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Richard Edward Palmer

Richard Edward Palmer
Swansea University/Nanjing University · Engineering/Physics

Professor

About

510
Publications
63,994
Reads
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13,108
Citations
Introduction
Research: Nanoparticles (clusters); scale-up; atomic structure/dynamics via STEM. STM manipulation. Energy/catalysis; IT; biomed, theranostics. Cambridge: MA, PhD; 1851, Clare College, Royal Society Fellowships. Birmingham: 1st UK nanoscience centre (1994). IOP Medal, Dr h.c. (Hasselt), BVC Medal, EPSRC Fellow. FInstP, FRSC, FLSW. 450 papers, h=62; 18 patent families. Spin-outs: Inanovate, Irresistible, Grove. Editor, Advances in Physics: X (T&F); Frontiers of Nanoscience (Elsevier Book Series).
Additional affiliations
April 2015 - present
Nanjing University
Position
  • Professor
April 2004 - present
Swansea University
Position
  • Fellow
October 1994 - February 2017
University of Birmingham
Position
  • Professor
Education
October 1980 - June 1983
Trinity Hall, Cambridge University
Field of study
  • Natural Sciences
September 1973 - July 1980
Olchfa School
Field of study
  • High School

Publications

Publications (510)
Article
Full-text available
We report the use of face mask materials as a carbon precursor for the synthesis of multi- and single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in an open-loop chemical recycling process. Novel surgical mask precursors were suspended in toluene and injected into a chemical vapor deposition reactor previously optimized for CNT production using liquid injection...
Preprint
Silver clusters up to 1000 atoms in size, on an amorphous carbon film, have been exposed to ambient air and investigated by atomic resolution imaging in the aberration-corrected Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope (ac-STEM). Ordered structures comprise more than half the population, the rest are amorphous. Of ordered isomer structures the mos...
Article
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Neuromorphic computing systems may be the future of computing and cluster-based networks are a promising architecture for the realization of these systems. The creation and dissolution of synapses between the clusters are of great importance for their function. In this work, we model the thermal breakage of a gold nanofilament located between two g...
Article
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The development of hydrogen sensors is of paramount importance for timely leak detection and remains a crucial unmet need. Palladium‐based materials, well known as hydrogen sensors, still suffer from poisoning and deactivation. Here, a hybrid hydrogen sensor consisting of a Pd nanocluster (NC) film, a metal–organic framework (MOF), and a polymer, a...
Article
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Abstract: Silver (Ag) nanoparticles were successfully prepared by using the in-liquid pulsed plasmatechnique. This method is based on a low voltage, pulsed spark discharge in a dielectric liquid. We explore the effect of the protecting ligands, specifically Cetyl Trimethylammonium Bromide (CTAB), Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), and Sodium n-Dodecyl Sul...
Article
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Raman spectroscopy has been commonly used in materials science to detect chemicals. Based on inelastic scattering of light after incident photons interact with a molecule, it has high potential for non-destructive detection of specific contaminants in living biological specimens. The increasing use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) increases its chance to...
Article
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The hydrogenation of alkynes is an important reaction in the synthesis of both fine and bulk chemicals. Palladium-based catalysts are widely used and therefore size-selected Pd nanoclusters may provide enhanced performance. An investigation of the adsorption and desorption of the molecules involved in the reaction can shed light on the activity and...
Article
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For every three people on the planet, there are approximately two Tonnes (Te) of plastic waste. We show that carbon recovery from polystyrene (PS) plastic is enhanced by the coaddition of solvents to grow carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by liquid injection chemical vapour deposition. Polystyrene was loaded up to 4 wt% in toluene and heated to 780 °C in the...
Preprint
Full-text available
For every three people on the planet there is approximately two Tonne (Te) of available plastic waste. We show that carbon recovery from polystyrene (PS) plastic is enhanced by the co-addition to solvents to grow carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by liquid injection chemical vapour deposition. Polystyrene was loaded up to 4 wt% in toluene and heated to 780 °...
Article
Full-text available
The simulation and analysis of the thermal stability of nanoparticles, a stepping stone towards their application in technological devices, require fast and accurate force fields, in conjunction with effective characterisation methods. In this work, we develop efficient, transferable, and interpretable machine learning force fields for gold nanopar...
Article
Micrometer long multilayer carbon nanoribbons with high oxygen content and nitrogen doping were obtained from the nitric acid treatment of Black Pearls 2000. The nanoribbons (NRs) exhibited yellow light emission under UV excitation. The oxidation of other grades of carbon black yielded irregular and small graphene oxide fragments or carbon quantum...
Preprint
Full-text available
We develop efficient, accurate, transferable, and interpretable machine learning force fields for Au nanoparticles, based on data gathered from Density Functional Theory calculations. We then use them to investigate the thermodynamic stability of Au nanoparticles of different sizes (1 to 6 nm), containing up to 6266 atoms, with respect to a solid-l...
Article
