Richard David Mattes

Richard David Mattes
Purdue University | Purdue · Department of Nutrition Science

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303
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Publications

Publications (303)
Article
The ASN Board of Directors appointed the Nutrition Research Task Force to develop a report on scientific methods used in nutrition science to advance discovery, interpretation, and application of knowledge in the field. The genesis of this report was growing concern about the tone of discourse among nutrition professionals and the implications of a...
Article
As the obesity epidemic continues, there is a great need for safe and effective weight loss aids. A superabsorbent hydrogel device administered as a capsule demonstrates potential for weight loss, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. The present study's goal was to determine the mechanisms of action of the hydrogel through the investigation...
Article
Background Peanut consumption has little effect on body weight, despite its high energy density and is associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that the consumption of whole peanut would be associated with greater improvements in body composition, lipid profile, and biomarkers of inflammation...
Article
Energy intake is the product of portion size (PS)-the energy content of an ingestive event-and ingestive frequency (IF)-the number of ingestive events per unit time. An uncompensated alteration in either PS or IF would result in a change in energy intake and body weight if maintained over time. The objective of this meta-analysis was to assess the...
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Importance The 2020 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee conducted a systematic review of existing research on diet and health to inform the current Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The committee answered this public health question: what is the association between dietary patterns consumed and all-cause mortality (ACM)? Objective To ascertain t...
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The purpose of this study was to determine if the mixed evidence of almond consumption on HbA1c stems from testing people with different body fat distributions (BFD) associated with different risks of glucose intolerance. A 6-month RCT in 134 adults was conducted. Participants were randomly assigned to the almond (A) or control (C) group based on t...
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Sweetness is a sensation that contributes to the palatability of foods, which is the primary driver of food choice. Thus, understanding how to measure the appeal (hedonics) of sweetness and how to modify it are key to effecting dietary change for health. Sweet hedonics is multidimensional so can only be captured by multiple approaches including ass...
Article
Non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) are effective taste stimuli. The quality they impart has not been well characterized. Sourness, and “fattiness” have been reported, but an irritation component has also been described and how these transition with gradations of aliphatic chain length has not been systematically studied. This study examined intensit...
Chapter
Sweetness is a universally appreciated taste sensation that drives the intake of many foods and beverages. Public health organizations have made recommendations to limit nutritive sweeteners added to products due to their potential contribution to chronic disease risk. Low calorie sweeteners are increasingly consumed to mitigate these risks with va...
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In November 2019, the NIH held the “Sensory Nutrition and Disease” workshop to challenge multidisciplinary researchers working at the interface of sensory science, food science, psychology, neuroscience, nutrition, and health sciences to explore how chemosensation influences dietary choice and health. This report summarizes deliberations of the wor...
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Various global public health agencies recommend minimizing exposure to sweet-tasting foods or beverages. The underlying rationale is that reducing exposure to the perception of sweet tastes, without regard to the source of sweetness, may reduce preferences for sweetness, added sugar intake, caloric intake, and body weight. However, the veracity of...
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Training to ensure good documentation practices and adherence to regulatory requirements in human nutrition randomized controlled trials has not been given sufficient attention. Furthermore, it is difficult to find this information conveniently organized or in a form relevant to nutrition protocols. Current gaps in training and research surveillanc...
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Snacks, while widely consumed in the United States (U.S.), do not have a standard definition, complicating research to understand associations, if any, with weight status. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the association between snacking frequency and weight status using various snacking definitions that exist in the scientific l...
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Low calorie sweeteners (LCS) are prevalent in the food supply for their primary functional property of providing sweetness with little or no energy. Though tested for safety individually, there has been extremely limited work on the efficacy of each LCS. It is commonly assumed all LCS act similarly in their behavioral and physiological effects. How...
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The low digestibility and high satiety effects of nuts have been partly attributed to mastication. This work examines chewing forces and the bolus particle size of nuts (walnuts, almonds, pistachios) varying in physical properties under different conditions (with and without water, juice, sweetened yogurt and plain yogurt) along with satiety sensat...
Article
Background Low-calorie sweeteners are often used to moderate energy intake and postprandial glycemia, but some evidence indicates that they may exacerbate these aims. Objective The trial's primary aim was to assess the effect of daily aspartame ingestion for 12 wk on glycemia. Effects on appetite and body weight were secondary aims. Methods One h...
