Richard N Lalonde

Richard N Lalonde
York University · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

90
Publications
83,568
Reads
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3,680
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2011 - present
York University
Position
  • Cultural Psychology
July 1987 - present
York University & Glendon College
Position
  • Professor (Full)
September 1985 - June 1987
McGill University
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (90)
Article
According to social-learning theory, alcohol outcome expectancies (AOEs) are important motivators of drinking behavior that are reinforced, in part, as a result of one's direct experience with alcohol's intoxicating effects. To date, limited research has been conducted in naturalistic bar settings to examine the congruency between AOEs held prior t...
Article
Full-text available
In this research, we examined cultural differences in psychological reactance in response to a threat of social media censorship among two collectivistic cultural groups (East Asian Canadians, Iranian Canadians) and one individualistic cultural group (European Canadians). Results indicated that, compared with European Canadians and East Asian Canad...
Article
Objectives: Ethnic first names are a visible product of diversity in the West, yet little is known about the psychological factors that influence naming preferences and choices among bicultural individuals. Method: Participants in Studies 1a (South Asian Canadians; N = 326) and 1b (Iranian Canadians; N = 126) were prospective parents who complet...
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Despite the growing prevalence of intercultural romantic relationships—in which partners identify with different racial, national or religious backgrounds—people in intercultural relationships still face marginalization and disapproval from others. Relationship marginalization sends a message to couples that they do not belong together, and partner...
Article
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In the present research, we introduce the notion of fit in cultural knowledge (FICK) – which we define as a match between the self and others in representing a cultural tradition. For ethnic minorities, FICK can be manifested in different degrees of matching their personal beliefs about their heritage culture with outgroup as well as ingroup belief...
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Choosing one’s occupation is an important life decision for young adults. This decision may be particularly complicated for biculturals who have access to two potentially conflicting sets of career-related cultural norms. The present study examined the role of both mainstream and heritage acculturation in the context of career decisions, for a samp...
Chapter
Dimensions of religiosity were applied to an investigation of close interfaith relationships. Canadian university students in a culturally diverse city (Toronto) were assigned to groups based on whether or not one of their five closest friends belonged to a different religion. There were a number of significant differences between the groups. Those...
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Prior research differentiates dialectical (e.g., East Asian) from non-dialectical cultures (e.g., North American and Latino) and attributes cultural differences in self-concept consistency to naïve dialecticism. In this research, we explored the effects of managing two cultural identities on consistency within the bicultural self-concept via the ro...
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Objectives Acculturation is a multidimensional process involving changes in behaviour and beliefs. Questionnaires developed to measure acculturation are typically designed for specific ethnic populations and adult experiences. This study developed a questionnaire that measures acculturation among ethnically diverse populations of youth that can be...
Data
The Bicultural Youth Acculturation Questionnaire. (DOCX)
Chapter
In this chapter we will present three different contexts of intergroup relations that offer a fertile ground for the application of Social Identity Theory in the Canadian context. The first context is that of Aboriginal Canadians and their evolving relationship with non-Aboriginal Canadians. The second context focuses on French–English relations, a...
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In this article we argue that there are 2 dominant underlying themes in discussions of strategies for dealing with diversity-similarity and difference. When we are dealing with social groups, a number of basic psychological processes, as well as popular media and research-based narratives, make it easier to highlight difference rather than similari...
Article
Acculturation to mainstream and heritage culture has been shown to influence attitudes and behaviors related to romantic relationships. Few studies have examined its influence on views regarding interracial relationships and whether the psychological processes underlying these relations vary across gender. Among Chinese Canadian participants (N = 2...
Conference Paper
We examined cultural differences in psychological reactance in response to a threat of social media censorship among Iranian Canadians, European Canadians, and East Asian Canadians. Results indicated that Iranian Canadians (vs. European Canadians and East Asian Canadians) exhibited psychological reactance to a greater degree when the threat came fr...
Article
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The present study examined the practice of language brokering (LB) among South Asian Canadian college-age adults and how such practice relates to acculturation to mainstream and heritage cultures, as well as personal empowerment. One hundred and twenty-four young adults reported on three different indices of LB (brokering frequency, diversity of pe...
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This study (N = 234) examined Muslim Canadian young adults’ openness to interfaith dating and marriage. We extended previous research on interfaith dating by examining the role of mainstream cultural identification and family connectedness, in addition to religiosity and gender. Participants reported more openness to dating than marrying a non-Musl...
Article
The role of reference group norms in self-regulation was examined from the perspective of transgressions. Results from four studies suggest that following the transgression of a reference group's norms, individuals who strongly identify with their group report more intense feelings of guilt, an emotion reflecting an inference that "bad" behaviors a...
