Richard H. Rech

Richard H. Rech
Michigan State University | MSU · Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology

Ph.D.

About

77
Publications
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1,900
Citations
Citations since 2017
0 Research Items
110 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230510152025
20172018201920202021202220230510152025
20172018201920202021202220230510152025

Publications

Publications (77)
Article
Full-text available
The authors review the opioid literature for evidence of increased analgesia and reduced adverse side effects by combining mu-opioid-receptor (MOR) agonists, kappa-opioid-receptor (KOR) agonists, and nonselective low-dose-opioid antagonists (LD-Ant). We tested fentanyl (MOR agonist) and spiradoline (KOR agonist), singly and combined, against somati...
Article
Full-text available
Rats were trained for multiple sessions in a place-conditioning shuttle-box to explore motivational interactions of mu and kappa opioid agonists, specifically fentanyl reward and spiradoline aversion. In Phase 1, groups of rats received various doses of mu or kappa agonists, or placebo, testing for preference or aversion. Group A always received sa...
Article
Interactions of opioid agonists, fentanyl and oxymorphone (micro-selective) and spiradoline and enadoline(kappa-selective), were examined for additive, sub-additive, or supra-additive antinociception in the colorectal distension (CRD) assay. Single-dose values (mg/kg, 0.006-0.016 for fentanyl, 0.25-1.26 forspiradoline, etc.) were summed to formulat...
Article
Spiradoline (U62066E) a racemic mixture of the two enantiomers U63639(+) and U63640(-), appears to have kappa opioid receptor activity, but the contribution of each enantiomer toward this activity is still in question. To determine the activity of each enantiomer in comparison to the racemic mixture, the three forms were tested in the cold-water ta...
Article
Changes in colonic motility in rats following intravenous (IV) oxymorphone (0.1 mg/kg), atropine (0.1 mg/kg), or saline were monitored to determine whether opioid-induced changes in colonic motility affect antinociceptive measurements when using colorectal distension (CRD) as a nociceptive assay. Polygraph recordings of colonic pressures, contracti...
Article
Female F0 generation Sprague-Dawley rats received daily oral doses of 0, 0.2, or 2 mg/kg polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) as fireMaster BP-6 from Day 6 of gestation through Day 24 postpartum. Maternal parameters were assessed, and F1 generation offspring were evaluated for growth and survival, as well as physical and behavioral development. No advers...
Article
Four groups of rats received chlordiazepoxide (CDP): a) intermittently, experiencing hypothermia and rotarod performance (RR) deficit after test doses (contingency); b) chronically, experiencing hypothermia and RR deficit after test doses; c) intermittently, RR preceding test doses and with protection against hypothermia afforded by exposure to hea...
Article
This study was designed to test analgesia, duration, and cardiovascular changes induced by meperidine (MEP) and oxymorphone (OXY) following methoxyflurane (MOF) and halothane (HAL) anesthesia. Eight healthy dogs were given atropine and acepromazine, and anesthesia was induced with thiamylal and maintained with 1.5 minimal alveolar concentration of...
Article
Butorphanol (0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 mg/kg of body weight, and placebo) was given SC to 8 healthy unmedicated dogs to determine its efficacy for visceral analgesia, using a colonic balloon for minimal threshold nociceptor stimulation. Degree of sedation; systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure; and pulse rate were recorded. The...
Article
This study was designed to determine the effective analgesic dose of butorphanol administered intravenously to obtund visceral nociception, as well as to determine duration of this effect. Additionally, cardiovascular changes and sedative effects were defined. Eight healthy dogs were each given five doses of butorphanol (0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and...
Article
The analgesic effects of ketamine (KET), acepromazine (ACE), butorphanol (BUT), KET/ACE, KET/diazepam (DIAZ), and KET/BUT given IV were evaluated in neutered female cats. Analgesia (antinociception) was measured by an increase in response to nociceptor stimulation induced by inflation of a balloon inserted into the colon per rectum. KET/ACE provide...
Article
The development of behavioral tolerance to pentobarbital-induced hypothermia, as separable from cellular and metabolic tolerance, was established. Pentobarbital (PB) was administered to 4 groups of rats, 2 groups of which received intermittent (INT) IP PB treatment. One of these groups, INT/EXP, experienced the hypothermic (measured as rectal body...