Article
The purpose of the study was to examine the role of the cephalic phase insulin response (CPIR) following exposure to nutritive and low-calorie sweeteners in solid and beverage form in overweight and obese adults. In addition, the role of learning on the CPIR to nutritive and low-calorie sweetener exposure was tested. Sixty-four overweight and obese...
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Dietary fats serve multiple essential roles in human health but may also contribute to acute and chronic health complications. Thus, understanding mechanisms that influence fat ingestion are critical. All sensory systems may contribute relevant cues to fat detection, with the most recent evidence supporting a role for the sense of taste. Taste dete...
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Nuts have high energy and fat contents, but nut intake does not promote weight gain or obesity, which may be partially explained by their proposed high satiety value. The primary aim of this study was to assess the effects of consuming almonds versus a baked food on postprandial appetite and neural responses to visual food stimuli. Twenty-two adult...
Article
The post-lunch dip in cognition is a well-established phenomenon of decreased alertness, memory and vigilance after lunch consumption. Lunch composition reportedly influences the post-lunch dip. Moreover, dieting is associated with cognitive function impairments. The negative effects of dieting have been reversed with nut-supplemented diets. The ai...
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Given the increasing evidence that supports the ability of humans to taste non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), recent studies have sought to determine if relationships exist between oral sensitivity to NEFA (measured as thresholds), food intake and obesity. Published findings suggest there is either no association or an inverse association. A system...
Data
Excluded studies based on full-text reading. *Taste sensitivity was determined by assessing whether or not the participant could detect NEFA at a specific concentration. (DOCX)
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Background: Inclusion of almonds in an energy-restricted diet has been reported both to enhance or to have no effect on weight loss. Their effects specifically on visceral body fat stores during energy restriction have not been widely examined. In addition, almond consumption has been associated with reduced blood pressure (BP), but whether this i...
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Dietary fats contribute to the flavor of foods by multiple mechanisms. A role for their taste has only recently gained credence. Current evidence indicates non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) are the effective stimuli for the taste component. CD36 and GPR120 are putative receptors, but may not fully account for the totality of the range of sensations...
Article
Each of the macronutrients—carbohydrate, protein, and fat—has a unique set of properties that influences health, but all are a source of energy. The optimal balance of their contribution to the diet has been a long-standing matter of debate. Over the past half century, thinking has progressed regarding the mechanisms by which each macronutrient may...
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Controlling hunger between meals is a challenge for many individuals. This manuscript comprises 2 sequential clinical trials investigating the effects of psyllium (Metamucil) on satiety, both using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over design. The first study determined the effects of 3.4 g, 6.8 g, and 10.2 g of psyllium taken b...
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Objective To examine temporal trends and determinants of discretionary salt use in the USA. Design Multiple logistic regression was used to assess temporal trends in discretionary salt use at the table and during home cooking/preparation, adjusting for demographic characteristics, using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surve...
Article
Background: Higher protein intake has been implicated in weight management because of its appetitive properties. However, the effects of protein intake on appetitive sensations such as fullness have not been systematically assessed. Meta-analysis is a useful technique to evaluate evidence of an intervention's effect on testable outcomes, but it al...
Chapter
Application of historical knowledge and beliefs about plant-based health remedies has been limited in Western nations. However, with increased awareness of, and interest in, alternative health management techniques has come a growing openness to their potential efficacy for numerous conditions. This chapter focuses on the effects of single pungent...
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Findings from studies examining interactions between fat taste and dietary fat intake or body weight are mixed. A convenience sample of 735 visitors to the Denver Museum of Nature & Science ≥8 years old rated the taste intensity of edible taste strips impregnated with varying concentrations (%v/v) of linoleic acid (LA) (blank = 0.0, low = 0.06, med...
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Considerable mechanistic data indicate there may be a sixth basic taste: fat. However, evidence demonstrating that the sensation of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA, the proposed stimuli for "fat taste") differs qualitatively from other tastes is lacking. Using perceptual mapping, we demonstrate that medium and long-chain NEFA have a taste sensation...
Article
Consuming alcohol prior to a meal (an apéritif) increases food consumption. This greater food consumption may result from increased activity in brain regions that mediate reward and regulate feeding behavior. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we evaluated the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response to the food aromas of either...
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Objective Many individuals have difficulty adhering to a weight loss diet. One possible explanation could be that dietary restriction paradoxically contributes to overconsumption. The objective of this study was to examine ingestive behavior under a forced chocolate restriction with a focus on the anticipatory restriction period and the post-restri...
