Richard Jantz

Richard Jantz
University of Tennessee | UTK · Department of Anthropology

Doctor of Philosophy

About

200
Publications
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Publications

Publications (200)
Article
The Ospedale Maggiore, known as Ca’ Granda , was founded in 1456 by will of Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan, and was considered for almost five centuries a model for Milanese, Italian and even European healthcare. Attracting patients from all over Europe, the Ca’ Granda distinguished itself for the introduction of new treatments and innovative heal...
Chapter
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We use data collected by Franz Boas to examine whether ecogeographical rules or colonization history provide the best explanation of the geographical distribution of body proportions. Colonization history provides the best explanation of the geographical distribution of body proportions. Body proportions are more consistent with origins in the lowe...
Article
Objectives This study examines the relationship of finger ridge-counts to second to fourth digit ratio, which has not yet been definitively demonstrated. The related question of sex dimorphism in finger ridge-counts is further elucidated. Methods A sample of Germans, including 1134 males and 1031 females, was examined for sex dimorphism in the fin...
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In forensic science determination of the origin and sex of skeletal remains is an important task for identification purposes. In this study we investigated the krotaphion-sphenion distance (K‑S distance) in the pterion region of German, Euro-American, African-American and Rwandan skulls of modern individuals from the nineteenth to the twenty-first...
Article
In Trotter and Gleser’s (Am J Phys Anthropol 1952;10:463) classic study of stature estimation, a definition of the tibia length measurement is given that agrees with the standard condylar‐malleolar length. That Trotter did not in fact measure according to her definition, but rather omitted the malleolus, has been well documented by Jantz et al. (J...
Chapter
This chapter considers the effect of secular change on metric and nonmetric sex estimation. Secular changes are biological changes that occur over decades or generations, usually attributed to environmental factors. Secular changes in the human skeletal form over the past two centuries include earlier skeletal maturation; a higher and narrower cran...
Chapter
A major part of forensic anthropology is assessing the biological profile of an individual as the basis for identification. The biological profile contains the estimation of sex, age, ancestry, and stature along with the documentation of the dental status and trauma on the skeleton. Statistical software is often a helpful tool to increase the relia...
Chapter
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In this chapter we concentrate on how anthropologists have approached the study of human variation. We find that anthropologists have frequently depended on nebulous or nonscientific theories and questionable methods to justify what seem to be foregone conclusions, more often reflecting the contemporary views of society or strong personal opinions,...
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Studying secular changes on human skulls is a central issue in anthropological research, which is however insufficiently investigated for modern German populations. With our study, we focus on morphological cranial variations within Germans during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. To study this, we recorded different facial landmarks from a c...
Article
Using discriminant functions based on morphometric data is one of the most approved methods for sex and ancestry estimation on skeletons. Nevertheless, population data from various parts of the world is needed in order to reliably classify an individual into a group. Due to population variation even sex estimation is biased when there is a lack of...
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Many techniques in forensic anthropology employ osteometric data, although little work has been done to investigate the intrinsic error in these measurements. These data were collected to quantify the reliability of osteometric data used in forensic anthropology research and case analyses. Osteometric data (n = 99 measurements) were collected on a...
Article
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This study evaluates the reliability of osteometric data commonly used in forensic case analyses, with specific reference to the measurements in Data Collection Procedures 2.0 (DCP 2.0). Four observers took a set of 99 measurements four times on a sample of 50 skeletons (each measurement was taken 200 times by each observer). Two-way mixed ANOVAs a...
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Free access of this article until June 15th with this link (courtesy of Elsevier): https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1W~M31MCG0I9IO . This study evaluates the reliability of osteometric data commonly used in forensic case analyses, with specific reference to the measurements in Data Collection Procedures 2.0 (DCP 2.0). Four observers took a set of 9...
Article
Paleolithic archaeological and skeletal remains from the Nile Valley have yielded a complex picture of life along the river. Sociocultural and sociopolitical events during this time frame shaped population structure, while gene flow and genetic drift further developed it. In this study, we took a population genetics approach to modeling Nubian biol...