Article
Pentobarbital was administered to 4 groups of rats: 1) intermittently before testing on the rotarod (RR) (experienced, EXP), 2) chronically (CHR) before testing on the RR (EXP), 3) intermittently (INT) after being tested on the RR (NONEXP), and 4) chronically (CHR) after being tested on the RR (NONEXP). On postchronic testing, Group 1 (INT/EXP) fai...
Article
This study was conducted to determine whether blood pressures and pulse rate could be determined accurately by indirect measurements from the front and hind legs of 15- to 40-kg dogs anesthetized with isoflurane. Indirect measurements from each animal were compared to direct measurements obtained from a catheter placed into the abdominal aorta via...
Article
Four groups of rats received ethanol: 1) intermittently while experiencing hypothermia, 2) chronically while experiencing hypothermia, 3) intermittently while protected from hypothermia, and 4) chronically while being protected from hypothermia. On postchronic testing, Group 1 showed tolerance to 2.0 and 2.3 but not 2.7 g/kg ethanol, Group 2 was to...
Article
Doses of d-amphetamine (3.2 mg/kg), fenfluramine (10 mg/kg) and quipazine (8 mg/kg) cause a significant reduction in food intake during a 30-min daily feeding session in food-deprived rats. Pirenperone and ritanserin, 5-HT2 receptor antagonists, significantly blocked the anorectic effect of quipazine, while d-amphetamine and fenfluramine effects we...
Article
Doses of LSD, quipazine, 8-OHDPAT and TFMPP were established that prominently disrupted FR-40 operant response pattern in two groups of rats. Subsequently, one group received daily intraperitoneal (IP) injections of imipramine, 2.5 mg/kg, for 4 weeks, then 10 mg/kg for 2 additional weeks. The second group received 5 mg/kg/day, IP, of trazodone for...
Article
Effects of chronic treatment with the monoamine oxidase inhibitors phenelzine and isocarboxazid on disruption of FR-40 operant responses by 5-HT agonists have been studied. Three groups of rats that were trained in the FR-40 operant schedule showed marked disruption by 0.1 mg/kg IP lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), 2 mg/kg IP quipazine (Q), 0.05 mg...
Article
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM) was infused into discrete brain regions of rats trained to press a bar for food reinforcement on a fixed ratio-40 (FR-40). Sites were chosen as major areas of the brain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) system: the dorsal and median raphe nuclei, dorsal hippocampus, lateral habenular nuclei and the prefrontal cortex...
Article
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) was infused in one microliter volumes into discrete brain regions of rats trained to press a bar for food reinforcement. The sites were chosen as major areas of the brain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) system: the dorsal and median raphe nuclei, dorsal hippocampus, lateral habenular nuclei, and the prefrontal cortex. Fol...
Article
Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received oral doses of 0, 0.2 or 2 mg/kg/day polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) as fireMaster BP-6 (BP-6) from day 6 of gestation through day 24 postpartum. At approximately 6 months of age male and female offspring were food-deprived to 80% of their free-feeding weights and subjected to four phases of an autoshaping paradi...
Article
Indolealkylamine and phenethylamine hallucinogens disrupted responding maintained under a fixed-ratio 40 (FR-40) schedule of reinforcement. LSD, DMT, mescaline and DOM produced dose-dependent decreases in number of reinforcers and increases in 10-sec periods of non-responding (pause-intervals). The 5HT agonist quipazine, as well as the LSD congener...
Article
The mixed narcotic agonist-antagonist cyclazocine and the 5-HT agonist quipazine disrupt food-rewarded fixed ratio-40 (FR-40) operant behavior in rats as a dose-dependent decrease in the number of reinforcers obtained and a reciprocal increase in the number of 10-second intervals between responding (“pausing”). This disruption has been shown to res...
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of subchronic administration of the organophosphate methylparathion (MPTH) during gestation on behavior and development of brain cholinergic neurons in the offspring. Pregnant rats received daily po doses of MPTH from Day 6 through Day 20 of gestation at doses causing no (1.0 mg/kg) or minimal...
