Richard J Meldrum

Richard J Meldrum
Ryerson University · School of Occupational and Public Health

Doctor of Philosophy

About

50
Publications
6,502
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954
Citations

Publications

Publications (50)
Article
Introduction Beef and bean sprouts have often been implicated in foodborne illness (FBI) outbreaks. The traditional Vietnamese dish, Pho, uses both as its main ingredients and, therefore, presents significant concerns from a food safety perspective. The present study investigated food safety concerns associated with Pho through the detection of tot...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted several challenges for Environmental Public Health Professionals (EPHPs). This study aims to understand the experiences of EPHPs during the pandemic to improve future crises and incidents that may arise. A mixed-methods, cross-sectional online survey was conducted in June 2021. Frequency tabulations were used t...
Article
Case and contact management (CCM) teams play a vital role in the COVID-19 pandemic response. This study aims to understand the experiences of CCM team members during the COVID-19 pandemic to identify areas of improvement for future crises. A mixed-methods, cross-sectional online survey was conducted from November 2020 to March 2021. There were a to...
Article
Environmental Public Health Professionals (EPHPs) have been playing a significant role in the COVID-19 pandemic response. This study examines the lived experiences of EPHPs during the COVID-19 pandemic and explores short- and long long-term strategies to address the challenges of EPHPs. A mixed-method, cross-sectional online survey was conducted in...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objectives: To investigate how and why Canadians engaged in different food handling and hand hygiene behaviours during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Seven online, text-based focus groups were conducted with a total of 42 participants. Eligible participants included adults living in Canada that prepared meals at home at least once per week. Focus...
Article
Full-text available
Public health engagement in the communication, discussion, and development of climate change policies is essential for climate change policy decisions and discourse. This study examines how the existing governance approaches impact, enable, or constrain the inclusion, participation, and deliberation of public health stakeholders in the climate chan...
Article
Previous surveys have found that few Canadians report using a food thermometer to check cooking doneness, and many report rinsing or washing poultry prior to cooking. A cross-sectional survey study was conducted to investigate the sociodemographic and psychosocial determinants of the reported use of these behaviors among Canadians. A questionnaire...
Article
The use of electronic menus within the food industry is rapidly expanding. Currently, the role of electronic menus as a vehicle for pathogens has not been explored within the restaurant setting. This preliminary study was conducted to assess the hygienic cleanliness of electronic menus and identify if their use in all-you-can-eat (AYCE) sushi resta...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this paper was to characterize the role of the current West Nile Virus (WNV) surveillance in supporting the identification of and public health preparedness for other emerging mosquito-borne diseases in Canada. We systematically reviewed publicly accessible WNV surveillance records published within the federal, provincial (n = 10),...
Chapter
Lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) that breed in subarctic and arctic Canada are overabundant due to a number of anthropogenic influences, including climate change. In 2011, First Nations Cree from subarctic Ontario, Canada, participated in a regional spring harvest of overabundant snow geese—these geese have caused desertification...
Article
Various psychosocial and organizational factors have been investigated as determinants of food handlers’ food safety behaviours. A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies in this area was conducted to identify and synthesize the key behavioural determinants. Standard systematic review steps were followed: comprehensive search strategy; relev...
Article
Theories of behaviour change can explain the factors affecting food handlers’ use of food safety practices. A systematic review was conducted on this topic to identify which theories have been applied in this area and to determine which theories are the most consistent predictors of food handlers’ behaviours. Standard systematic review procedures w...
Article
Foodborne disease outbreaks are frequently associated with improper food handling at retail and food service settings, indicating a need to improve food safety practices among food handlers. Many qualitative research studies have been conducted to examine food handlers' opinions, perspectives, and experiences with safe food handling in an effort to...
Article
Keeping self-serve milk below 4 °C may become difficult for a food premise operator who relies on the use of insulated containers for several hours. Although milk sold in Canada is pasteurized, it may have the potential to cause illness if exposed to improper temperatures. The primary objective of this study was to demonstrate which product would b...
Article
