Richard Lee

Richard Lee
University of Minnesota Twin Cities | UMN · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

147
Publications
162,772
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10,686
Citations
Citations since 2017
43 Research Items
6149 Citations
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201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,0001,200

Publications

Publications (147)
Chapter
Children, youth, and families who are displaced from or voluntarily leave their homelands, such as refugees, migrant workers, third culture children and adults, international students and scholars, and transnational adoptees, are largely overlooked in developmental science. Based on their unique migration histories, they experience mixed feelings a...
Article
This exploratory study examined the relation between pubertal timing and dimensions of ethnic‐racial identity among adopted Korean Americans raised transracially in White families. The study also examined whether internalized racism moderated the association between pubertal timing and ethnic‐racial identity. Adopted Korean American adolescents (N...
Preprint
This exploratory study examined the relation between pubertal timing and dimensions of ethnic-racial identity among adopted Korean Americans raised transracially in White families. The study also examined whether internalized racism moderated the association between pubertal timing and ethnic-racial identity. Adopted Korean American adolescents (N...
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Although cross-race friendships seem to benefit racially minoritized students, especially in mitigating the adverse impact of racial discrimination, past research has rarely distinguished between cross-race friendships with majority and minority peers. To address this gap, we examined whether cross-race friendships with majority and minority peers...
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From the Civil Rights Movement to Black Lives Matter, Korean Americans have engaged in collective action in support of Black communities. At the same time, Korean–Black relations are built on a history of tension and conflict including the 1992 Los Angeles Uprising. Drawing on this background of solidarity and tension, we advanced two models to exa...
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Little is known about how Asian American families, as well as other racially marginalized families, communicate about ethnic and racial group histories, particularly regarding historical trauma. Unlike personal trauma, historical trauma refers to distressing or life-threatening events which members of a group with a shared social identity experienc...
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Racially marginalized communities are socially and politically active, yet there is limited work that examines the psychological forces underlying how People of Color engage in cross-racial solidarity and collective action. We propose a model of politicized racial identity and collective action to Asian American participation in own-group collectiv...
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Acculturation unfolds over time, but research on acculturation often does not account for developmental processes. Recent studies introduced several novel temporal concepts of acculturation processes to understand more fully how immigrant youth adapt to new cultural contexts. In this review, we describe these new temporal concepts of acculturation:...
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We present parenting regulatory focus as a theoretical framework to understand parenting goal motivations and describe the development and validation of a 16‐item Parenting Regulatory Focus Scale. Most parenting research is focused on parenting behaviors, but it is also important to understand the goal motivations behind parental approaches to rais...
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Investigating the adoption and use of the host language is one common method for studying acculturation among immigrants. What is less known is how this type of acculturation changes over time and how individual patterns of change can affect other adaptation processes in the host country, for example within families. This study investigated immigra...
Article
Drawing upon diaspora scholarship and social identity theory, we propose a new psychological construct – diasporic identity – to capture how transnationally adopted individuals draw meaning from their migrations, the communities that they construct, and their relationships with their homeland. We describe the development of a new self-report measur...
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Parenting training (PT) can be implemented as a prevention program to effectively address children’s behavioral and psychosocial problems. In the current feasibility study, we implemented the Incredible Years (IY) Attentive Parenting Program as universal/primary prevention in a community mental health setting with racially diverse families. We eval...
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The parenting practices of both transracially adopted Korean American adults and multiracial families are often overlooked in developmental science, yet are important to address, given that the majority of Korean adoptees are now adults with families of their own and given rapid increases in the multiracial population. This qualitative study examin...
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The parenting practices of both transracially adopted Korean American adults and multiracial families are often overlooked in developmental science, yet are important to address given that the majority of Korean adoptees are now adults with families of their own and given rapid increases in the multiracial population. This qualitative study examine...
Preprint
Objective: Utilizing a socialization framework, the study aims to understand the intergenerational patterns of ethnic, racial, and adoption socialization practices. Background: Understanding the impact of ethnicity, race, and adoption is a lifelong process for transracially, transnationally adopted individuals. Few studies, however, have explored h...
Preprint
Parenting training (PT) can be implemented as prevention or intervention to effectively address children’s behavioral and psychosocial problems. In the current study, we described the implementation of the newly developed Incredible Years (IY) Attentive Parenting Program as a universal/primary prevention in a community mental health setting with ra...
