Richard Brice Hoover

Richard Brice Hoover
The University of Buckingham | UB · Buckingham Centre for Astrobiology (BCAB)

Professor

About

436
Publications
35,055
Reads
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3,570
Citations
Introduction
Life In Ice Search for Cryopreserved Microbes in Ice of Lunar Craters Astrobiology of Polar Regions of the Moon and Mars Microbiology of Ice Caves of Iceland and Canada Microalgae, Diatoms, Cyanobacteria in Carbonaceous Meteorites Extraterrestrial Life Bacteria, Algae and Ice Worms of Whistler Ice Caves

Publications

Publications (436)
Article
Full-text available
The Orgueil meteorite was studied using a TESCAN VEGA 3 scanning electron microscope. As a result, new microfossils were found, including a fragment of a pennate diatom shell, tubular structures with double porous cell walls (prasinophytes?), hollow spheres with a process (acritarchs?), and spore-like structures. The problem of the cometary origin...
Book
Full-text available
The results of thorough bacterialpaleontological study of the Orgueil meteorite are presented in this illustrated Atlas of microfossils (both prokaryotic and eukaryotic) found within freshly fractured interior surfaces of the meteorite. More than 60 images obtained with Scanning Electron Microscope are presented.
Article
Full-text available
We report the discovery of frustules of pennate diatoms embedded in a freshly fractured interior surface of the Orgueil CI1 carbonaceous meteorite. Images and element composition by Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy were obtained with the TESCAN VEGA 3 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) in the Astrobiology Sector of the Laboratory of Radiation B...
Article
Full-text available
There exists a close correspondence between the measured infrared properties of diatoms and the infrared spectrum of interstellar dust as observed in the Trapezium nebula and toward the galactic center source GC-IRS 7. Diatoms and bacteria also exhibit an absorbance peak near 2200 A, which is found to agree with the observed ultraviolet absorbance...
Article
Full-text available
Normal incidence multilayer coated EUV/XUV optical systems provide a powerful technique for the study of the structure of the solar corona. Such systems permit the imaging of the full solar disk and corona with high angular resolution in narrow wavelength bands that are dominated by a single line or a line multiplet excited over a well defined rang...
Article
Full-text available
National Geographic, June 1979 Vol. 155 First Article ever published on Diatoms in National Geographic. Color Diatom Photomicrographs by Richard B. Hoover; SEM Images of Diatoms by David P. Nicolas, Daniel W. Gates and Richard B. Hoover.
Article
Full-text available
[PDF available upon request] The proteolytic bacterium strain A7P-90mT was isolated from Lake Untersee, Antarctica. The anoxic water was collected from a perennially sealed (~100 millennia) glacial ice lake. Gram-stain-negative cells were 0.18-0.3×8.0-25.0 µm in size, straight, slender rods with unusual gliding motility by external, not previously...
Article
[PDF available upon request] A novel psychrotolerant bacterium strain ISLP-3T was isolated from a sample of naturally formed ice sculpture on the shore of Lake Podprudnoye in Antarctica. Cells were motile, stained Gram positive, non-spore-forming, straight or slightly curved rods with the shape of a baseball bat. The new isolate was facultatively a...
Article
[PDF available upon request] Gram-positive bacterium, strain LZ-22T, was isolated from a rhizosphere of moss Leptobryum sp. collected at the shore of Lake Zub in Antarctica. Cells were motile, straight or pleomorphic rods with sizes of 0.6-1.0 x 3.5-10 μm. The new isolate was a facultatively anaerobic, catalase positive, psychrotolerant mesophile....
Conference Paper
The recently announced confirmation of a global ocean beneath the icy outer shell of the Saturnian moon Enceladus provides strong support for cometary panspermia. Recent discoveries have shown that cyanobacteria, diatoms and other photosynthetic microphytoplankton live in the deep, dark bathysphere of the terrestrial oceans. Evidence for liquid wat...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We report for the first time in situ observations of a relatively rare secondary iron arsenate-sulphate mineral named bukovskýite – Fe³⁺2(As⁵⁺O4)(S⁶⁺O4)(OH)•7(H2O) - found in a shock melt vein of the Tissint Martian meteorite. It is hypothesised that the mineral formed when high concentrations of aqueous H⁺, Fe(III), SO4 and AsO4 were maintained fo...
Conference Paper
We report for the first time in situ observations of 5-50μm spherical carbonaceous structures in the Tissint Martian meteorite comprising of pyrite (FeS2) cores and carbonaceous outer coatings. The structures are characterized as smooth immiscible spheres with curved boundaries occasionally following the contours of the pyrite inclusion. The struct...
Conference Paper
Earlier studies of the Tissint Martian meteorite identified the presence of a number of 5-50μm carbonaceous spherical structures. SEM and EDS elemental spectra for 11 selected structures confirmed that they comprise of a carbonaceous outer coating with a inner core of FeS2 (pyrite) and are characterised as immiscible globules with curved boundaries...