Custard poses a health risk as it can support microbial growth; however, few studies have investigated custard tarts as a potential hazard. Custard tarts were sampled from 14 Toronto bakeries for microbial quality, pH, and water activity. The custard tarts displayed the ability to support microbial growth, with a pH of between 6.3 and 6.5 and a wat...
Article
Consumers often engage in unsafe food handling behaviors at home. Previous studies have investigated the ability of behavior-change theories to explain and predict these behaviors. The purpose of this review was to determine which theories are most consistently associated with consumers' safe food handling behaviors across the published literature....
Article
Consumers often engage in unsafe food handling practices at home, and various psychosocial and health-status constructs have been investigated to attempt to explain the underlying reasons affecting consumers' use of such practices. We conducted a systematic review of these studies to synthesize the associations between psychosocial and health-statu...
Article
Full-text available
Consumable ice presents a potential hazard due to microbiological contamination. To investigate the microbiological quality and handling practices of ice served in selected food premises in downtown Toronto, Ontario, 64 ice samples were collected from 40 food establishments. The ice samples were tested for the presence/absence of total coliforms an...
Article
Introduction: Avian influenza virus (AIV) prevalence has been associated with wild game and other bird species. The contamination of these birds may pose a greater risk to those who regularly hunt and consumed infected species. Due to resident concerns communicated by local Band Council, hunter-harvested birds from a remote First Nation community...
Article
ABSTRACT Occupational exposures resulting from Engineered Nanomaterials (ENMs) can pose a challenge for applying traditional risk assessment, control, or evaluation standards. This review article discusses the limitations in traditional risk management approaches when it comes to ENM exposures, reviews current monitoring options, and suggests an in...
Article
Full-text available
Background There is concern of avian influenza virus (AIV) infections in humans. Subsistence hunters may be a potential risk group for AIV infections as they frequently come into close contact with wild birds and the aquatic habitats of birds while harvesting. This study aimed to examine if knowledge and risk perception of avian influenza influence...
Article
It is common during outdoor events on Prince Edward Island, Canada for vendors to store hot-cooked mussels in domestic coolers. Provincial legislation states that hot product should be maintained at a minimum of 60 °C. A study was conducted to ascertain how long mussels could be stored before the temperature decreased to less than 60 °C. Hot, cooke...
Article
Most Campylobacter cases are treated as low risk enterics (LRE) and receive a mailed letter from Toronto Public Health (TPH) with a questionnaire to gather basic risk information. This study sought to identify reasons why Campylobacter cases who were sent this questionnaire did not respond to the letter and to determine whether any of these cases w...
Article
A study of the microbiological quality of cooked, sliced vacuum-packed meat was undertaken. Three hundred and eighty-one samples were taken (127 sets of three samples) from 55 commercial premises that produced packets of sliced, cooked, vacuum-packed meat for retail sale. The set of three samples consisted of one from the unsliced, cooked meat, one...
Article
The Welsh Food Microbiological Forum "shopping basket" survey is a long running, structured surveillance program examining ready-to-eat food randomly sampled from the point of sale or service in Wales, United Kingdom. The annual unsatisfactory rates for selected indicators and pathogens for 1998 through 2008 were examined. All the annual unsatisfac...
Article
A survey of Listeria in ready-to-eat food took place in Wales, United Kingdom, between February 2008 and January 2009. In total, 5,840 samples were taken and examined for the presence of Listeria species, including L. monocytogenes. Samples were tested using detection and enumeration methods, and the results were compared with current United Kingdo...
Article
The purpose of this study was to establish the microbiological safety of salad vegetables and sauces served in kebab take-away restaurants. Comparison with published microbiological guidelines revealed that 4.7% of 1213 salad vegetable samples were of unsatisfactory microbiological quality due to Escherichia coli and/or Staphylococcus aureus levels...
Article
A survey of the general microbiological quality of ready-to-eat food served in schools was undertaken across Wales, United Kingdom. Of the 2,351 samples taken, four were identified as containing unsatisfactory counts of Escherichia coli, four contained unsatisfactory counts of Staphylococcus aureus, and one contained an unacceptable count of Bacill...
Article
This survey was launched after an unusual number of Salmonella Enteritidis outbreaks associated with the use of eggs in food service premises in England and Wales. Between November 2005 and December 2006, 9,528 eggs (1,588 pooled samples of 6 eggs) were collected from 1,567 food service premises in the United Kingdom, most of which (89%) were produ...
Article
The United Kingdom Food Standards Agency commissioned a survey of Salmonella and Campylobacter in raw, whole chickens at retail in Wales and Northern Ireland between March and December 2005 to measure the baseline prevalence rates of these two significant pathogens. In total, 877 retail samples were examined for Campylobacter and Salmonella by enri...