Article
Mental health campaigns often promote biogenetic beliefs to reduce stigma, but their effectiveness may vary across disorders. Our study (N = 127) examined two components of essentialist beliefs—entitative (i.e., characterizing groupness) and natural kinds (i.e., biogenetic)—about two stigmatized mental disorders (schizophrenia, alcoholism) as well...
Article
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When conducting cross-cultural studies, researchers often rely on generalised categorisations (e.g., East–West), frequently assuming homogeneity within each of the cultural groups being compared. We argue that such broad categorisations may be misleading and that careful demarcation of cultural groups that takes into consideration their specific so...
Article
The interplay of nationalistic threat perceptions, dehumanizing beliefs and intergroup emotions, and anti-immigrant sentiment is analyzed in a cross-national context with Australian (N = 124) and Canadian (N = 126) samples. National identification was linked to negative attitudes toward immigrants indirectly, via perceptions of immigrants as being...
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In contrast to authors of previous single-nation studies, we propose that supporting multiculturalism (MC) or assimilation (AS) is likely to have different effects in different countries, depending on the diversity policy in place in a particular country and the associated norms. A causal model of intergroup attitudes and behaviors, integrating bot...
Data
Full-text available
When conducting cross-cultural studies, researchers often rely on generalised categorisations (e.g., East–West), frequently assuming homogeneity within each of the cultural groups being compared. We argue that such broad categorisations may be misleading and that careful demarcation of cultural groups that takes into consideration their specific so...
Article
Full-text available
The current study examined the influence of traditional cultural beliefs on participation in actions aimed at fending off a threat to a sociocultural group. Specifically, the study (N = 157) focused on actions aimed to reclaim land taken from Native communities. Results revealed that support for traditional beliefs was associated with an increase i...
Article
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The present study examined the impact of culture and family on the issue of moving out among bicultural young adults with European, South Asian, and East Asian backgrounds (N = 299). Consistent with cross-cultural differences in autonomy ideals, South and East Asians were less motivated than Europeans to leave the family home. Cultural differences...
Article
Two studies examined the organization and processing of consensually defined ethnic/national stereotypes as a function of group membership. A first study examined the responses and reaction times of 91 subjects to attributes associated with an in-group label (English Canadian) and two out-group labels (French Canadian and American). A second study...
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The term multiracial is complex. Recent research has adopted a multidimensional view initially proposed by Rockquemore and colleagues (2002, 2009) for examining racial identity among Black/White biracial people. This approach has acknowledged the social construction of race and broadened the range of racial identity options beyond the two “traditi...
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comprise only 0.02% of the world's popula-tion (Weinfeld, 2001), but there is considerable variation in the meaning and expressions of iden-tity among members of this group. For some Jews, their identity is primarily religious; for oth-ers, it is primarily cultural; and for others yet, it is both religious and cultural. The present study adopts a m...
Article
We introduce this issue by describing recent trends in migration and immigration policy, and the challenges faced by immigrants and by immigrant-receiving nations around the world. We then discuss the many contributions that psychology can make to understanding and optimizing the benefits of migration from the perspective of both immigrants and mem...
Article
This article presents a survey of 667 Australian voters examining support for a new conservative social movement in relation to attitudes toward Asian immigration, involvement in an evolving anti-immigration debate, and willingness to speak out politically. Supporters of the new conservatives were motivated to get involved and speak out by perceive...
Article
Bias against foreign-born or -trained medical students and doctors is not well understood, despite its documented impact on recruitment, integration and retention. This research experimentally examines the interaction of location of medical education and nationality in evaluations of doctors' competence and trustworthiness. A convenience sample of...
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Using Self-Categorization Theory as a conceptual framework for under-standing attributions to discrimination, the primary aim of this study was to move beyond focusing on the degree to which racial minorities define themselves in terms of their race (i.e., racial centrality). Specifically, the authors examined how multiple dimensions of Black racia...
Article
The current project investigated affective and strategic determinants of participation in collective actions by taking a multidimensional approach to collective identity (see Cameron, 2004) and investigating rational decision-making processes. A field study was conducted during an important student strike within the Canadian province of Quebec. One...
Article
The children of immigrants are often referred to as second-generation youth. Although there is tremendous diversity among them, they often share the common experience of being bicultural by holding both heritage and mainstream cultural identities. Given that cultures generally promote similar expectations for youth (e.g., showing respect for parent...
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The current study examined whether the influence of social identification on effort exertion in identity-threatening situations could be altered through a prior engagement in an effortful task (i.e. regulatory resource depletion). One hundred university students took part in the study. The results revealed that under intergroup threat, higher socia...