Chapter
The chemical senses are intimately tied to nutrition. Appetitive and flavor sensations are components of multiple inter-related mechanisms that influence energy and nutrient balance. Hunger promotes the initiation of feeding, satiation influences its termination, and satiety affects the inter-meal interval whereas sensory factors guide food choice....
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Over the past 20 y, higher-protein diets have been touted as a successful strategy to prevent or treat obesity through improvements in body weight management. These improvements are thought to be due, in part, to modulations in energy metabolism, appetite, and energy intake. Recent evidence also supports higher-protein diets for improvements in car...
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This article reviews current research and cross-disciplinary perspectives on the neuroscience of food reward in animals and humans, examines the scientific hypothesis of food addiction, discusses methodological and terminology challenges, and identifies knowledge gaps and future research needs. Topics addressed herein include the role of reward and...
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The sensory properties of food influence food choice, digestion and metabolism. The properties arising from a food’s form, in particular, can alter nutritional outcomes through multiple mechanisms operating at cognitive, orosensory, gastric and intestinal levels of food processing. Expectations regarding a food’s form can influence satiety, sensory...
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Nearly all Americans (97%) report eating candy at least once per year; yet, on a given day, only approximately one-fourth of the US population aged ≥2 y consumes candy. Among all Americans, candy contributes a relatively small proportion of calories, added sugars, and saturated fat to the total diet, and recent research suggests that current levels...
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Health concerns have led to recommendations to replace saturated fats with unsaturated fats. However, addition of unsaturated fatty acids may lead to changes in the way foods are perceived in the oral cavity. This study tested the taste sensitivity to and emulsion characteristics of oleic, linoleic, and α-linolenic acids. The hypothesis tested was...
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Purpose: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria might be an inflammation trigger in adipose tissue. It has recently been proposed that there is a link between adipose tissue distribution and blood LPS. However, the number of studies on this topic is scarce, and further investigation in humans is required. In thi...
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Objective The food environment plays an important and often dominant role in food choice, eating patterns, and ultimately, energy intake. The Obesity Society and the American Society for Nutrition jointly sponsored a series of reviews on topics of interest to both memberships. The goal was to consider the state of understanding on selected issues r...
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"Research Issues: The Food Environment and Obesity" is an article series commissioned by the American Society for Nutrition and The Obesity Society in an attempt to consider the state of understanding on this topic and identify key knowledge gaps. Roberts and Karl focus on the role of energy density in the regulation of energy intake and body weigh...
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Background An increased plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS) concentration may favour metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance. The meal composition influences plasma LPS concentrations. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of the acute consumption of a high-fat meal (49% of energy from fat) containing conventional or high-oleic peanu...
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Objective To evaluate the effects of acute and daily consumption of high-oleic peanuts (HOP) on inflammation and glucose homeostasis in overweight/obese men.Methods In a 4-week randomized clinical trial, males with body mass index of 29.8 ± 2.3 kg/m2 and aged 18-50 years were assigned to the groups: control (CT, n = 22); conventional peanuts (CVP,...
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Background: Protein quality evaluation aims to determine the capacity of food sources and diets to meet protein and indispensable amino acid (IAA) requirements. This study determined whether nitrogen balance was affected and whether dietary IAA were adequately obtained from the ad libitum consumption of diets at three levels of protein from differ...
Article
To realize the health benefits associated with peanut consumption, it is important that they remain acceptable with regular intake. Peanuts are marketed with various flavorings so that consumers will not become fatigued by frequent consumption of any single flavor. This study sought to determine whether liking of peanuts or compliance to a peanut f...
Article
Background: A common dietary recommendation for weight loss, especially in lay public outlets, is to eat more fruit and vegetables (F/Vs). Without a compensatory reduction in total energy intake, significant weight loss would be unlikely. Objective: We aimed to synthesize the best available evidence on the effectiveness of the general recommenda...
Article
Energy-yielding beverages reportedly contribute to positive energy balance uniquely. They are highly consumed and evoke weaker satiety signaling and dietary energy compensation than solid foods of the same energy content. This study measured the contribution of learning to appetitive sensations and adjustments of energy intake for preloads varying...