Conference Paper
Is Life restricted to the Planet Earth? or Does life exist elsewhere in the Cosmos? The existence of extraterrestrial life is the fundamental question of Astrobiology. Detecting evidence for living organisms beyond our planet is even more difficult than finding fossilized remains of ancient organisms. Microbiological investigations during the past...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The question of the contamination of meteorites by modern environmental microorganisms is an issue that has been raised since evidence for biological remains in carbonaceous meteorites was first published in the early 1960's.1-3 The contamination hypothesis has been raised for recent fossils of diatoms and filamentous cyanobacteria found embedded i...
Conference Paper
We present phylogenetic analyses for four anaerobic bacterial isolates from samples collected in the Schirmacher Oasis and Lake Untersee in Antarctica. Near-full length of 16S rRNA genes were amplified from the four strains and sequenced for identification of their close relatives and their phylogenetic relationships. Strain A7P-90m shared a low 16...
Chapter
There exists a close correspondence between the measured infrared properties of diatoms and the infrared spectrum of interstellar dust as observed in the Trapezium nebula and toward the galactic center source GC-IRS 7. Diatoms and bacteria also exhibit an absorbance peak near 2200 Å, which is found to agree with the observed ultraviolet absorbance...
Chapter
Full-text available
We report on the physical, chemical and mineral properties of a series of stone fragments recovered from the North Central Province of Sri Lanka following a witnessed fireball event on 29 December 2012. The stones exhibit highly porous poikilitic textures comprising of isotropic silica-rich/plagioclase-like hosts. Inclusions range in size and shape...
Conference Paper
It is well established that carbonaceous meteorites contain water, carbon, biogenic elements and a host of organic chemicals and biomolecules. Several independent lines of evidence indicate that the parent bodies of the CI1 and CM2 carbonaceous meteorites are most probably the C-type asteroids or cometary nuclei. Several of the protein amino acids...
Chapter
The genus Trichococcus was first recognized in 1984 with T. flocculiformis as the type species. Currently, the genus comprises five species, some of which have been transferred from the genera Lactosphaera and Ruminococcus. All isolates, so far recorded, are free-living, and there are no reported cases of any association with a pathogenesis. Member...
Article
The genus Carnobacterium is the type genus of the family Carnobacteriaceae. It was proposed by Collins in 1987 during a description of two new isolates. The genus combines facultatively anaerobic, non spore-forming, Gram-positive species; most of the species produce lactic acid as an end metabolic product. Members of the genus Carnobacterium were f...
Research
Full-text available
The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity investigated plains at Meridiani Planum, where laminated sedimentary rocks are present. The Opportunity rover's Athena morphological investigation shows microstructures organized in intertwined filaments of microspherules: a texture we have also found on samples of terrestrial (biogenic) stromatolites and othe...
Article
Acritarchs are a group of organic-walled, acid-resistant microfossils of uncertain or unknown origin. Some are thought to represent the cysts or resting stages of unicellular protists (possibly dinoflagellates), chrysophytes (green algae) or other planktonic eukaryotic algae. Acritarchs are found throughout the geologic column extending back as far...
Article
Full-text available
During the past two years, the world has lost two great pioneers of the field of Astrobiology-Dr. David Stewart McKay who worked at the NASA-Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, USA and Academician Georgy Alexandrovich Zavarzin of the Institute of Microbiology of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Professor of the Moscow State University in Mos...
Article
Full-text available
We report on the physical, chemical and mineral properties of a series of stone fragments recovered from the North Central Province of Sri Lanka following a witnessed fireball event on 29 December 2012. The stones exhibit highly porous poikilitic textures comprising of isotropic silica-rich/plagioclase-like hosts. Inclusions range in size and shape...
Article
Full-text available
On December 29, 2012, a bright yellow and green fireball was observed to disintegrate over the Polonnaruwa District of North Central, Sri Lanka. Many low density, black stones were recovered soon after the observed fall from rice paddy fields near the villages of Aralaganwila and Dimbulagala. These stones were initially studied by optical microscop...
Article
This article explores two topics involving the examination of four strains of alkaliphilic anaerobes. The first topic was dedicated to detection of the ability of microorganisms to metabolize alternative chirality substrates. Two saccharolytic anaerobic bacteria were chosen for the first experiment: Anaerovirgula multivorans strain SCAT, which is g...
Article
Full-text available
Perchlorates have been found on the surface of Mars. Since they are strongly oxidizing, it is important to discuss how this fact is reflected both on the existence of organic compounds on the surface of Mars and possibly life. We have previously reported that perchlorates, although strongly oxidizing, do not destroy some amino acids, such as glycin...