Article
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Researchers have shown that bicultural individuals, including 2nd-generation immigrants, face a potential conflict between 2 cultural identities. The present authors extended this primarily qualitative research on the bicultural experience by adopting the social identity perspective (H. Tajfel & J. C. Turner, 1986). They developed and tested an emp...
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The primary aim of this study was to examine the influence of racial identity on the socialization strategies used by Black parents to deal with issues of racism and discrimination. The Multidimensional Model of Racial Identity (MMRI) was used to capture the complexity of Black identity and to provide a framework for the study of the socialization...
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Second generation youth often identify with two cultures (heritage and Canadian). Although these biculturals usually negotiate their lives between two cultural worlds with ease, there are situations where conflicts may arise because of an incompatibility between the norms associated with each culture. Our research has identified some key points whe...
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This study examined cultural and generational differences in views on intergroup dating relationships among members of younger and older generation South Asian and European Canadians and the role of mainstream and heritage cultural identities in shaping these views. In response to a scenario describing an intergroup dating conflict between a young...
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The present study examines cross-cultural and gender differ-ences in the norms regarding interracial dating among Chinese and European Canadians. In response to a scenario describing an interracial dating conflict between a young adult and his/her parents, Chinese Canadians gave greater support to parents than did European Canadians, who in turn ga...
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This study examines the relation between social dominance orientation (SDO) and three hierarchy-attenuating beliefs (attitude toward and openness to personally engaging in interracial dating and attitude toward transracial adoption) and two hierarchy-enhancing beliefs (stereotyping of interracial relationships and racial identity concerns in transr...
Article
This study explored cultural differences in conflict management strategies within the context of same-sex friendships, opposite-sex friendships, and romantic relationships. About 114 Turkish and 135 Canadian university students completed a conflict management measure. Results showed that overall, romantic relationships involved a more extensive use...
Article
A social identity framework was employed to understand why people support the exclusionary treatment of refugee claimants (‘asylum seekers’) in Australia. Over and above individual difference effects of social dominance orientation and individuals' instrumental threat perceptions, insecure intergroup relations between citizens and asylum seekers we...
Article
A retrospective design was used to study the effects of attitudes, motivation and reported language use on second language attrition. Students who had been registered in an intensive six-week course in French in the province of Quebec were mailed questionnaires which asked them to rate their perceived second language skills upon completion of the c...
Article
This study investigated the multitrait-multimethod validity of the Attitude/ Motivation Test Battery and in addition made use of laboratory procedures to examine the role of language aptitude and attitudinal/motivational attributes on the rate of learning French vocabulary. Subjects were 170 volunteers from an introductory psychology course. The re...
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We examined intergroup predictors of cultural adjustment among Asian international students in Australia. Sociostructural beliefs (status, legitimacy, and permeability) and initial adjustment were assessed (N = 113) at Time 1, and measures of adjustment were obtained (N = 80) at Time 2 eight weeks later. International students who perceived their c...
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Previous research indicates that people who are highly identified with their groups tend to remain committed to them under threat. This study examines the generalizability, of this effect to (a) a real-life context involving the perception that others view the ingroup (Australians) as intolerant of minorities and (b) various dimensions of social id...
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Two studies examined the influence of Eastern cultural heritage on relationship preferences among second generation immigrants to the West, and explicitly tested the mediating roles of interdependence and familial cultural influence in mate preferences. The first used a between-subjects approach to compare the preferred mate attributes of South Asi...
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This study addressed the potential impact of serial migration for parent-children relationships and for children's psychological well-being. The experience of being separated from their parents during childhood and reunited with them at a later time was retrospectively examined for 48 individuals. A series of measures (e.g., self-esteem, parental i...
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The present study examines cross-cultural differences in interpersonal closeness to different people and whether these differences can be explained by independent and interdependent self-construal. Turkish and Euro-Canadian samples of university students were asked to indicate how close they feel and how close they ideally would like to be to famil...
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The relationship between racial identity, academic achievement, and mental health for 107 Black Canadian university students was examined within Fordham's “racelessness” framework. Fordham posited that to achieve success, educational or professional, in a society where Blackness is devalued, Blacks adopt a strategy of racelessness—they downplay the...
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Recently, there has been much speculation about the impact of international media coverage of Australia's position on Indigenous people, migrants and asylum seekers on other nations' images of Australia. In this experiment we examined whether there was any basis for such concerns by considering the short-term impact of negative TV coverage of Austr...
Article
The social identity-intergroup differentiation hypothesis is a hotly debated issue among social identity researchers (Brown, 2000; Turner, 1999); it states that individuals having a stronger in-group identification will perceive greater differences between their in-group and a relevant out-group. This study examines the importance of three factors...