Article
Fatty acids that vary in chain length and degree of unsaturation have different effects on metabolism and human health. As evidence for a "taste" of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) accumulates, it may be hypothesized that fatty acid structures will also influence oral sensations. This study examined oral sensitivity to caproic (C6), lauric (C12),...
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Tree nuts and peanuts are good sources of many nutrients and antioxidants, but they are also energy dense. The latter often limits intake because of concerns about their possible contribution to positive energy balance. However, evidence to date suggests that nuts are not associated with predicted weight gain. This is largely due to their high sati...
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Objective: Evaluate the effect of high-oleic and conventional peanuts within a hypocaloric-diet on energy metabolism and body composition. Methods: This 4-week randomized clinical trial included males with BMI of 29.7 ± 2.4 kg m(-2) and aged between 18 and 50 years. Participants were assigned to the groups: control (CT, n = 22) that followed a h...
Article
Evidence supporting a “taste” cue from fat in the oral cavity continues to accrue. The proposed stimuli for fat taste, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), are released from food through hydrolytic rancidity and lipase activity derived from foods or saliva. NEFA must then be released from the food matrix, negotiate the aqueous environment to reach ta...
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The protein leverage hypothesis requires specific evidence that protein intake is regulated more strongly than energy intake. The objective was to determine ad libitum energy intake, body weight changes, appetite profile, and nitrogen balance in response to 3 diets with different protein-to-carbohydrate + fat ratios over 12 consecutive days, with b...
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Sensory properties of foods promote and guide consumption in hunger states, whereas satiation should dampen the sensory activation of ingestive behaviors. Such activation may be disordered in obese individuals. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we studied regional brain responses to food odor stimulation in the sated state in obes...
Article
Introduction: Although the majority of sodium intake is estimated to come from commercially processed/restaurant foods, about 11% is estimated to come from discretionary salt added at the table or during home cooking/preparation. Marked changes in U.S. food habits/choices, such as eating out, as well as the demographic composition of the population...
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The objective of this study was to examine the reliability of associations between fat taste, hunger, dietary fat intake, and body mass index (BMI). Detection thresholds for oleic acid (OA) were obtained during each of 7 consecutive visits using a modified staircase procedure. Participants were 48 (N = 17 male; N = 31 female) healthy adults (mean a...
Chapter
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Food form influences food choice, energy intake, and possibly body weight. Expectations and sensory properties related to food form alter behavioral and physiological responses in consumers. Beverages hold weaker appetitive effects and elicit compensatory dietary responses than solid foods. Thirst sensations are stronger and more consistent over th...
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Background: Chronic peanut consumption is associated with health benefits. To encourage consumption, peanuts are marketed with various flavorings, but questions have been raised as to whether seasonings offset the benefits of peanuts alone. Objective: This study sought to determine whether flavorings on peanuts affect health benefits over 12 wk....
Article
Energy intake is a function of the quantity of energy consumed per ingestive event and the number of these events. The marked increase of energy intake and body weight over the past 35years indicates there has been poor precision in the reciprocity of these two facets of intake. With recent study of the associations between gut "satiation" peptides...
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Background/Objectives: Snacks contribute toward a significant proportion of human total daily energy intake. This study investigated the effects of almonds, a satiating and nutrient-rich, common snack, on postprandial glycemia, appetite, short-term body weight and fasting blood parameters when consumed with meals or alone as a snack. Methods: This...
Chapter
Identifying factors contributing to weight gain is critical if the obesity problem is to be adequately addressed. Nutritively sweetened beverage consumption trends closely parallel recent obesity prevalence data. This chapter reviews evidence for and against beverages as drivers of weight gain and also proposes possible mechanisms of action by whic...
Article
Chewing reportedly contributes to satiation and satiety signals. Attempts to document and quantify this have led to small and inconsistent effects. The present trial manipulated oral processing effort though required chewing of gums of different hardness and measured appetitive sensations, energy intake, gastric emptying, GI transit time, and conce...
Article
Detection threshold testing of non-esterified fatty acids (“fat taste”) is time intensive as multiple visits (≥7) are needed to see significant improvements. Streamlining this process is of interest from the perspectives of both researchers and participants. We examined whether or not brief exposure to oleic acid over 10 days would improve detectio...
Article
Non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) are reportedly detectable through taste mechanisms in the human oral cavity. However, wide variability has been observed in NEFA taste sensitivity between and within subjects as well as across research groups. Some of this variability may be due to the hydrophobic nature of the NEFA and the methods used to make sti...