of therapy for major depressive disorder (MDD), including interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) and pharmacotherapy. Patients were randomized to either IPT, IPT in combination with anti-depressant medication, IPT in combination with pill-placebo or medication only. Th...
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To establish the long-term effectiveness of 3 treatments for DSM-IV panic disorder with or without agoraphobia: cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), pharmacotherapy using a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), or the combination of both (CBT + SSRI). As a secondary objective, the relationship between treatment outcome and 7 predictor varia...
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Depressed persons have a higher risk of developing somatic conditions such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and obesity. Somatic comorbidity in depressed persons may be explained by mediating mechanisms such as unhealthy lifestyle and unfavorable pathophysiological disturbances. There are alternative explanations for somatic comorbidity in depre...
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This study tests a Stabilizing Group Treatment protocol, designed for the management of the long-term sequelae of child abuse, that is, Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (Complex PTSD). Evidence-based treatment for this subgroup of PTSD patients is largely lacking. This stabilizing treatment aims at improving Complex PTSD using psycho-education...
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Disturbed sleep has a high impact on daily functioning and has been correlated with psychopathology. We investigated the extent to which insomnia and sleep duration were associated with both current and remitted depressive and anxiety disorders in a large-scale epidemiologic study, taking sociodemographics, health factors, and medication use into a...
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Molecular Psychiatry publishes work aimed at elucidating biological mechanisms underlying psychiatric disorders and their treatment
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The importance of the therapist's education and experience for the successful behavior treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has not been investigated. Data on the relative effectiveness of self-controlled versus therapist-controlled in vivo exposure with response or ritual prevention (ERP) have yielded conflicting results. The present s...
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Depressive and anxiety disorders affect work functioning and cause high labour costs. To examine and compare psychopathological characteristics of depressive and anxiety disorders in their effect on work functioning. In 1876 working participants of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) associations of presence, severity, comorbidi...
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To examine the association between several subtypes of anxiety disorders and various cortisol indicators in a large cohort study. Anxiety disorders have been suggested to be linked to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, although results are scarce and inconsistent. No earlier studies have examined consistency of HPA axis findings ac...
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Objective: To establish the long-term effectiveness of 3 treatments for DSM-IV panic disorder with or without agoraphobia: cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), pharmacotherapy using a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), or the combination of both (CBT + SSRI). As a secondary objective, the relationship between treatment outcome and 7 pred...
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Full-text available
Although anxiety disorders are prevalent in older adults, randomized controlled trials of treatment effectiveness for late-life anxiety are scarce and have focused primarily on the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic interventions. However, recent findings suggest that in some cases, pharmacological treatment may be more beneficial for late-life anx...
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Schema Therapy (ST) is an integrative psychotherapy based upon a cognitive schema model which aims at identifying and changing dysfunctional schemas and modes through cognitive, experiential and behavioral pathways. It is specifically developed for patients with personality disorders. Its effectiveness and efficiency have been demonstrated in a few...
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Three studies were conducted to prepare for the implementation of Schema Therapy (ST) for Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) in general mental healthcare settings. Two were surveys to detect promoting and hindering factors, one was a preliminary test of a training program in ST. In 2004, a diagnostic analysis of factors promoting and hindering i...
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This study aimed to evaluate the success of implementing outpatient schema focused therapy (ST) for borderline patients in regular mental healthcare and to determine the added value of therapist telephone availability outside office hours in case of crisis (TTA). To enhance the implementation, the following adaptations regarding the original ST pro...
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There is a central belief that depression is associated with hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, resulting in higher cortisol levels. However, results are inconsistent. To examine whether there is an association between depression and various cortisol indicators in a large cohort study. Design, Setting, and Data are from 1588...
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Cortisol levels are increasingly often assessed in large-scale psychosomatic research. Although determinants of different salivary cortisol indicators have been described, they have not yet been systematically studied within the same study with a large sample size. Sociodemographic, health and sampling-related determinants of salivary cortisol leve...
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Agoraphobic patients tend to retrospectively report their parents as more rejecting and less warm than controls. Previous research indicates that such a negative rearing history may be associated with negative outcome in behavioural treatment. It has been suggested that the detrimental effect of an unfavourable parental rearing history on outcome o...
