Richard E. Riefner Jr.

Richard E. Riefner Jr.
Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden

BSc Biology

About

31
Publications
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Citations
Introduction
I’m documenting the biodiversity of Mediterranean-climate plant communities for southern California, including the vascular and non-vascular species that occupy cliff and rock outcrop, seasonal wetland, and biological soil crust habitats. I’m also striving to understand the pathways of introduction and dispersal of non-native cultivated plants that escape from urban gardens and naturalize in native plant communities. I’m also characterizing urban biodiversity, including novel ecosystems.

Publications

Publications (31)
Article
Full-text available
Davallia solida (G. Forst.) Sw. (Davalliaceae), Phlebodium aureum (L.) J. Sm. (Polypodiaceae), Phlebodium pseudoaureum (Cav.) Lellinger (Polypodiaceae), and Rumohra adiantiformis (G. Forst.) Ching (Dryopteridaceae) are epiphytic ferns native to the subtropical and tropical regions primarily of the Southern Hemisphere. These cultivated ornamental fe...
Article
Full-text available
Pteris multifida Poir. occurs in many tropical, subtropical, and temperate regions of the world. Because it is widely cultivated, populations have escaped from gardens and naturalized in many regions, including in the United States. In California, P. multifida was first collected in 1942 growing outside of cultivation in the San Gabriel Mountains,...
Article
Full-text available
Ficus microcarpa is native to temperate and tropical Asia, Australasia, and Pacific regions. It is a popular ornamental tree grown in many warm temperate, subtropical, and tropical regions of the world, where it is widely known to escape from cultivation. It is reported here as being naturalized in Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Diego, and Ven...
Article
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Analysis of the volatile leaf oil of J. grandis from the San Gabriel Mtns. is presented along with analysis of trees from the San Bernardino Mtns. and the High Sierra, CA. The oil of J. grandis, San Gabriel Mtns., is dominated by sabinene (14.8%), δ-3-carene (13.4%) and α-pinene (10.6%) with moderate amounts of α-terpinene (4.9%), limonene (2.8%),...
Article
Full-text available
Nephrolepis cordifolia occurs in many tropical, subtropical, mild-temperate, and Mediterranean regions of the world. Because it is widely cultivated, and there are many cultivars, populations have escaped from gardens and naturalized; these escapes have likely obscured its ancestral native distribution. Nephrolepis cordifolia is also frequently cul...
Article
Full-text available
An adventitious juniper was discovered on a sea cliff at Newport Beach, CA. Morphologically, the juniper appeared to be J. rigida var. conferta. In an attempt to determine if it arose from a locally planted cultivar, the volatile leaf oils of J. rigida var. conferta, cv. Blue Pacific, and cv. Emerald Sea were compared with the oil of the escaped ju...
Article
Full-text available
Pallenis maritima is a small cushion-forming subshrub known from the Western Mediterranean region, extending to S. Portugal along the Atlantic Coast. It is reported here for the first time for California, being documented for the first time as growing outside of cultivation in North America. In Orange County, southern California, it has naturalized...
Article
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Paspalum pubiflorum and P quadrifarum are reported for the first time for California. New records are also documented for P. vagmatum, which is invasive in estuanne wetland habitats. We summarize the current naturalized status, habitats occupied, and regions where recently introduced species of Paspalum have been observed or might become invasive i...
Article
Plecostachys serpyllifolia, a small, sprawling shrub endemic to South Africa, is reported as naturalized for the first time for California. Plecostachys serpyllifolia is widely cultivated and likely escaped from residential gardens, commercial landscape plantings, or other sources. In southern California, it behaves as a facultative halophyte and a...
Article
Full-text available
Salvinia minima and S. oblongifolia are reponed for the first time for California. These nonnative free-floating aquatic ferns likely escaped from residential or commercial ornamental ponds, water-gardens, aquaria or other cultivated sources. Salvinia minima is established in southern California, but S. oblongifolia is likely a non-persistent waif....
Article
Full-text available
Medicago rigidula and M. truncatula are reported for the first time for California. These species have likely become established from rangeland, forage and cover crops grown over the past century. They can be confused with the relatively common M. polymorpha, and are probably more widespread than current records indicate.
Article
Full-text available
Paspalum vaginatum, a warm-season perennial grass known from tropical and subtropical regions around the world, is reported for the first time for California We review its distribution, ecology, anthropogenic uses, invasive status, and biological traits promoting its invasive behavior worldwide and in southern California, where it likely arrived as...