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Full-text available
Objective Using a socialization framework, this study aimed to understand the intergenerational patterns of ethnic, racial, and adoption socialization practices. Background Understanding the impact of ethnicity, race, and adoption is a lifelong process for transracially, transnationally adopted individuals. Few studies, however, have explored how...
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Adopted persons increasingly have turned to genetic testing to obtain health information or to search for birth family. The present study investigated psychological factors that may contribute to interest among adoptees and their parents in genetic testing for the adoptee, including adoptees' ethnic identity development, their thoughts or curiosity...
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Objectives Low health literacy has been identified as an important factor linked to negative health outcomes. However, little research has analyzed the relationship between parental health literacy and children’s health outcomes. This is particularly true regarding subgroups of immigrant families, which often face a greater risk of low health liter...
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For adopted individuals, understanding the role of birth family is an important part of developing a coherent life narrative. However, there is limited empirical research on this aspect of the adoption experience. We introduce a new construct, birth family thoughts, that captures a sense of curiosity about birth family, and describe the development...
Chapter
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Despite the fact that acculturation has already been described in early definitions as a concept of change, few conceptual and theoretical advances have been made in how this change may be studied. This chapter highlights the dynamics in acculturation. We specifically introduce the temporal concepts of acculturative timing, tempo, pace, and synchro...
Preprint
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This manuscript explored the themes related to how Korean adoptee parents reappraised their socialization as well as their current practicing in ethnic, racial, and adoption socialization.
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Asian Americans have historically been subjected to foreigner objectification, a form of racial discrimination rooted in the "perpetual foreigner" stereotype. Foreigner objectification is related to multiple indicators of negative psychological adjustment and may be particularly salient for U.S.-born Asian Americans. This study examined whether cul...
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Objectives: Health literacy is an important factor related to health outcomes and, ultimately, health disparities. Of the research that has been done, results have been mixed, which may be a reflection of how previous research primarily explored these relationships within aggregated groups. Thus, the present study sought to fill this gap in litera...
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The goal of this longitudinal study was to examine the trajectories of ethnic identity exploration and commitment in 538 ethnic-racial minority students during their first 2 years of college. Multilevel modeling analyses demonstrated ethnic identity development continued as students transitioned to college. Specifically, ethnic identity exploration...
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The current study examined how discrimination relates to adjustment outcomes in a sample of internationally, transracially adopted Korean Americans from the Minnesota Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study (N = 456 adoptees; Mage at T1 = 14.9, Mage at T2 = 18.3, Mage at T3 = 22.3). The moderating roles of ethnic socialization and preparation for bi...
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Ethnic-racial identity (ERI) development is a central developmental process for youth of color. Although a great deal of research establishes the importance of cultural socialization by parents to the development of ERI, limited empirical work has examined peers' role in these processes. This study uses 4 cross-sectional data sets (N = 127, 312, 25...
Preprint
Ethnic-racial identity (ERI) development is a central developmental process for youth of color. Although a great deal of research establishes the importance of cultural socialization by parents to the development of ERI, limited empirical work has examined peers’ role in these processes. This study uses four cross-sectional data sets (N = 127, 312,...
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To provide a culturally competent parent training program for Hmong American parents, we sought to identify their cultural preferences and parenting needs, as well as to culturally adapt an evidence-based parent training program—Incredible Years (Webster-Stratton, 2006). Using a community-based participatory research framework, the study consisted...
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We draw upon developmental psychology theory to highlight the developmental process of acculturation in adolescent immigrants. First, we describe different ways in which development and acculturation have been combined in past research on immigrant youth. These studies mainly considered developmental and acculturation-related changes, predictors, a...
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An individual's genetic-relative family health history can lead to the identification of high-risk individuals and through this can result in highly effective disease prevention for those at risk. In this symposium, readers will see the very different lived experiences of adopted persons whose access to genetic-relative family health history is lim...
Preprint
Migration is a critical issue for child development in the 21st century. We expand on García Coll et al.’s (1996) integrative model of minority child development by drawing from principles of attachment theory and interpersonal relationships research to offer new insights into how youth manage and respond to migration experiences. Immigrant and ref...
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Migration is a critical issue for child development in the 21st century. We expand on García Coll et al.’s (1996) integrative model of minority child development by drawing from principles of attachment theory and interpersonal relationships research to offer new insights into how youth manage and respond to migration experiences. Immigrant and ref...