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To determine whether patients with different types of anxiety disorder (panic disorder, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder) have higher heart rate and lower heart rate variability compared with healthy controls in a sample that was sufficiently powered to examine the confounding effects of lifestyle and antidepressants. The standard deviat...
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Although the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) and the Padua Inventory-Revised (PI-R) are the most widely used instruments for assessing presence and severity of symptoms in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the correlation between the two instruments is surprisingly low. The aim of the present investigation was to test two possible...
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Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common complex trait with enormous public health significance. As part of the Genetic Association Information Network initiative of the US Foundation for the National Institutes of Health, we conducted a genome-wide association study of 435 291 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 1738 MDD cases a...
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The present study compared blood pressure levels between subjects with clinical anxiety and depressive disorders with healthy controls. Cross-sectional data were obtained in a large cohort study, the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (N=2981). Participants were classified as controls (N=590) or currently or remittedly depressed or anxious...
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Full-text available
It has been hypothesized that depression is associated with lower heart rate variability and decreased cardiac vagal control. This may play an important role in the risk of cardiovascular disease among depressed individuals. To determine whether heart rate variability was lower in depressed individuals than in healthy controls in a large adult samp...
Article
The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) is a multi-site naturalistic cohort study to: (1) describe the long-term course and consequences of depressive and anxiety disorders, and (2) to integrate biological and psychosocial research paradigms within an epidemiological approach in order to examine (interaction between) predictors of t...
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Hermens MLM, Van Hout HPJ, Terluin B, Adèr HJ, Penninx BWJH, Van Marwijk HWJ, Bosmans JE, Van Dyck R, De Haan M. Helpen antidepressiva bij depressieve klachten of lichte depressieve stoornissen? Huisarts Wet 2008;51(8):361-9. Achtergrond Depressieve klachten en lichte depressieve stoornissen komen in de huisartsenpraktijk veel voor. Er is onvoldoe...
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In a 3-year epidemiological survey (N=2623) prevalence of psychosis in epilepsy patients as compared with other chronic medically ill patients is assessed. To explore the role of cerebral pathology as compared to the role of chronic burden of disease in the onset of psychosis. One thousand seven hundred fifty two patients with chronic medical disor...
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Background: Minor and mild-major depression are highly prevalent in primary care. There is insufficient evidence that antidepressants are effective in the treatment of minor and mild-major depression. We compared the effectiveness of usual primary care treatment, with or without antidepressants, in minor and mild-major depression. Method: We conduc...
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Full-text available
Schema-focused therapy (SFT) and transference-focused psychotherapy (TFP) for borderline personality disorder were recently compared in a randomised multicentre trial. To assess the societal cost-effectiveness of SFT v. TFP in treating borderline personality disorder. Costs were assessed by interview. Health-related quality of life was measured usi...
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Surprisingly few studies have investigated the accuracy of prognostic assessments of therapy outcome by clinicians. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between clinicians' prognostic assessments and patient characteristics and treatment outcome. Seventy-one patients with a borderline personality disorder randomly...
Article
The effect of social roles (partner, parent, worker) on mental health may depend on the total number or the quality of the individual occupied social roles. With longitudinal data from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS), the effect of the number and quality of occupied social roles on mental health over three years w...
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To establish whether the combination of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and pharmacotherapy (SSRI) was more effective in treating panic disorder (PD) than either CBT or SSRI alone, and to evaluate any differential effects between the mono-treatments. Patients with PD (n = 150) with or without agoraphobia received CBT, SSRI or CBT + SSRI. Outcome...
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Influence of type of comorbidity was studied over the course of 1 year in a sample of 141 outpatients with panic disorder with or without agoraphobia and generalized anxiety disorder, who were receiving different forms of cognitive behavior therapy. Influence of type of comorbidity was determined on the basis of change scores (linear regression ana...
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Full-text available
To identify the genomic regions that confer risk and protection for major depressive disorder (MDD) in humans, large-scale studies are needed. Such studies should collect multiple phenotypes, DNA, and ideally, biological material that allows gene expression analysis, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic studies. In this paper, we briefly revi...