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The unknown fate of Amelia Earhart continues to fascinate. One of the most tantalizing clues involves skeletal remains found on Nikumaroro Island in 1940. Some have summarily dismissed these bones as the remains of Amelia Earhart because they were assessed as male by Dr. D. W. Hoodless, principal of the Central Medical School, Fiji, in 1940. The mo...
Chapter
A brick well containing human bones and artifacts dating to the mid-nineteenth century was discovered during construction on the Medical College of Virginia campus of Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) in 1994. The commingled assemblage associates the well with the first years of operation of the Egyptian Building, opened in 1844 and built to h...
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Crania are a reliable source for sex estimation in Euro-Americans, Europeans, and most other populations. Besides morphological assessments, the application of Fordisc® has become a useful tool within the last two decades, creating discriminant functions from morphometric data. Unfortunately, until now, white populations are mostly represented by m...
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Objectives: The pattern of static and secular allometry was examined in a time series of limb bone lengths from individuals with birth years ranging from 1840 to 1989. The main hypothesis investigated was that secular changes in limb proportions, as seen in changes in the brachial and crural indices, can be explained by allometric responses to inc...
Article
Side-notched arrowpoints, a knapping tool made of bone, perforated stone beads, Dentalium beads, a probable Olivella bead, and decorated and perforated mollusc shell pendants and scrap were found associated with a Late Precontact Period Native American skeleton. This individual, an adult male about 27–33 years old, had been interred in sand beneath...
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It has been brought to the attention of the authors of Fordisc 3.1 that Hispanic samples will often misclassify as Japanese when Asian population samples are included. This study examined this problem in an effort to better document the occurrence and deduce possible causes via comparative analyses. Asian and Hispanic samples were first compared ut...
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Standard cranial measurements are commonly used for ancestry estimation; however, 3D digitizers have made cranial landmark data collection and geometric morphometric (GM) analyses more popular within forensic anthropology. Yet there has been little focus on which data type works best. The goal of the present research is to test the discrimination a...
Article
This research examines the pattern of secular change in the cranial morphology of two populations experiencing the epidemiological transition associated with decreased mortality rates in children, followed by declines in infant mortality and subsequent increases in adult longevity. The two samples examined in this study come from US and Portuguese...
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Secular change in height has been extensively investigated, but size and shape of the postcranial skeleton much less so. The availability of large, documented collections of nineteenth- and twentieth-century skeletons makes it possible to examine changes in skeletal structure over the past 150 years. We examined secular changes in long bone lengths...
Article
Secular changes in stature, weight, or other components of the body that can be obtained from historical records have been extensively studied. Cranial change has been central to anthropology for more than a century, but the focus has normally been on change measured in centuries or millennia. Cranial change measured in decades, normally considered...
Article
Background: The research objective was to examine if secular trends can be identified for cranial data commissioned by Boas in 1892, specifically for cranial breadth and cranial length of the Eastern and Western band Cherokee who experienced environmental hardships. Materials and methods: Multiple regression analysis was used to test the degree...
Article
This study utilizes an innovative 3D approach to discover metric variables that obtain the highest classification rates for sex estimation from the cranium. Models were constructed from 222 cranial CT scans of U.S. Whites from the Bass Donated Collection. These models were used to create a statistical bone atlas that captures the primary shape vari...
Article
Almost from the day of its accidental discovery along the banks of the Columbia River in Washington State in July 1996, the ancient skeleton of Kennewick Man has garnered significant attention from scientific and Native American communities as well as public media outlets. This volume represents a collaboration among physical and forensic anthropol...
Chapter
This article deals with the basic elements of ancestry estimation in forensic anthropology. It covers historical development and some of the problems with traditional approaches. Although the concept of ancestry has been criticized, it is an important element in developing the biological profiles of an unidentified skeleton. The kinds of metric tec...