Article
The initial treatment phenomenon (ITP) to diazepam was investigated using a conditioned suppression of drinking (CSD) paradigm. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to a stable baseline of punished and unpunished responses in the CSD paradigm. In Experiment 1, a control group (1) received vehicle after the CSD session on each of seven drug test...
Article
Administration of the indolealkylamine hallucinogen d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), the phenethylamine hallucinogen 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM) and the putative 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) agonist quipazine all produced a dose-dependent decrease in fixed ratio (FR-40) response rates and a concomitant increase in the number of 10-seco...
Article
Full-text available
The effects on a fixed ratio-40 (FR-40) operant behavior of intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of the hallucinogens lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM), mescaline or the non-hallucinogenic LSD-analogue lisuride were compared with intraperitoneal (IP) administration. Infusion of LSD (8.5 to 34 microgra...
Article
d-Amphetamine and d-fenfluramine caused different patterns of disruption in a learned maze performance reinforced with food. A 0.8 mg/kg dose of amphetamine increased correct and incorrect (errors) alley entrances as well as earned reinforcers consumed. Larger doses (1.6-3.2 mg/kg) decreased correct responses, increased errors, and resulted in earn...
Article
Full-text available
The effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM), quipazine or lisuride alone and in combination with the 5-hydroxytryptamine antagonist metergoline, pizotifen and cinanserin were studied in rats responding on a fixed-ratio 40 schedule of food presentation. LSD, DOM, quipazine or lisuride produced a similar d...
Article
This study examined effects of neonatal prochlorperazine in rats tested as adults in a variety of behaviors. The drug exposure impaired open field behavior during treatment neonatally. However, no differences in open field behavior were observed in adulthood. Adult females that had received drug were less efficient in obtaining food reinforcement i...
Article
Chronotropic and inotropic actions of phencyclidine were studied in spontaneously beating right atrial muscle and electrically paced left atrial muscle preparations isolated from guinea-pig or rat hearts. In right atrial muscle preparations, phencyclidine (10-100 microM) decreased the frequency of spontaneous beating. Guinea-pig and rat heart prepa...
Article
This study reports on tolerance and cross-tolerance to the rotarod (RR)-disrupting effects of various central nervous system (CNS) depressants. Female rats trained on the RR were fed ground chow containing pentobarbital (PB, 2.0 mg/g chow) or methaqualone (MQ, 1.0 mg/g chow) and were injected twice daily (PB) or daily MQ) with 30 mg/kg IP for 6 day...
Article
Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to press a lever on a fixed ratio-40 (FR-40) schedule for food reinforcement. Doses ranging from 0.5 to 16 mg/kg of the mixed narcotic agonist-antagonist cyclazocine (30-min pretreatment) resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the number of reinforcements obtained and a reciprocal increase in "pausing" (IRT's...
Article
The nature of the tolerance developed to the hypothermic effects of pentobarbital (PB) after short-term chronic administration of this agent was determined in female rats. Rectal temperature was determined in animals maintained on either a chronic PB or control regimen. The chronic PB treatment consisted of 6 days of twice-daily i.p. injections (30...
Article
Indole and phenethylamine-type hallucinogenic drugs were studied in an FR-40 operant behavioral procedure programmed to quantify "pausing,"-a behavioral disruption somewhat specific to hallucinatory drug effects. LSD, DOM, DMT and mescaline showed a potency ratio to produce pausing that is well correlated with the hallucinatory potencies of these a...
Article
The effects of diazepam quipazine, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), and 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM) were examined on a conditioned suppression paradigm. Food-deprived rats were trained to drink a liquid diet from a tube. Subsequently, intermittent 7-s tones were presented during the daily 10-min sessions, the tube being electrified dur...
Article
This study examined the effects of various drug treatments (IP injections) proposed to modify central 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) activity on a conditioned suppression of drinking behavior in water-deprived rats. The subjects were trained to drink their daily water requirement during a 10-min session. Intermittent tone periods of 7 s were then intro...
Article
The present study examined the disruptive effects of the phenethylamine hallucinogen 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM) and the putative 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) agonist quipazine on fixed ratio-40 (FR-40) operant responding alone or after pretreatment with putative 5-HT antagonist metergoline. Food-deprived male rats were trained to bar pre...