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Studies of Asian American parenting have primarily focused on first generation immigrant parents. Few studies have examined the experiences of second generation Asian American adults who are now having children of their own. The purpose of this qualitative study, then, is to better understand the values, practices, and concerns of second generation...
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In educational psychology, academic self-efficacy and self-regulation of effort have been identified as significant non-cognitive predictors of academic performance in college students, even above and beyond cognitive predictors (e.g., SAT, ACT scores). According to social cognitive theory and research on self-regulated learning, self-regulation of...
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The relationship between ethnic socialization by parents, peers, and ethnic identity development was examined over a 7-year time span in a sample of 116 internationally adopted Korean American adolescents. Parent report data was collected in 2007 (Time 1 [T1]) when the adopted child was between 7 and 13 years old and again in 2014 at ages 13 to 20...
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There is a need to better understand the intergenerational and cultural dynamics of parent-adolescent conflict in Asian American families. In this chapter, we provide a synthesis and critique of theories, as well as methodologies, on Asian American family conflicts. We adopt the embedded contexts model (Szapocznik and Kurtines, Hisp J Behav Sci 6(4...
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There is limited research on how ethnic socialization and perceived discrimination concurrently contribute to ethnic identity development among transracial adoptees, and few studies have investigated these relationships across national contexts. Drawing upon the Phenomenological Variant of Ecological Systems Theory (PVEST) of human development, we...
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This study is a qualitative analysis of the writings of 40 Korean American adopted adults around the topic of birth family and culture. Utilizing grounded theory analysis, one main theoretical construct of “searching for connection—finding resolution” emerged from the writings. This construct represents a unique aspect of the transnational, transra...
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Growing up in a White family does not necessarily protect internationally adopted Korean Americans raised in White families from the pernicious effects of discrimination. Emotion regulation strategies may buffer the effects of discrimination on psychological adjustment, yet little research has been conducted on these links. To fill this gap, we exa...
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In this theoretical analysis, we discuss the attributional and enactment approaches to identity and present a new ethnic-racial identity enactment model derived from extant theory and research. We highlight modes of identity work that provide (1) self-concept and self-esteem protection; (2) achievement and success during everyday encounters; (3) a...
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Objective: Culture and biology have evolved together, influence each other, and concurrently shape behavior, affect, cognition, and development. This special section highlights 2 major domains of the interplay between culture and biology. Method: The first domain is neurobiology of cultural experiences-how cultural, ethnic, and racial experience...
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The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the newly developed Perceived Family Stigma Scale (PFSS) in a diverse sample of 623 military veterans. The PFSS is a 4-item scale that has acceptable internal consistency (α = .86) and strong interitem correlations (r = .51 to .76). Confirmatory factor analysis (CF...
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Objective: We examined whether two key emotion regulation strategies, cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, moderated the relations between discrimination (i.e., foreigner objectification and general denigration) and adjustment. Methods: Participants were U.S. Latino/a and Asian-heritage college students (N = 1,279, 67% female, 72% U...
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In this commentary, we put forth an Asian Americanist perspective on child development that frames, expands upon, and at times challenges the contextual, conceptual, and methodological ideas put forward by Kiang et al., Mistry et al., and Yoshikawa et al. (this volume). This Asian Americanist perspective draws upon scholarship in Asian American Stu...
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Low health literacy has emerged as an important area of research because of its close link with health disparities. In this study, we used a qualitative approach to investigate healthcare providers' perspectives on the health literacy of immigrant and refugee parents and its association with children's health. Sixteen health and mental health profe...
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This study is an exploratory qualitative examination of two separate non-profit family-style orphanages in Guatemala. The researchers used a grounded theory approach to study semi-structured interviews of caregivers (N = 20). Caregivers mainly consisted of ‘tias’ who lived with the children and teachers who taught the children at the schools associ...
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Adopted Korean adolescents face the task of grappling with their identity as Koreans and coming to terms with their adoptive status. In order to explore these dual identities, the authors conducted a person-centered study of the identity profiles of 189 adopted Korean American adolescents. Using cluster analytic procedures, the study examined patte...
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The collective findings of the six articles in this special issue highlight the importance of ethnic-racial socialization and ethnic identity among international transracial adoptees (ITRAs). A multidimensional developmental phenomenon, ethnic identity intersects with other identities, notably adoptive identity. Family, peers, community, and host c...
