Richard W. Pollay

Richard W. Pollay
University of British Columbia - Vancouver | UBC · Sauder School of Business

PhD U. of Chicago, 1970

About

83
Publications
63,308
Reads
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4,887
Citations
Introduction
See also pdf files for even more papers on both cigarette marketing and advertising's history and cultural import at www.sauder.ubc.ca or google "pollay".
Additional affiliations
January 1985 - December 2011
University of British Columbia - Vancouver
July 1966 - June 1970
University of Kansas
Position
  • Research Assistant

Publications

Publications (83)
Chapter
Full-text available
This paper reviews all published cigarette advertising content analyses to identify common results. American cigarette advertising has become more voluminous, more visual rather than verbal, more inclined to show “pictures of health,” more inclined than other products to show people, inclined to feature young looking models, and to use themes of in...
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The ethnic segmentation of the cigarette market is currently controversial, but not a new phenomenon. A census of 540 cigarette ads from 1950–1965 Ebony magazines, compared to a matched sample from Life, reveals segmented and segregated advertising toward black consumers. The ads in Ebony eventually featured black models almost exclusively, primari...
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Boddewyn's (1993) argument that advertising academics are made irrelevant by the “bad research” of others is examined in detail and found unconvincing. Since our relevance is more likely determined by the quality of our own research, this is needed far more than baleful bombast, particularly research disclosing the reality of industrial practices a...
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The History of Canadian Business: 1897–1914. By NaylorR. Thomas. Toronto, James Lorimer & Company, 1975. Vol. I, The Banks and Finance Capital, Pp. xxvi + 296. $6.95. Vol. II, Industrial Development, Pp. 357. $6.95. - Volume 50 Issue 3 - Richard W. Pollay
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Much of the critical discussion of advertising revolves around its cultural consequences. Even though advertising is a particularly persuasive proponent of a specific value system, a methodology for measuring the values manifest in advertising has not existed. A content analytic methodology synthesizing the work of previous authors and applicable t...
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We should be enlisting the support of cultural critics and historians, as well as psychiatrists, to study the influence of advertising on the fantasy life of the public, on its conscious aspirations and unconscious motives. We should be probing the symbolism evoked by the models and scenes depicted in advertising to see what impact they have had on...
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Purpose – This paper aims to examine the role played by collecting in a productive academic career. Design/methodology/approach – The methodology is autobiographic and bibliographic recollections about the collecting of advertising books, notes, advertisements, documents and ephemera. Findings – Collecting facilitated diverse forms of activities an...
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The tobacco industry promotes friendly “experts” and uses public relations tactics to produce uncertainty around research results that threaten it. This inhibits public policies responsive to these research findings. These tactics, long used against medical science, are now being used to counter the studies challenging to the myth that cigarette ad...
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Point-of-sale activity is important enough to get the attention of the senior management of transnational firms and to be the subject of sophisticated research aimed to realise "intrusive visibility" better through creative design, command attention and convey brand imagery. The result of this is the promotional "positioning" of products, and the c...
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We explored the evolution from cigarette product attributes to psychosocial needs in advertising campaigns for low-tar cigarettes. Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents and print advertising images indicated that low-tar brands targeted smokers who were concerned about their health with advertising images intended to distract the...
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Much of the research on communication within the family unit has focused on the end results of the communication process. The reason for this seems to lie in the lack of an acceptable model for analysis and interpretation of the process and dynamics of intrafamily dialogue. The model presented in this article attempts to provide a perspective throu...
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The 2002 trial that assessed the constitutionality of Canada's Tobacco Act involved new evidence of industry tactics in the 1990s, including the use of lifestyle advertising of sponsorships and the marketing of a new product that was falsely claimed to be "less irritating." The author provides highlights from the legislative background, the documen...
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To use the product launch of Player's Premiere as a case study for understanding the new cigarette product development process during the 1990s. We determine the (in)validity of industry claims that: (1) development of the physical product preceded the promotional promise of "less irritation"; (2) "less irritation" was actually realised; (3) advert...
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The zebra may seem an odd choice as a brand image for a new cigarette in Russia, but subtle tobacco marketing forces are, as always, at work.
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The study objective was to review internal tobacco industry documents written between 1985 and 1995 regarding the Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) population in the USA. These documents detail opportunities and barriers to promotion of tobacco products, as viewed by the tobacco industry and its market research firms. /methods: Researchers...
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To understand the development, intent, and consequences of US tobacco industry advertising for low machine yield cigarettes. Analysis of trade sources and internal US tobacco company documents now available on various web sites created by corporations, litigation, or public health bodies. When introducing low yield products, cigarette manufacturers...
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On 12 May 1994, an unsolicited box of what appeared to be tobacco industry documents was delivered to Professor Stanton Glantz at the University of California at San Francisco (UCSF).1 The return address on the box was listed as “Mr Butts”. As it turned out, the box contained a collection of internal industry studies and reports that had been copie...