Article
Full-text available
Results of X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis, Triple Oxygen Isotope analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) studies are presented for stone fragments recovered from the North Central Province of Sri Lanka following a witnessed fireball event on 29 December 2012. The existence of numerous nitrogen depleted highly carbonaceous fossilized biol...
Article
Full-text available
The ingress of micrometeorites of cometary origin with densities below ~ 1 g cm-3 into the Earth could average at least 5 tonne per day. Although much of this is burnt upon entry through the atmosphere as meteors, a non-trivial fraction (~10%) which have sizes of ~ 1 m could end up in the form of Polonnaruwa-type meteorites that have mostly gone un...
Data
Full-text available
During the past two years, the world has lost two great pioneers of the field of Astrobiology-Dr. David Stewart McKay who worked at the NASA-Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, USA and Academician Georgy Alexandrovich Zavarzin of the Institute of Microbiology of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Professor of the Moscow State University in Mos...
Article
Environmental and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM and FESEM) investigations have shown that a wide variety of carbonaceous meteorites contain the remains of large filaments embedded within freshly fractured interior surfaces of the meteorite rock matrix. The filaments occur singly or in dense assemblages and mats and are often enc...
Article
Full-text available
Sylvite is a potassium chloride (KCl) mineral that was first discovered in 1832 in evaporite deposits in sedimentary basins of Mt. Vesuvius. Sylvite is colorless (grey or white) but it is often found in association with red deposits of halite and a variety of other minerals (e.g., hilgardite, volkovskite, trembathite and strontioginorite). We have...
Article
Full-text available
The discovery of microfossils on carbonaceous meteorites has electrified the public with the first concrete evidence of extraterrestrial biology. But how these organisms colonized and grew on the parent body-the comet-remains a mystery. We report on several features of cyanobacteria that permit them to bioengineer comets, as well as a tantalizing l...
Article
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Preliminary SEM/EDAX studies of the Tissint meteorite shows projections of interior spherical globules rich in C and O. Such concentrations of carbonaceous material in a matrix of mineral grains pose a mystery. These structures are consistent with remnants of biological structures.
Article
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In 1864, Louis Pasteur attempted to cultivate living microorganisms from pristine samples of the Orgueil CI1 carbonaceous meteorite. His results were negative and never published, but recorded it in his laboratory notebooks. At that time, only aerobic liquid or agar-based organic reach media were used, as his research on anaerobes had just started....
Article
Full-text available
It has been seven years since we presented evidence for liquid water on comets and the wet comet theory that comets melt and undergo an irreversible phase change on their rst passage through the inner solar system, and since then there have been three more comet ybys and analysis on returned cometary material. We review the wet comet model and disc...
Article
Recent studies of comets and cometary dust have confirmed the presence of biologically relevant organic molecules along with clay minerals and water ice. It is also now well established by deuterium/hydrogen ratios that the CI1 carbonaceous meteorites contain indigenous extraterrestrial water. The evidence of extensive aqueous alteration of the min...
Article
Full-text available
Environmental (ESEM) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) investigations have resulted in the detection of a large number of complex filaments in a variety of carbonaceous meteorites. Many of the filaments were observed to be clearly embedded the rock matrix of freshly fractured interior surfaces of the meteorites. The high resol...
Article
Full-text available
Microbiological analysis of several cold-preserved tissue samples from the Siberian baby mammoth known as Lyuba revealed a number of culturable bacterial strains that were grown on anaerobic media at 3 oC. Lactic acid produced by LAB (lactic acid bacteria) group, usually by members of the genera Carnobacterium and Lactosphera, appears to be a wonde...
Article
On Earth, the ice of the lakes, glaciers, and caves of the cryosphere (from the ancient Greek word cryos, meaning "cold" or "ice") harbors rich, complex biotic communities. Ice cave habitats have been posited for the Mars cryosphere. Ice in such caves would protect microbes from UV, X-rays, and heavy particle radiation and might be accessible durin...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Microbiological analysis of several cold-preserved tissue samples from the Siberian baby mammoth known as Lyuba revealed a number of culturable bacterial strains that were grown on anaerobic media at 3 o C. Lactic acid produced by LAB (lactic acid bacteria) group, usually by members of the genera Carnobacterium and Lactosphera, appears to be a wond...
Article
In this study, we have investigated the chemotherapeutic potential of a purple violet pigment (PVP), which was isolated from a previously undescribed Antarctic Janthinobacterium sp. (Ant5-2), against murine UV-induced 2237 fibrosarcoma and B16F10 melanoma cells. The 2237, B16F10, C50, and NIH3T3 cells were treated with PVP at different doses and fo...
Article
The Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array, a rocket-borne solar observatory, was successfully flown in May, 1991, obtaining solar images in eight XUV and FUV bands with 12 compact multilayer telescopes. We report on recent measurements of the performance of multilayer coated mirrors for the Multi Spectral Solar Telescope Array, carried out at the St...