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This study investigated the roles of racial and ethnic socialization in the link between racial discrimination and school adjustment among a sample of 233 adopted Korean American adolescents from White adoptive families and 155 nonadopted Korean American adolescents from immigrant Korean families. Adopted Korean American adolescents reported lower...
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Discussions about racial and ethnic differences may allow international, transracial adoptive families to construct multiracial and/or multi-ethnic family identities. However, little is known about the ways family communication influences how discussions about racial and ethnic differences occur. This study examined associations between observed fa...
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Despite the growing practice of international adoption over the past 60 years, the racial and ethnic experiences of adopted youth are not well known. This study examined the moderating role of ethnic identity in the association between racial/ethnic discrimination and adjustment among transracially, transnationally adopted Korean American adolescen...
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This longitudinal study examined trajectories of parent-child conflict from the perspective of young adults during their college years. Using group-based trajectory modeling, self-report data from 3 time points were analyzed and 4 conflict trajectories emerged. The largest group of students (65%) had low, stable levels of parent-child conflict. Ten...
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Parental cultural socialization and general parenting quality are important predictors of ethnic identity (EI) development in adolescents. However, recent research on transracial adoptive families suggests parents and adolescents may have differing perceptions of parental cultural socialization efforts. This study examines differences in mother and...
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Ethnic group discrimination represents a notable risk factor that may contribute to mental health problems among ethnic minority college students. However, cultural resources (e.g., ethnic identity) may promote psychological adjustment in the context of group-based discriminatory experiences. In the current study, we examined the associations betwe...
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This study examined a specific type of racial microaggression known as an exceptionalizing stereotype, in which an action is framed as interpersonally complimentary but perpetuates negative stereotypical views of a racial/ethnic group. Asian American participants (N = 68) were assigned to 1 of 3 brief semistructured interview conditions that highli...
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This special issue highlights basic and applied research in prevention science, specifically addressing the cultural needs and preferences of Asian Americans as they relate to physical and mental health. The collection of articles in the special issue covers a range of topics and methodological approaches to the study of culture and prevention. Art...
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In this article, we evaluate the factor structure of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM; Phinney, 1992) and test whether the MEIM exhibits measurement invariance across ethnic groups taken from a diverse sample of students from 30 different colleges and universities across the United States (N = 9,625). Initial analyses suggested that a b...
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This article takes stock of research methods employed in the study of racial and ethnic identity with ethnic minority populations. The article is presented in three parts. The first section reviews theories, conceptualizations, and measurement of ethnic and racial identity (ERI) development. The second section reviews theories, conceptualizations,...
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Although ethnic and racial identity (ERI) are central to the normative development of youth of color, there have been few efforts to bring scholars together to discuss the theoretical complexities of these constructs and provide a synthesis of existing work. The Ethnic and Racial Identity in the 21st Century Study Group was assembled for this purpo...
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One point of intersection in ethnic and racial identity research is the conceptual attention paid to how positively youth feel about their ethnicity or race, or positive ethnic–racial affect. This article reports results of a series of meta-analyses based on 46 studies of this dimension and psychosocial, academic, and health risk outcomes among eth...
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The construction of an ethnic or racial identity is considered an important developmental milestone for youth of color. This review summarizes research on links between ethnic and racial identity (ERI) with psychosocial, academic, and health risk outcomes among ethnic minority adolescents. With notable exceptions, aspects of ERI are generally assoc...
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OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated naturally occurring profiles based on two dimensions of meaning in life: Presence of Meaning and Search for Meaning. Cluster analysis was used to examine meaning in life profiles and subsequent analyses identified different patterns in psychosocial functioning for each profile. METHOD: A sample of 8,492 Ame...
Chapter
This chapter reviews culturally sensitive approaches to developing evidence-based prevention programs and introduces a two-dimensional framework to incorporating culture into prevention that takes into account knowledge base and effort orientation. We highlight the importance of collaborative preventive efforts between researchers, practitioners, a...
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Research indicates making identity commitments on the part of emerging adults is associated with a wide range of psychosocial benefits. Data from a large research collaborative were used to evaluate hypotheses drawn from eudaimonic identity theory that the benefits of commitment are attributable to the quality of the commitments held. Findings from...
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This study examined gender differences in parent–child acculturation conflicts among Hmong American college students (N = 120) and tested whether cultural attributions or perceived control explained the relationship between acculturation conflict and psychological distress. No significant differences by gender of the student were found in accultura...