Article
The effects of metergoline were examined on the behavioral disruption produced by hallucinogens of the indolealkylamine [d-lysergic acid diethylamine and N,N-dimethyltryptamine] and the phenethylamine [2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine and mescaline] classes. Food-deprived male rats were trained to press a bar on a fixed-ratio 40 operant schedule o...
Article
The hypothesis that 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) neurons and/or receptors are involved in the mechanism of action of hallucinogens is supported by the fact that intraventricular administration of the neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) selectively destroys central 5-HT neurons in the brain and potentiates the behavioral effects of lysergic a...
Article
The present study was designed to examine the role of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) neurons in the behavioral effects of d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), an indolealkylamine hallucinogen, 2.5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM) and mescaline, phenethylamine hallucinogens, and phenobarbital, a non-hallucinogen. Male rats, maintained at 70-80% of the...
Article
The purpose of the present study was to determine the role of central 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) neuronal systems in the effects of d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), 2,5-methoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM), pentobarbital (PB) and methaqualone (MQ) on punished responding in rats. Water-deprived rats were trained to drink from a tube that was electri...
Article
A novel form of experimentally-induced conflict behavior based on the conditioned suppression of drinking (CSD) is described and compared with two conventional animal models of human anxiety--a modified Geller-Seifter and an Estes-Skinner (Conditioned Emotional Response) procedure. The CSD procedure offered significant advantages over the two opera...
Article
Fenfluramine and m-chlorophenylpiperazine, two drugs purported to enhance central 5-hydroxytryptaminergic transmission, and metergoline, a 5-HT antagonist, did not modify the duration of immobility induced in rats made to swim in a restricted space. Nomifensine, desipramine and amineptine, three antidepressants known to block neuronal catecholamine...
Article
The purpose of the present study was to determine the role of central catecholaminergic neuronal systems in the effects of LSD, DOM and d-amphetamine on fixed ratio (FR) operant responding in rats. Food-deprived male rats were trained to press a bar for food reinforcement on a FR-40 schedule. Control responding on this schedule is characterized by...
Article
Food-deprived male rats were trained to press a lever on a fixed ratio-40 (FR-40) operant schedule for food reinforcement. Administration of mescaline (4.0--10.0 mg/kg) immediately before the start of the operant session resulted in a cessation of responding for some portion of the 40-min period ("hallucinatory pause"). The duration of this pause w...
Article
Seven food deprived male rats were trained to press a bar on a fixed ratio-40 (FR-40) schedule of food reinforcement. Administration of 0.5 mg/kg 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methyl amphetamine (DOM) immediately before the start of the session resulted in cessation of responding for some portion of the 40-min test session. Three successive days of p-chloropheny...
Article
Interactions between d-amphetamine and diazepam, d-amphetamine and methaqualone, and cocaine and diazepam were examined on one-hour daily sessions of an FI-30 schedule of food-reinforced behavior in rats. Administered singly, d-amphetamine and cocaine increased overall responding at one intermediate dose (1 and 10 mg/kg, respectively) and decreased...
Article
Brain distribution and various pharmacological effects of clobazam and diazepam were studied in rats. When given at 10 mg/kg i.p. the compounds reached peak brain levels 15 min after injection, and showed similar half lives. At peak time brain levels were proportional to the dose administered. Very little of the N-desmethylmetabolite of each compou...
Article
Food-deprived male rats were trained to press a bar on a fixed ratio-40 operant schedule for food reinforcement. Administration of 100 μg/kg LSD immediately before the start of the operant session resulted in cessation of responding for some portion of the 40-min test session ('hallucinatory pause'). Four successive days of LSD administration prior...
Article
The phenethylamine hallucinogen 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM) produces a number of behavioral effects which are presumably mediated through interactions with dopamine (DA) and/or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) neurons in the brain. The present study examined the neurochemical basis for the effects of this agent on fixed ratio-40 (FR-40) opera...
Article
Drinking of water-deprived rats was punished by delivery of either 0.03 or 0.1 mA shocks through the drinking tube during the last 5 of 7-s tone components during a 15-min daily exposure to water. These sessions consisted of 66 alternating components marked by the presence or absence of a tone. Drinking was not punished during the 33 components wit...