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Materials show various responses to incident light, owing to their unique dielectric functions. A well-known example is the distinct colors displayed by metals, providing probably the simplest method to identify gold, silver, and bronze since ancient times. With the advancement of nanotechnology, optical structures with feature sizes smaller than t...
Article
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Scanning transmission electron microscopy experiments indicate that face-centered cubic (FCC) is the predominant ordered structure for Ag309 ± 7 nanoclusters, synthesized in vacuum. Historically, experiments do not present a consensus on the morphology at these sizes, whereas theoretical studies find the icosahedral symmetry for Ag309 and the decah...
Article
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Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) relies on adsorbing target molecules onto metal nanostructures where the light can resonantly couple with localised surface plasmon resonances. These plasmons can be tuned by changing the nanostructure size, shape, spacing and composition, but this is a complex process. Therefore, having an experimental me...
Article
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Microporous carbons were prepared starting from a series of benzene polycarboxylic acids following two strategies: (i) activation- and template-free pyrolysis and (ii) ion-exchange pyrolysis. The proposed synthetic strategies are facile approaches to produce highly microporous carbons that avoid the use of large amounts of corrosive and expensive c...
Article
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Nanostructured palladium catalysts are used industrially for selective alkyne hydrogenation reactions. However, structural changes can lead to a loss of performance. In this study, we show the evolution of the atomic structure of monodispersed Pd nanoclusters undergoing a vapour-phase 1-pentyne hydrogenation reaction. A specific structural transfor...
Article
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Hybrid nanostructures of size-selected nanoparticles (NPs) and 2D materials exhibit striking physical and chemical properties and are attractive for many technology applications. A major issue for the performance of these applications is device stability. In this work, we investigate the bonding of cuboctahedral, decahedral and icosahedral Au NPs c...
Preprint
Full-text available
State-of-the-art electrocatalysts for electrolyzer and fuel cell applications currently rely on platinum group metals, which are costly and subject to supply risks. In recent years, a vast collection of research has explored the possibility of reducing the Pt content in such catalysts by alloying with earth-abundant and cheap metals, enabling co-op...
Article
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A new and environmentally friendly non-caustic route to synthesize ultramicroporous carbon spheres (CS) via a simple one-step non-catalytic and activation-free chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method is described. The CVD method was applied at different temperatures, 600-900 °C; 800 °C was identified as the optimum for CS formation using a safe soli...
Article
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A sol-immobilization method is used to synthesize a series of highly active and stable Au x Pd1-x/TiO2 catalysts (where x = 0, 0.13, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 0.87 and 1) for wastewater remediation. The catalytic performance of the materials was evaluated for the catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol, a model wastewater contaminant, using NaBH4 as the reduci...
Article
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The injection of electrons from the scanning tunneling microscope tip can be used to perform nanoscale chemistry and study hot electron transport through surfaces. While non-local manipulation has been demonstrated primarily for aromatic adsorbates, here we confirm that oxygen atoms bonded to the Si(111) surface can also be non-locally manipulated,...
Article
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Surface properties of cathode materials play important roles in the transport of lithium-ions/electrons and the formation of surface passivation layer. Optimizing the exposed crystal facets of cathode materials can promote the diffusion of lithium-ions and enhance cathode surface stability, which may ultimately dominate cathode’s performance and st...
Article
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Gold nanoparticles prepared by colloidal methods are effective catalysts for selective glycerol oxidation under basic conditions. Large-scale synthesis of catalysts by wet chemical methods leads to large amounts of waste and can result in polymer or salt residues remaining on the catalyst. In contrast, gas phase cluster deposition (cluster beam dep...
Article
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Nanostructured gold is an intriguing system for heterogeneous catalysis at low temperature. Its activity is related to choice of support selection, particle-support interaction, and especially the particle size. Here, we investigate the possibility of controlling the size of Au clusters (nanoparticles) in the novel Matrix Assembly Cluster Source (M...
Article
Full-text available
The deposition of precisely controlled clusters from the beam onto suitable supports represents a novel method to prepare advanced cluster-based catalysts. In principle, cluster size, composition and morphology can be tuned or selected prior to deposition. The newly invented Matrix Assembly Cluster Source (MACS) offers one solution to the longstand...
Article
Full-text available
In this work, Pt-Ti core-shell nanoparticles (NP) of 2 nm to 3 nm in size and 30000 u ± 1500 u as specified single particle mass, deposited on flat silicon substrates by means of a mass-selected cluster beam source, were used for the investigation of the modification of the X-Ray Standing Wave (XSW) field intensity with increasing NP surface covera...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this work, Pt-Ti core-shell nanoparticles (NP) of 2 nm to 3 nm in size and 30000 u \pm 1500 u as specified single particle mass, deposited on flat silicon substrates by means of a mass-selected cluster beam source, were used for the investigation of the modification of the X-Ray Standing Wave (XSW) field intensity with increasing NP surface cove...