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There is evidence that the post-treatment relapse rate for alcohol-dependent patients with a comorbid anxiety disorder is higher than for alcohol-dependent patients without this disorder. aim To discover whether the post-treatment relapse rate in alcohol-dependent patients who suffer from both alcohol-dependence and a comorbid anxiety disorder can...
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This study examined the associations of (combinations of) social roles (employee, partner and parent) with the prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders and whether social roles contribute to the explanation of the female preponderance in these disorders. This was a cross-sectional study using data from 3857 respondents aged 25-55 of NEMESIS (...
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Prediction of treatment outcome has important clinical consequences. Personality factors have rarely been tested as predictors of acute outcome. Personality, demographic and illness-related characteristics were assessed at baseline for prediction of outcome of treatment in depressed out-patients. One hundred and ninety-three patients with major dep...
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Two methods for predicting remissions in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) treatment are evaluated. Y-BOCS measurements of 88 patients with a primary OCD (DSM-III-R) diagnosis were performed over a 16-week treatment period, and during three follow-ups. Remission at any measurement was defined as a Y-BOCS score lower than thirteen combined with a...
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Memory encoding and retrieval were studied in a nonclinical sample of participants that differed in the amount of reported dissociative experiences (trait dissociation). Behavioral as well as functional imaging (fMRI) indices were used as convergent measures of memory functioning. In a deep vs. shallow encoding paradigm, the influence of dissociati...
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Van Boeijen CA, Van Oppen P, Van Balkom AJLM, Visser S, Kempe PT, Blankenstein N, Van Dyck R. Angststoornissen in de eerste lijn vaak goed te behandelen. Een gerandomiseerd gecontroleerd onderzoek. Huisarts Wet 2007;50(7):315-20. Methode De eerste twee behandelingen werden uitgevoerd door 46 huisartsen, die de ene of de andere behandeling willekeur...
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The aim of this pilot study was to test the effectiveness and feasibility of a new, guided self-help program in five selected primary care patients with panic disorder (PD) or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Most patients achieved a clinically relevant improvement after 12 weeks of treatment with large effect sizes (Cohen's d) on all measures....
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Full-text available
Beliefs about the controllability of a disorder may be relevant in the causation, maintenance and treatment of disorders. We investigated whether congruence between patients' beliefs about controllability of a panic disorder and the type of treatment provided predicted outcome. The differential effectiveness of cognitive therapy and antidepressant...
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The present study investigated the consistency of self-reports of childhood traumatic events in a sample of 50 patients with a borderline personality disorder (BPD) before and after 27 months of intensive treatment with schema focused therapy or transference focused psychotherapy. The mean number of reported sexual, physical and emotional traumatic...
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Full-text available
This study investigated the quality and development of the therapeutic alliance as a mediator of change in schema-focused therapy (SFT) and transference-focused psychotherapy (TFP) for borderline personality disorder. Seventy-eight patients were randomly allocated to 3 years of biweekly SFT or TFP. Scores of both therapists and patients for the the...
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Full-text available
Memory functioning has been highlighted as a central issue in pathological dissociation. In non-pathological dissociation, evidence for enhanced working memory has been found, together with greater task-load related activity. So far, no imaging studies have investigated working memory in dissociative patients. To assess working memory in dissociati...
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Full-text available
Minor and mild-major depression are highly prevalent in primary care. There is insufficient evidence for the effectiveness of antidepressants in the treatment of minor and mild-major depression. We compared the effectiveness of usual primary care treatment, with or without antidepressants, in minor and mild-major depression. A pragmatic patient-ran...
Article
Full-text available
Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) is recommended in most depression treatment guidelines and proved to be a suitable treatment for elderly depressed patients. Despite the favorable results of IPT in research populations, the dissemination to general practice is surprisingly limited. Little is known about uptake and satisfaction when this therapy is...
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Full-text available
Although several forms of effective therapy exist for outpatients suffering from major depressive disorder, many patients do not profit from treatment. Combining psychotherapy and medication may be an effective strategy. However, earlier studies have rarely found a clear advantage for the combination. Where an advantage was found, a possible placeb...