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Background: Prior literature has shown that ethnic affirmation, one aspect of ethnic identity, is positively associated with mental health. However, the associations between ethnic affirmation and mental health may vary depending how much importance individuals place on their ethnic group membership (ie, centrality). Methods: Using path analysis...
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Objective: Examine whether personal identity confusion and ethnic identity, respectively, moderate and/or mediate the relationship between perceived discrimination (PD) and depressive symptoms (DS) in eight ethnic-generational groups. Method: The sample consisted of 9665 students (73% women; mean age 20.31) from 30 colleges and universities from...
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Objectives: The current study evaluated the mediational role of well-being in the relationship between identity development and psychosocial functioning. Method: A sample of 7,649 undergraduate students (73% female; mean age = 19.95, standard deviation = 1.98; 62% Caucasian) completed measures of personal identity, well-being, internalizing symp...
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The Multi-Site University Study of Identity and Culture (MUSIC) is the product of a research collaboration among faculty members from 30 colleges and universities from across the United States. Using Katz and Martin's (1997, p. 7) definition, the MUSIC research collaboration is "the working together of researchers to achieve the common goals of pro...
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Many ethnic minorities in the United States consider themselves to be just as American as their European American counterparts. However, there is a persistent cultural stereotype of ethnic minorities as foreigners (i.e., the perpetual foreigner stereotype) that may be expressed during interpersonal interactions (i.e., foreigner objectification). Th...
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The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the multidimensional nature of ethnic identity exploration and its relevance for a broader sense of identity and well-being. Participants were 3,637 ethnic minority college students who completed survey measures of ethnic identity exploration, general identity coherence, general identity...
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The present study was designed to ascertain the associations between acculturation and well-being in first-generation and second-generation immigrant college students. Acculturation was operationalized as a multidimensional construct comprised of heritage and American cultural practices, values (individualism and collectivism), and identifications,...
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The majority of research on expressive suppression and health outcomes has been conducted in the United States, but little is known about how expressive suppression relates to the functioning of individuals living in other parts of the world. To address this gap, we conducted a cross-cultural study of Chinese Singaporean and European American colle...
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The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the multidimensional nature of ethnic identity exploration and its relevance for a broader sense of identity and well-being. Participants were 3637 ethnic minority college students who completed survey measures of ethnic identity exploration, general identity coherence, general identity c...
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This article provides a review of all behavioral science research articles about Asian Americans published in 2011. As the third review of the series, we followed the methodology and format used in earlier reviews (Kim, Wong, & Maffini, 2010; Okazaki, Kassem, & Tan, 2011), as well as used new methods to identify published empirical articles on Asia...
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Transracial, transnational families understand and transmit cultural socialization messages in ways that differ from same-race families. This study explored the ways in which transracial, transnational adoptive families discuss race and ethnicity and how these family discussions compared to self-reports from adoptive parents and adolescents regardi...
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What theoretical and conceptual models do we employ in Asian American psychology? The literature in Asian American psychology to date has raised many questions about whether all or most theories and principles in psychology are sufficient. However, there has not been a clear explication to date on which, if any, theories are best suited in psycholo...
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The typically positive relationship between cognitive reappraisal and psychological functioning may be nullified for Latinos embedded within multiple contexts of oppression (Perez & Soto, 2011). Multiply oppressive contexts are characterized by exposure to oppression at a societal level (distal oppression), in the immediate environment (proximal op...
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The present study tested the moderating roles of ethnic identity and American identity on the association between perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and antisocial behaviors among Asian American college students. Using data from the Multi-Site University Study of Identity and Culture (MUSIC) collaborative, the sample included 1,362 East Asian a...
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This study examined religious identity as a mediator and moderator between religious socialization by parents, peers, and religious mentors and psychosocial functioning (i.e., social competence, internalizing and externalizing behavior problems) among 155 Korean American adolescents. Religious socialization by parents and peers were positively asso...
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OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to ascertain the associations between acculturation and well-being in first-generation and second-generation immigrant college students. Acculturation was operationalized as a multidimensional construct comprised of heritage and American cultural practices, values (individualism and collectivism), and ident...
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Two studies were designed to validate a measure of American identity for use with diverse ethnic groups. The American Identity Measure (AIM) was created by adapting the Multi-Group Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) to refer to exploration and affirmation of individuals' identification with the United States. In Study 1, students from nine U.S. univers...