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To learn how cigarette packages are designed and to determine to what extent cigarette packages are designed to target children. A computer search was made of all Internet websites that post tobacco industry documents using the search terms: packaging, package design, package study, box design, logo, trademark and design study. All documents were r...
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The RJ Reynolds-Macdonald advertising campaign for Export “A” in Canada features solo athletes from various extreme sporting events that they sponsor with the slogan “Go your own way” (fig 1). These ads contain almost all of the elements that its competitors, its US parent, RJ Reynolds, and other transnational firms have found to be so vital and ne...
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To provide an understanding of the targeting strategies of cigarette marketing, and the functions and importance of the advertising images chosen. Analysis of historical corporate documents produced by affiliates of British American Tobacco (BAT) and RJ Reynolds (RJR) in Canadian litigation challenging tobacco advertising regulation, the Tobacco Pr...
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The authors test the hypotheses that parameters of advertising sensitivity for adolescents are significant and perhaps larger than those for adults. Cigarette brand shares of advertising voice are found to be significantly related to realized market shares, with advertising sensitivity being about three times larger among teenagers than among adult...
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The authors test the hypotheses that parameters of advertising sensitivity for adolescents are significant and perhaps larger than those for adults. Cigarette brand shares of advertising voice are found to be significantly related to realized market shares, with advertising sensitivity being about three times larger among teenagers than among adult...
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The history of tobacco marketing portrays a strong relationship between cigarette advertising targeted to women and the rise in the prevalence of women smoking. This article describes how tobacco companies crafted their marketing strategies to obfuscate the growing evidence of the health hazards of tobacco and to circumvent attempts to regulate cig...
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A descriptive history reveals the strategic interest in the young manifested by the cigarette industry from 1920 to the present. The tobacco and advertising trade presses, FTC records and recently disclosed corporate documents display and discuss the targeting of adolescents and collegians. They also document the rationale and results of media choi...
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U.S. and Canadian cigarette advertising and public relations tactics have been disclosed in several recent and pending trials. An advertising expert has been called in both U.S. liability actions (e.g. Cipollone, N.J.; Horton, Miss.) and Canada’s assessment of the constitutionality of its Tobacco Products Control Act, which restricts most forms of...
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A study of reactions to advertising sexism in the USA, Denmark, Greece and New Zealand found consistent male-female differences, with little differences among countries. Both sexes everywhere perceived and were critical of advertising sexism. Females were more sensitized and critical, but even the most critical were not strongly inclined toward pro...
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A comprehensive model of attitudes toward advertising includes three personal utility factors (product information, social image information, and hedonic amusement) and four socioeconomic factors (good for economy, fostering materialism, corrupting values, and falsity/no-sense). The proposed 7-factor model was tested on two independent samples: col...
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A comprehensive model of attitudes toward advertising includes three personal utility factors (product information, social image information, and hedonic amusement) and four socioeconomic factors (good for economy, fostering materialism, corrupting values, and falsity/no-sense). The proposed 7-factor model was tested on two independent samples: col...
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Contents: Preface. Introduction. The Law's View of Deception as a Legal Concept. The Law's View of Deceptiveness as a Behavioral Concept. Behavioral Researchers' View of Deceptiveness as a Behavioral Concept. A Proposed Theory and Definition of Deceptiveness. A Design for the Measurement of Deceptiveness. Pilot Study. Summary. Appendices: Original...
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China's adoption of advertising in its pursuit of modernization is traced. How Chinese consumers currently react to advertising, yesterday's villain, is documented. Chinese consumers were very positive about advertising and its consequences but disliked some aspects of current ads from Chinese firms and perceive them to be inferior to those of fore...
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In the last decade, both men and women in the United States, Denmark, Greece and New Zealand have become more critical of sexism in advertising, but less inclined towards product boycotts. Women are more critical than men, and the more critical are more boycott-inclined, but few are motivated to put their money where their mouth is, even after cons...
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This paper reviews the regrets and fears expressed by North American scholars about the commercialization of culture and presents a method for measuring the cultural character of advertising. This content analysis of manifest values yields a value profile of advertising and shows high consistency over time and across media. There is, however, a low...
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Cigarette advertising has often used health appeals, but has rarely been informative about health effects. Many historical examples and Canadian data suggest that the Ringold and Calfee [1989] data on “health information” must be very cautiously interpreted. To be carefully considered are their conservative definition of “health,” liberal definitio...
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The history of advertising seems destined to be very negative in its judgement about its social and cultural consequences. The regrets and fears of many prominent scholars about the commercialisation and marketisation of cultures are summarised. A method for measuring and monitoring the cultural character of advertising, the cultural values express...
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Responding to Holbrook's questioning of "what's unfair" in "The Distorted Mirror," the author extends the discussion of advertising's cultural impact on values. He examines the validity of the model Holbrook assumes to be implicit and provides a more explicit statement of the essential argument. He accepts some but refutes many aspects of the criti...