Article
A survey for the presence of Listeria monocytogenes in hospital sandwiches was carried out in Wales, United Kingdom, between October 2005 and March 2006. The main aim of the survey was to establish the baseline rate of L. monocytogenes in hospital sandwiches after an outbreak of listeriosis among hospital patients in 2004 was epidemiologically link...
Article
Since 1995, the publicly funded ready-to-eat food sampling and examination activities in Wales have been coordinated and structured, using a novel approach for the identification of samples and premises. The latest set of data from this surveillance system reports the results from 3391 ready-to-eat foods sampled between November 2003 and March 2005...
Article
A 36-month study of Campylobacter and Salmonella in retail raw whole chicken was carried out to measure baseline rates at the retail level, establish seasonality, and observe changes in rates over time. In total, 2,228 samples were taken between November 2001 and December 2004. The Campylobacter rate was unchanged over the 3 years of the study, but...
Article
The coordination of food sampling activities across Wales, a part of the United Kingdom with a population of approximately 3 million, led to the establishment in 1995 of a coordinated food-sampling program designed to monitor on a long-term basis the microbiological quality and safety of specific ready-to-eat products. This surveillance system has...
Article
A survey of the Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination of raw, whole chickens available to consumers in Wales was performed between March and December 2003. In total, 736 samples were taken, and overall contamination rates of 73.1% for Campylobacter and 5.7% for Salmonella were found. This survey follows a survey performed during 2001 to 2002 b...
Article
Full-text available
Seasonal peaks in both human campylobacter infections and poultry isolates have been observed in several European countries but remain unexplained. We compared weekly data on human campylobacter infections with thermophilic Campylobacter isolation rates from fresh, retail chicken samples (n = 514) purchased weekly in Wales between January and Decem...
Article
The method of data collection from the Welsh 'shopping basket' ready-to-eat food sampling programme has recently been reviewed, with the principal aim of reducing the resources required for inputting and audit of data. The subsequent improvements made have been primarily software based and they have made data collection, audit and analysis signific...
Article
The Public Health Laboratory Service in Wales, in cooperation with local authorities and the Food Standards Agency Wales, carried out a survey to establish baseline figures for the contamination of raw retail chicken with Salmonella and Campylobacter available within Wales, a devolved part of the United Kingdom with a population of approximately 3...
Article
An Intel-laboratory study was conducted for the validation of 3 methods for the detection of all verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) in foods. The methods were a multi-analyte 1-step lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) for detection ofE. coli O157 and verotoxin (VT); an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay targeted against VT1, VT2, and VT2c (VT-E...
Article
Ready-to-eat foods at retail and catering establishments were randomly sampled at the point of sale for a period of 15 months. During this period, 4,469 food samples were examined for the presence of Campylobacter with the use of plate-based methodology. A range of different ready-to-eat food types, all of which have the potential to be contaminate...
Article
In the United Kingdom, the monitoring of microbiological food quality and the prevention of foodborne disease are the responsibility of a number of different organizations. In 1993, to develop and extend ongoing local collaborations within selected local food groups in Wales (comprising local authorities and the Public Health Laboratory Service), t...
Article
A study into the growth of Listeria monocytogenes Scott A investigated the effects of cell immobilization, varying sucrose concentrations (as a humectant) and alteration of initial pH at 10°C. Three conclusions were drawn from this study. Firstly, it was found that the growth rate of the organism was affected by immobilization, increasing sucrose c...
Article
Full-text available
In January 1999, an outbreak of viral gastroenteritis affected more than 300 people who attended a metropolitan concert hall over a 5-day period. Norwalk-like virus (NLV) was confirmed in faecal samples by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay. The index case was a concert attendee who vomited in the auditorium and adjacent male toi...
Article
Two hundred thirty-six randomly selected food and milk samples were examined to obtain aerobic colony counts by two dry sheet media methods and a standard Public Health Laboratory Service spiral plate method. Results for 40 samples were outside the limits of detection for one or more of the tested methods and were not considered. (The limits of det...
Article
Twenty-seven percent of water samples taken from one spa and two hydrotherapy pools in one Welsh hospital over three months contained Staphylococcus aureus. Four per cent of samples were deemed unacceptable because they contained coliforms, E. coli or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Aerobic colony counts varied between samples but no counts were > 100 cfu/...

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