Article
Full-text available
Forensic anthropologists are often consulted to estimate aspects of the biological profile, such as age, ancestry, sex and stature from unidentified skeletal remains. Estimating ancestry is especially challenging in developed countries that have large numbers of immigrants from underdeveloped countries. Many developed countries have also experience...
Chapter
IntroductionDiscriminant Function AnalysisEvaluating DFA Results from an Unknown IndividualFordisc and Human VariationAnalyzing Ancestry in Fordisc 3SummaryReferences
Article
This study examines patterns of secular change in cranial morphology in the New Lisbon collection, a documented skeletal collection from Lisbon, Portugal with birth years from 1806 to 1954. This period represents a time when Lisbon was undergoing increased urbanization and population growth, as well as changes in mortality and fertility patterns. P...
Article
  When the pelvis is unavailable, the skull is widely considered the second best indicator of sex. The goals of this research are to provide an objective hierarchy of sexing effectiveness of cranial and postcranial elements and to test the widespread notion that the skull is superior to postcranial bones. We constructed both univariate and multivar...
Article
This study examines spheno-occipital synchondrosis fusion in the modern American population and presents age ranges for forensic use. The sample includes 162 modern individuals aged 5-25 years. The basilar synchondrosis was scored as open, closing, or closed via direct inspection of the ectocranial site of the suture. Transition analysis was used t...
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Recent research indicates that anthropometrics can be used to study microevolutionary forces acting on humans. We examine the use of morphological traits in reconstructing the population history of Aleuts and Eskimos of the Bering Sea. From 1979 to 1981, W. S. Laughlin measured a sample of St. Lawrence Island Eskimos and Pribilof Island Aleuts. The...
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We test two specific hypotheses that explain the cranial changes Boas observed in Hebrews and Sicilians, namely that Hebrew change results from abandoning cradling of infants in America, while in Sicilians it results from impaired growth in America. Boas's (1928) data were used to test these hypotheses. The role of cradling in cranial shape was exa...
Article
Clavicles from 1289 individuals from cohorts spanning the 20th century were scored with two scoring systems. Transition analysis and Bayesian statistics were used to obtain robust age ranges that are less sensitive to the effects of age mimicry and developmental outliers than age ranges obtained using a percentile approach. Observer error tests sho...
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Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was extracted from skeletal remains excavated from three Arikara sites in South Dakota occupied between AD 1600 and 1832. The diagnostic markers of four mtDNA haplogroups to which most Native Americans belong (A, B, C, and D) were successfully identified in the extracts of 55 (87%) of the 63 samples studied. The frequencie...
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The Arch Lake human burial site, discovered in 1967 in eastern New Mexico, contains the third-oldest known remains in North America. Since its original excavation and removal to Eastern New Mexico University's Blackwater Draw Museum, the 10,000 radiocarbon-year-old burial has been known only locally. In February 2000 an interdisciplinary team led b...
Article
Mean finger ridge-count data were obtained, primarily from literature sources, for 31 male and 24 female sub-Saharan African samples. The 10 finger ridge-counts and total ridge-count were used as independent variables in a multiple regression analysis, latitude and longitude serving in turn as the dependent variables. The results show that it is no...
Article
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American forensicanthropologists uncritically accepted the biological race concept from classic physical anthropology and applied it to methods of human identification. Why and how the biological race concept might work in forensic anthropology was contemplated by Sauer (Soc Sci Med 34 1992 107-111), who hypothesized that American forensic anthropo...
Article
Forensic science is a fundamental transitional justice issue as it is imperative for providing physical evidence of crimes committed and a framework for interpreting evidence and prosecuting violations to International Humanitarian Law (IHL). The evaluation of evidence presented in IHL trials and the outcomes various rulings by such courts have in...
Article
Two standard measurements, maximum femur length and head diameter, were collected by International Criminal Tribunal (ICTY) anthropologists. Only Kosovans had both femur dimensions for both sexes. Antemortem stature data were available only for Kosovan and Croatian males. Despite these limitations, the data offer the opportunity to examine ethnic v...