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Responding to Holbrook's questioning of “what's unfair” in “The Distorted Mirror,” the author extends the discussion of advertising's cultural impact on values. He examines the validity of the model Holbrook assumes to be implicit and provides a more explicit statement of the essential argument. He accepts some but refutes many aspects of the criti...
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The tactics and techniques of advertising are examined by a content analysis of 2,000 print ads drawn from the 10 largest selling magazines for each of the first eight decades of the 20th century. A decade-by-decade analysis is presented, identifying fads and trends in tactics and styles of print ads.
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This article reviews the work of significant humanities and social science scholars for their thoughts and theories about advertising's social and cultural consequences. In brief, they view advertising as instrusive and environmental and its effects as inescapable and profound. They see it as reinforcing materialism, cynicism, irrationality, selfis...
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This article reviews the work of significant humanities and social science scholars for their thoughts and theories about advertising's social and cultural consequences. In brief, they view advertising as instrusive and environmental and its effects as inescapable and profound. They see it as reinforcing materialism, cynicism, irrationality, selfis...
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Content analyses of US and Japanese magazine advertisements featuring products and services in a home setting reveal several significant differences over time and support hypotheses based on comparative cultural values and economic conditions. As expected, recent Japanese advertising has increasingly emphasised status to a much greater degree than...
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The tactics and techniques of advertising are examined by a content analysis of 2,000 print ads drawn from the 10 largest selling magazines for each of the first eight decades of the 20th century. A decade-by-decade analysis is presented, identifying fads and trends in tactics and styles of print ads.
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Using a longitudinal content analysis of advertisements appearing in popular U.S. magazines between 1900 and 1980, we assess the image of life depicted during this period. While little evidence is found to support some critics' contention that advertising has visually portrayed a progressively more luxurious and comfortable lifestyle, the themes em...
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Study of Canadian and U.S. television ads finds that they present little information.
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Despite the acknowledged benefits of wide participation in major administrative decisions in a university, few mechanisms for securing such participation exist.The normal method is the formation of an elected or appointed committee, a relatively crude means of processing complex data on the relative preferences and minority views inherent in many e...
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A Nation Unaware: the Canadian Economic Culture. By HardinHerschel. Vancouver, J. J. Douglas Ltd., 1974. Pp. 378. $10.95. - Volume 50 Issue 1 - Richard W. Pollay
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This paper throws doubt on the direct relationship between the difficulty of a decision problem and decision time. A formal theory is proposed, hypothesizing that decision makers take longer to choose from four alternatives when two of the alternatives are easily rejected than when all four alternatives are equal. The results of laboratory experime...
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Using the notion that decision makers will terminate the decision process when the perceived effort of analysis exceeds the corresponding perceived utility, the model predicts that decision makers in difficult situations will take less time when all the alternatives are equally attractive than when some alternatives are inferior and easily rejected...
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Biographical Note: An internationally recognized authority on how cigarette com-panies design and use advertising to attract and keep new smokers, Professor Pollay has served as an expert witness in several recent lawsuits against the tobacco in-dustry in Canada and the United States. He currently serves as consultant to the U.S. Surgeon General's...
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Chicago, Graduate School of Business. Includes bibliographical references.
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In a laboratory study the agency-client interaction was viewed as a multi-person negotiations relationship. Models tested showed different amounts of (1) trust in the agency's presentations, (2) memory of past agency behavior, and (3) "rational" decision making (versus attempts to influence socially). Failure of agencies to keep their promises prec...
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In a laboratory study the agency-client interaction was viewed as a multiperson negotiations relationship. Models tested showed different amounts of (1) trust in the agency's presentations, (2) memory of past agency behavior, and (3) “rational” decision making (versus attempts to influence socially). Failure of agencies to keep their promises preci...
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Provides a perspective by which to look at interactions within a family unit (notably man and wife) that lead to purchasing decisions by that unit. Reveals a model for analysing the interactions of family members in decision making. Discusses the interaction processes influencing perceptions of priority, utility and debt. Looks at the differences o...
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Although the concept of role differentiation is widely used and widely researched, there has been little consensus on either the definition or the measurement of the concept. Most measures of role differentiation represent crude simplifications of the concept. By using vector notation, the author suggests a measure of role differentiation which ref...
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The role of the child as an influencer of consumer decisions was investigated by studying the interaction between mother and child. Purchase behavior by the mother of a child's preferred packaged cereals was related to the child's assertiveness and the mother's child-centeredness.
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The role of the child as an influencer of consumer decisions was investigated by studying the interaction between mother and child. Purchase behavior by the mother of a child's preferred packaged cereals was related to the child's assertiveness and the mother's child-centeredness.

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