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In two studies, the behavioral preferences of majority (White) and visible minority (non-White) individuals in response to a hypothetical situation of discrimination were examined. In addition, the characteristics and dimensions perceived to relate to these behaviors were also examined. In the first study, 120 primarily White undergraduate students...
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This study sought to identify some of the factors that lead to assertive responding to sexual harassment. Responses of 120 female undergraduates to hypothetical scenarios of sexual harassment by male professors or teaching assistants were investigated. Two situational variables (ambiguity of the behaviour and harasser status) and one individual dif...
Article
The nature of women's and men's gender-derived social identification was examined with a focus on the relationships between aspects of identity and gender-related ideology. Measures of social identification, sex-role ideology, and the perception of women's collective disadvantage were completed by 171 women and 91 men who categorized themselves as...
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Two studies were conducted to assess the relationship between perceptions of political correctness (PC), threatened identities, and social attitudes. The first study focussed on 121 undergraduate students. As predicted, differences in beliefs about PC were found between members of social groups based on gender ideology and sexual orientation. Suppo...
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A number of studies conducted in the United States have found that Black and African American are the preferred labels for ethnic/racial self-designation by Blacks. The purpose of this study was to assess which labels were preferred (and disliked) by a sample of Black Canadian students (N = 101), as well as to uncover the personal meanings of their...
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Although race and gender are often treated as discrete dimensions of social identity, their conceptualization as intersecting categories has become central in some feminist critiques of existing theory. This study examined women's awareness of the intersection of race and gender in relation to attitudes regarding 2 issues manifesting identity polit...
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Examined the cognitive processes underlying stereotyping, and the effects of multiple social categories in impression formation. 60 Canadian students (aged 17–29 yrs) assessed the stereotypes of men, women, 20 or 70 yr olds, and French or English Canadians. Ss were then introduced to 8 target individuals representing combinations of gender, age and...
Article
Two studies were conducted to assess behavioral preferences in response to situations of discrimination in the workplace and in housing. In the first study, 72 black Canadians read a scenario in which they were ultimately denied an apartment on the basis of their color. The degree of evidence of discrimination in the scenario had an effect on the p...
Article
Ethnic identity in the context of social category memberships was examined in two generations of Italian Canadians. Ratings based on perceived value similarity between a number of categories (self Canadians, Italians, immigrants, religion, family, friends, social class, age, and Americans) were made by 57 second-generation Italian Canadians and one...
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Examined features of an intergroup context that can affect people's preferred responses to a situation of social injustice. 90 undergraduates were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions of group permeability (open, token, or closed) and 1 of 2 conditions of social identity salience (not salient or salient). It was predicted on the basis of social i...
Article
Recent empirical research with immigrant and refugee children is reviewed to identify issues related to the adaptive experiences of these populations. While all migrating children experience stresses associated with change and their adjustment to a new country, the expectation that these stresses invariably lead to higher rates of emotional problem...
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This study adopted an intergroup perspective on immigrant acculturation, which views immigrants as members of a disadvantaged social category. Its primary purpose was to relate the relative disadvantage of certain immigrant groups to a preference for collective acculturation strategies. Questionnaires were administered to immigrants from four ethni...
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Tested a model twice among 91 university students (Test 1) and 64 of the 91 Ss (Test 2) for predicting the performance of psychology students in statistics. Previous research (e.g., L. B. Feinberg and S. Halperin; see record 1980-22092-001) examined statistical performance in relation to 3 classes of variables: anxiety, attitudes, and ability. The...
Article
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This study examined the process of between-group differentiation in a disadvantaged group to see how its members achieved some form of positive in-group distinctiveness. The players on the last-place ice hockey team in a competitive league were tested at eight games. Before and after each game, they were asked to rate how they perceived their team,...
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Haitian and Indian women rated their identification with (self-perceptions), and the extent to which they believed majority Canadians perceived them as being (metaperceptions), Haitian or Indian, immigrant, and Canadian. Self-perceptions and metaperceptions were compared in order to understand the quality of integration for the two sample An attemp...
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An unexpected finding that has surfaced in research on discrimination is that respondents perceive a higher level of discrimination directed at their group as a whole than at themselves as individual members of that group. The present study directly tested this personal/group discrepancy by focusing on two groups of Canadian immigrants who have bee...
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Investigated the extent to which immigrants are motivated toward spatial segregation in cities, and explored the relationship between attitudes toward the built environment and perceptions to the self and the social system. Ss were 144 women from Haiti and India (aged 16–70 yrs) living in Montreal. Both groups of Ss rejected the idea that ethnic mi...