Article
  The question of whether age parameters derived from an American population will reliably estimate age-at-death for East European skeletal populations is important since the ability to accurately estimate an individual’s age-at-death hinges on what standard is used. A reference sample of identified individuals with known ages-at-death from the reg...
Article
The United States (U.S.) population structure is currently in a state of flux with one of the most profound changes being the increasing number of people referred to as Hispanic. In the U.S., much of the identification criteria for a biological profile are based on American Black and White individuals from anatomical collections. Using metric data...
Article
Sex determination is one of the essential steps in personal identification of an individual from skeletal remains. Most elements of the skeleton have been subjected to discriminant function analysis for sex estimation, but little work has been done in terms of the patella. This paper proposes a new sex determination method from the patella using a...
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This paper proposes a new sex classification method from patellae using a novel automated feature extraction technique. A dataset of 228 patellae (95 females and 133 males) was collected and CT scanned. After the CT data was segmented, a set of features was automatically extracted, normalized, and ranked. These features include geometric features,...
Conference Paper
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Gender classification from fingerprints is an important step in forensic anthropology in order to identify the gender of a criminal and minimize the list of suspects search. A dataset of 10-fingerprint images for 2200 persons of different ages and gender (1100 males and 1100 females) was analyzed. Features extracted were; ridge count, ridge thickne...
Article
Full-text available
In forensic anthropology, gender classification from fingerprints is an important step when identifying the gender of a suspected criminal. A dataset of 10-fingerprint images for 2200 persons of different ages and gender (1100 males and 1100 females) was analyzed. Features extracted included ridge count, ridge thickness to valley thickness ratio (R...
Article
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The Homo erectus calvaria from Hexian, Anhui province, China is an important component of the fossil sample from East Asia. This specimen is the most complete Chinese H. erectus cranium found outside Zhoukoudian. Previous work has shown that the fossil crania from Zhoukoudian exhibit a unique metric pattern not seen in specimens from Africa or Indo...
Chapter
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American crania have changed significantly in the past 150 years. In the sagittal plane, most of the change is associated with a downward movement of the cranial base, especially at basion. Secular change in American crania is proximately related to a decrease in cranial base breadth and an increase in cranial capacity, and ultimately a reflection...
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The truth is out there: how NOT to use FORDISC. D. Freid1, M.K. Spradley1, R.L. Jantz1, S.D. Ousley2. 1 Department of Anthropology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, 2 Repatriation Osteology Laboratory, Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. FORDISC is an interactive computer program designed to...
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In spite of increasing number of cremations in the U.S., little is known about weights of cremated remains. This research was undertaken in order to add to the limited literature on cremains weights and to explore variation. Weights of cremated remains were obtained from the East Tennessee Crematorium. The sample consists of 151 males and 155 femal...
Conference Paper
In spite of increasing number of cremations in the U.S., little is known about weights of cremated remains. This research was undertaken in order to add to the limited literature on cremains weights and to explore variation. Weights of cremated remains were obtained from the East Tennessee Crematorium. The sample consists of 151 males and 155 femal...
Article
Since the discovery of the Homo sapiens crania from the Upper Cave of Zhoukoudian in northern China (UC 101, UC 102, and UC 103), no clear consensus has arisen regarding their affinities with modern populations. We use linear craniofacial measurements to compare UC 101 and UC 103 to a worldwide sample of H. sapiens that includes Paleoamericans and...
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Among 19th century Osage full-bloods, a modified cranium, specifically a flattened occiput, was an integral part of ethnic expression. An early archival source documenting this practice is a sculpted bust of Black Spirit, who, along with five other members of the Osage tribe, toured Paris in 1827, where a local artisan skillfully crafted this marbl...
Article
Among 19th century Osage full-bloods, a modified cranium, specifically a flattened occiput, was an integral part of ethnic expression. An early archival source documenting this practice is a sculpted bust of Black Spirit, who, along with five other members of the Osage tribe,