Article
The rotarod disruption in rats by 1.5 g/kg of ethanol was prolonged by combining the depressant with 2 or 8 mg/kg d-amphetamine, but not after combinations with 4 or 6 mg/kg of the stimulant. The combination with 8 mg/kg d-amphetamine also induced a prolonged coma and lethality. Cocaine or methylphenidate in combination form with ethanol also showe...
Article
The use of mass fragmentography in the quantitative determination of the biogenic amines and their metabolites offers useful advantages in terms of increased sensitivity, specificity and speed. In addition, mass fragmentography permits quantitation of related compounds in a single sample thereby eliminating the need for elaborate separation techniq...
Article
Fisher (F) and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were trained to press a lever on a fixed interval (FI) schedule of food reinforcement or to postpone electric footshock on an unsignaled, continuous avoidance schedule. F strain rats responded on the Fl schedule at a lower rate than the SD rats. Responding of F rats was increased by low doses (0.075–0.10 mg/k...
Article
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the interactions of sympathomimetic stimulants with several examples of the CNS depressants. The biological response that was chosen for comparison of these interactions was rotarod performance. This test has the advantages of simplicity and efficiency, and yet it appears to be a reasonable measure of alert...
Chapter
Behavioural and electrophysiological effects of exogenously-administered l-DOPA have usually been attributed to an enhanced activity of brain catecholamine pathways (Carlsson Rosengren, Bertler and Nilsson, 1957; Moore and Rech, 1967; Everett, 1961; Kadzielawa and Widy-Tyszkiewicz, 1970), in appreciation of the fact that l-DOPA is the natural precu...
Article
Rats chronically implanted with push-pull cannulas were injected with a pulse of 14C-norepinephrine (NE) into the lateral cerebroventricle under a variety of pretreatment and behavioral conditions. Animals pretreated intraventricularly with 6-hydroxydopamine (Group A) or ascorbic acid vehicle (Group B) were subsequently perpised imder fpur conditio...
Article
The neurochemical effects of DOM and d-amphetamine were compared under several conditions in unanesthetized rats implanted with chronic-indwelling push-pull cannulae in a cerebral lateral ventricle. Brain catecholamine storage sites were previously pulse-labelled with 14-C-norepinephrine administered intraventricularly. During the perfusion of the...
Article
Evidence has been presented that d-amphetamine interacts with various types of behavior in the context of a conditioning paradigm. Rats exposed simultaneously to a locomotor activity measurement and three dose levels of d-amphetamine on repeated occasions gradually developed dose-related enhancement of drug-stimulated activity, which persisted afte...
Article
The effects of p-chlorophenylalanine (p-CPA; 100 mg/kg/day for 3 days) on morphine analgesia and the development of tolerance and physical dependence were investigated in Sprague-Dawley (SD) and Fisher (F) strains of albino rats. Using a modified flinch-jump method to detect changes in reactivity to electric footshock, F strain rats were more react...
Article
The effects of chronic ethanol administration on brain (Na + + K +) activated adenosine triphosphatase were re examined in rats. Despite the tolerance development to the behavioral depressant effects of ethanol as monitored by conditioned avoidance behavior and Rotarod performance, no remarkable change in (Na +, Mg ++, ATP) dependent binding of 3H...
Article
Tolerance development to d-amphetamine induced motor motor activity was studied under various experimental conditions. Following seven daily habituation sessions, female, albino rats were subjected to 7 daily sessions in which NaCl was injected IP 30 min before placement into activity cages (NaCl controls). In the next 9 days, the rats underwent 3...
Article
Food deprived rats were trained to lever press for food pellets on a fixed ratio 40 schedule of reinforcement. Following 18 days of training, rats received d-amphetamine IP (1.0 mg/kg) as a drug control. Three days later, half of the animals were given d-amphetamine and half were given NaCl for six days. Tolerance to the disruptive effects of d-amp...
Article
A modified flinch-jump procedure was used to detect changes in sensitivity to electric footshock in rats. In preliminary studies, dose-related increases in reaction thresholds (analgesia) were observed following intraperitoneal administration of 3, 6, or 9 mg/kg of morphine with the peak effect 60 min after injection. Analgesia and development of t...

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