Article
In previous papers, we reviewed the development of multilayer optics, the successful application of this new technology to astronomical observations, and the evolution of astronomical multilayer optics instrumentation through several generations. These developments have resulted in the acquisition of sub-arc-second images of the sun in several wave...
Chapter
Full-text available
Complexes of fossilized microorganisms were identified and studied in the rocks of the Lower Paleoproterozoic Suisarian Formation representing the stratotype of the Ludicovian Supergroup, Karelian complex of Central Karelia. The fossil microorganisms from different zones of pillow lavas were compared.
Article
Extremophiles are microorganisms that have adapted to severe conditions that were once considered devoid of life. The extreme settings in which these organisms flourish on Earth resemble many extraterrestrial environments. Identification and classification of extremophiles in situ (without the requirement for excessive handling and processing) can...
Article
Full-text available
Different methods for the investigation of ancient microfossils - in macerates, in thin sections and in fresh chips in scanning electronic microscope - are discussed. The overwhelming advantage of the Scanning Electron Microscopy method is shown.
Article
Full-text available
Our previous study of chirality led to interesting findings for some anaerobic extremophiles: the ability to metabolize substrates with alternate chirality enantiomers of amino acids and sugars. We have subsequently found that not just separate microbial species or strains but entire microbial communities have this ability. The functional division...
Article
Full-text available
Extreme conditions such as low temperature, dryness, and constant UV-radiation in terrestrial Antarctica are limiting factors to the survival of microbial populations. The objective of this study was to investigate the microbial diversity and enumeration between the open water lakes of Schirmacher Oasis and the permanently ice-covered Lake Untersee...
Article
Full-text available
Homochirality of the biomolecules (D-sugars of DNA and RNA and L-amino acids of proteins) is a fundamental property of all life on Earth. Abiotic mechanisms yield racemic mixtures (D/L=1) of chiral molecules and after the death of an organism, the enantiopure chiral biomolecules slowly racemize. Several independent investigators have now establishe...
Chapter
Full-text available
The Polar Regions and deep-sea floor represent a vast region (over 75%) of our planet where the temperature seldom exceeds 5 oC. Psychrophilic and psychrotolerant microorganisms appear to inhabit all of the cold environments on our planet. The microbial extremophiles that inhabit the polar environments are of tremendous significance. They have been...
Article
An analysis is presented of the stray light expected in a Coronagraph/Polarimeter operating at the H I Lyman (alpha) (Ly-(alpha) ) line ((lambda) 121.6 nm) and utilizing multilayer interference film optics and ultrasmooth substrates (i.e., rms-smoothness
Article
Microfossils of large filamentous trichomic prokaryotes have been detected during in-situ investigations of carbonaceous meteorites. This research has been carried out using the Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) to examine freshly fractured interior surfaces of the meteorites. The images obtained reveal that many of these remains...
Chapter
Full-text available
Microbial complexes were identified in the volcanic glasses from the ancient (2.4-Ga-old basaltic pillowlavas of Karelia) and modern (pillow lavas of Mid-Atlantic ridge) volcanic rocks. It was shown that that their microbial colonization is likely to occur by the same mechanism. Thus, well preserved pillow lavas, which occupy a spacious fields in t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Large filaments have been found in-situ in freshly fractured interior surfaces of carbonaceous meteorites. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) images show many of these filaments are embedded in the meteorite rock matrix. Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) data show that the elemental compositions of the filaments are consis...
Article
Full-text available
A micro-scale Fluorescent Activated Cell Sorter (muFACS) for astrobiology applications is under development. This device is designed to have a footprint of 7 cm x 7 cm x 4 cm and allow live-dead counts and sorting of cells that have fluorescent characteristics from staining. The muFACS system takes advantage of microfludics to create a cell sorter...
Article
Full-text available
Extreme conditions such as low temperature, aridness, low availability of organic matter, high salinity and UV-radiation in terrestrial Antarctica are key factors limiting the habitation of biotic communities and ecosystem dynamics. In recent studies, it has been discovered that the bacterial communities are highly diverse and distributed widely in...
Article
Full-text available
The study of samples from Antarctica 2008 and 2009 expeditions organized and successfully conducted by Richard Hoover led to the isolation of diverse anaerobic strains with psychrotolerant and psychrophilic physiology. Due to the fact that Lake Untersee has never been subject to microbiological study, this work with the samples has significant and...
Article
Full-text available
The study of a sample collected from a wind-made ice sculpture near Lake Podprudnoe, Antarctica led to the isolation of the psychrotolerant strain ISLP-3. Cells of the new isolate are vibrio-shaped that measure 0.5 x 1.0-3.0 mum in size. Growth occurs within the temperature range 5-35°C with the optimum at 22 °C. Salinity range for growth is 0-2 %...