Article
Non-native species of Atriplex are reported for California, including first records of A. stipitata and A. undulata growing outside of cultivation in North America. Available: https://www.jstor.org/journal/madrono.
Article
Full-text available
Panicum coloratum, Panicum virgatum, and Setaria megaphylla are exotic species reported for the first time for California. The following new or noteworthy records of native and non-native vascular plants are reported from wetland and riparian habitats in coastal southern California: Amaranthus blitum subsp. emarginatus, Atriplex polycarpa, Bacopa m...
Article
Full-text available
We report the following noteworthy collections of native vascular plants from mima mound fields in coastal Orange County, California: Deschampsia danthonioides, Lepidium strictum, and Sagina saginoides (new county records), Lepidium oblongum var. oblongum (previously excluded from the flora), Deinandra paniculata, Holocarpha virgata subsp. elongata,...
Chapter
Planet Earth is but one large complex ecosystem. Indeed, every centimeter of the planet is itself an ecosystem, and yet part of a larger, interacting community of organisms and environment that give rise to the natural world (Pickett and Cadenasso, 2002). Habitats, the places where organisms live, are primarily fashioned by geologic processes. Thes...
Article
The first record of Salvinia molesta documented for Orange County, Santa Ana River watershed, and the first confirmed naturalized population known for the coastal lowlands of southern California. Uncommon but widespread in a large constructed pond where it grows with Eichhornia crassipes, another invasive aquatic plant pest.
Article
New populations and range extensions of Texosporium sancti-jacobi are reported from southern California, which include the first known record of the species from Ventura County. The preferred habitat of Texosporium is the mosaic of bare-soil patches associated with undisturbed open shrublands that are sparsely vegetated with native forbs, are free...
Article
Dudleya (Crassulaceae) includes a number of species with narrowly restricted geographic distributions, specific microhabitat requirements, and low population numbers that make them vulnerable to extinction. Rock-inhabiting lichens serve to trap seeds and to enhance seedling survival of the rare and/or threatened Dudleya species that are restricted...
Article
Dinebra retroflexa is reported for the first time for California. Available: https://www.jstor.org/journal/madrono.
Article
An undocumented series of disturbed and remnant vernal pools was discovered during the abnormally wet 1992-1993 rainfall season in coastal southern California, including sites at San Clemente State Beach in southwestern Orange County and at San Onofre State Beach in northwestern San Diego County. Aerial photographs of the region made prior to exten...
Article
Full-text available
Vascular plant-lichen interactions. Niebla ceruchoides, the pincushion lichen, effectively traps seeds of Dudleya species and enhance establishment of rare Dudleya seedlings in otherwise inhospitable conditions found on sheer rock faces of cliff and outcrop habitats. Available: https://www.jstor.org/journal/madrono.
Conference Paper
Some of the rarest native plants in Maryland grow only in the limestone regions of the western counties. A focused study was conducted to identify and map the status of the rare and uncommon vascular plants restricted to limestone terrain for the State.
Article
Full-text available
The blunt-leaf orchid (Habenaria obtusata) is a circumpolar species, ranging in North America from the tundra south into Michigan. Toward this southern limit of its range, it favors coniferous swamps and forests, where the soil is cold and often moist. We report, as an apparent pollinator, a small moth not much larger than the orchid flower, Anages...
Article
Full-text available
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Article
Summary of introduction in the mid-Atlantic United States and invasive behavior in the region is provided.
Article
Full-text available
Polygonum perfoliatum, an east Asian species, is documented in Maryland for the first time. Although well-established, it was likely overlooked because it closely resembles two native species, P. arifolium and P. sagittatum, which grow in similar habitats.
Article
Leucothoe axillaris var. editorum is reported for the first time growing outside of cultivation in Maryland.

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Projects

Projects (2)
Project
My intention is to identify and document the non-native plants reproducing spontaneously outside of cultivation in the urban ecosystems of California. I also intend to characterize California’s urban landscape habitats and identify its novel ecosystems. Epiphytic species assemblages are the least studied component of California’s urban forests where research into novel ecosystem ecology is needed.
Project
Identify and document non-native plant introductions for California.