Article
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The atomic configuration of nanoparticles is key to their properties, in a way that resembles the structure-function correlation of biomolecules, and depends on the growth mechanism. Coalescence is often an important step in the growth of nanoparticles, both in liquid and in the gas phase. In coalescence, two preformed clusters collide and merge to...
Article
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We report a new approach to design flexible functional material platforms based on electropolymerized polyaniline (PANI) polymer nanofilms modified with bimetallic nanoclusters (NCs) for efficient electro-oxidation of small organic molecules. Composition defined ligand free Pt0.75Ni0.25 NCs were synthesized in gas phase using the Cluster Beam Depos...
Article
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The development of non-platinum group metal catalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in water electrolyser devices is essential for their widespread and sustainable deployment. In recent years, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) catalysts have received significant attention as they not only exhibit good electrocatalytic HER activity but also, c...
Article
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Cluster beam deposition is a solvent-free method to prepare films of nanoparticles, one obvious application being heterogeneous catalysis. To address the problem of low cluster deposition rates, a novel cluster beam source, the “Matrix Assembly Cluster Source” was invented recently. Following the proof of principle studies, here, we demonstrate a f...
Article
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Understanding the atomistic formation of oxide layers on semiconductors is important for thin film fabrication, scaling down conventional devices and for the integration of emerging research materials. Here, the initial oxidation of Si(111) is studied using the scanning tunneling microscope. Prior to the complete saturation of the silicon surface w...
Article
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Semihydrogenation of acetylene (SHA) in ethylene-rich stream is an important process for the polymer industries. Presently, Pd-based catalysts have demonstrated good acetylene conversion (XC2H2); however, at the expense of ethylene selectivity (SC2H4). In this study, we have employed a systematic approach using density functional theory (DFT) to id...
Article
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Platinum is the most active anode and cathode catalyst in next-generation fuel cells using methanol as liquid source of hydrogen. Its catalytic activity can be significantly improved by alloying with 3d metals, although a precise tuning of its surface architecture is still required. Herein, we report the design of a highly active low temperature (b...
Article
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The matrix assembly cluster source (MACS) represents a bridge between conventional instruments for cluster beam deposition (CBD) and the level of industrial production. The method is based on Ar⁺ ion sputtering of a pre-condensed Ar-M matrix (where M, is typically a metal such as Ag). Each Ar⁺ ion produces a collision cascade and thus the formation...
Article
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The diffusion of a three-legged molecule, CH3S-Au-SCH3, on Au(111) has been investigated using scanning tunnelling microscopy. Each of the two S atoms forms a bond with a Au atom in the Au(111) substrate. The Au atom in the molecule provides the third anchoring point via its interaction with Au(111). CH3S-Au-SCH3 hops as a single unit without break...
Article
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Although the changes in melting behaviour on the nanoscale have long attracted the interest of researchers, the mechanism by which nanoparticles melt remains an open problem. We report the direct observation, at atomic resolution, of surface melting in individual size-selected Au clusters (2-5 nm diameter) supported on carbon films, using an in sit...
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The potential hazard posed by nanomaterials can be significantly influenced by transformations which these materials undergo during their lifecycle, from manufacturing through to disposal. The transformations may depend on the nanomaterials' own physicochemical properties as well as the environment they are exposed to. This study focuses on the mec...
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In crystals, microscopic energy flow is governed by electronic and vibrational excitations. In nanoscale materials, however, translations and rotations of entire nanoparticles represent additional fundamental excitations. The observation of such motions is elusive as most ultrafast techniques are insensitive to motions of the phonons’ frame of refe...
Article
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The atomic structure of size-selected Pt clusters in the range 10-600 atoms is investigated with aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and reveals significantly different behaviour from the existing data for Au clusters. The Pt clusters show a dominance of the FCC motif from relatively small sizes, whereas traditionally for...
Article
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It is hard to predict the future of science. For example, when C60 and its structure were identified from the mass spectra of gas phase carbon clusters, few could have predicted the era of carbon nanotechnology which the discovery introduced. The solubilization and functionalization of C60, the identification and then synthesis of carbon nanotubes,...
Article
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The response of nanoparticles to exposure to ambient conditions and especially oxidation is fundamental to the application of nanotechnology. Bimetallic platinum–titanium nanoparticles of selected mass, 30 kDa and 90 kDa, were produced using a magnetron sputtering gas condensation cluster source and deposited onto amorphous carbon TEM grids. The na...