Richard D Hayes

Richard D Hayes
King's College London | KCL · Department of Health Service and Population Research

About

102
Publications
20,703
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
5,432
Citations

Publications

Publications (102)
Article
Clozapine is the only licenced medication for treating treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Previous studies have suggested unequal rates of clozapine treatment by ethnicity among individuals with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. One previous review has investigated this topic but was restricted to studies from the USA. This current review aims to s...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Clozapine is the most effective intervention for treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS). Several studies report ethnic disparities in clozapine treatment. However, few studies restrict analyses to TRS cohorts alone or address confounding by benign ethnic neutropenia. This study investigates ethnic equity in access to clozapine treatment fo...
Article
Full-text available
Background Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at particularly high risk of suicide and suicide attempts. Presentation to a hospital with self-harm is one of the strongest risk factors for later suicide. We describe the use of a novel data linkage between routinely collected education data and child and adolescent mental health data...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: To compare mental healthcare use and healthcare professional (HCP) contacts for patients before and after initiation of paliperidone palmitate. Setting: The South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust (SLAM) Biomedical Research Centre Clinical Record Interactive Search. Participants: We identified all adults with a diagnosis of...
Article
Full-text available
Background A proportion of people with treatment-resistant schizophrenia fail to show improvement on clozapine treatment. Knowledge of the sociodemographic and clinical factors predicting clozapine response may be useful in developing personalised approaches to treatment. Methods This retrospective cohort study used data from the electronic health...
Preprint
Background Research shows persistent ethnic inequities in mental health experiences and outcomes, with a higher incidence of illnesses among minoritised ethnic groups. People with psychosis have a higher risk of multiple long-term conditions (MLTC; multimorbidity). However, there is limited research regarding ethnic inequalities in multimorbidity i...
Article
Full-text available
Clozapine, an antipsychotic, is associated with increased susceptibility to infection with COVID-19, compared to other antipsychotics. Here, we investigate associations between clozapine treatment and increased risk of adverse outcomes of COVID-19, namely COVID-related hospitalisation, intensive care treatment, and death, amongst patients taking an...
Article
Full-text available
We describe the incidence of suicidality (2007–2017) in people with depression treated by secondary mental healthcare services at South London and Maudsley NHS Trust ( n = 26 412). We estimated yearly incidence of ‘suicidal ideation’ and ‘high risk of suicide’ from structured and free-text fields of the Clinical Record Interactive Search system. Th...
Article
Background Alcohol use is a multidimensional risk factor for suicidal behaviour. However, suicide prevention strategies often take ‘one-size-fits-all’ approaches to alcohol use, reflecting an evidence base built on unidimensional measures. Latent Class Analysis can use a range of measures to differentiate distinct patterns of alcohol using behaviou...
Article
Full-text available
Background Gender disparities in treatment are apparent across many areas of healthcare. There has been little research into whether clozapine prescription, the first-line treatment for treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS), is affected by patient gender. Methods This retrospective cohort study identified 2244 patients with TRS within the South...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Clozapine, an antipsychotic, is associated with increased susceptibility to infection with COVID-19, compared to other antipsychotics. Aims To investigate associations between clozapine treatment and increased risk of adverse outcomes of COVID-19, namely COVID-related hospitalisation and intensive care treatment, and death, among patient...
Article
Full-text available
Background Although no drugs are licensed for the treatment of personality disorder, pharmacological treatment in clinical practice remains common. Aims This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of psychotropic drug use and associations with psychological service use among people with personality disorder. Method Using data from a large, anonym...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Clozapine, an antipsychotic with unique efficacy in treatment-resistant psychosis, is associated with increased susceptibility to infection, including pneumonia. Aims: To investigate associations between clozapine treatment and increased risk of COVID-19 infection in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders who are receiving an...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Objectives Linkage of electronic health records (EHRs) to Hospital Episode Statistics (HES)-Office for National Statistics (ONS) mortality data has provided compelling evidence for lower life expectancy in people with severe mental illness. However, linkage error may underestimate these estimates. Using a clinical sample (n=265 300) of in...
Preprint
Background Clozapine, an antipsychotic with unique efficacy in treatment resistant psychosis, is associated with increased susceptibility to infection, including pneumonia. Aims To investigate associations between clozapine treatment and increased risk of COVID-19 in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders who are receiving antipsychotic med...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are important tools to inform patients, clinicians and policy-makers about clinical need and the effectiveness of any given treatment. Consistent PROM use can promote early symptom detection, help identify unexpected treatment responses and improve therapeutic engagement. Very few studies have...
Article
Trends in detention under the Mental Health Act 1983 in two major London secondary mental healthcare providers were explored using patient-level data in a historical cohort study between 2007–2008 and 2016–2017. An increase in the number of detention episodes initiated per fiscal year was observed at both sites. The rise was accompanied by an incre...
Article
Full-text available
Trends in detention under the Mental Health Act 1983 in two major London secondary mental healthcare providers were explored using patient-level data in a historical cohort study between 2007–2008 and 2016–2017. An increase in the number of detention episodes initiated per fiscal year was observed at both sites. The rise was accompanied by an incre...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Bulimia nervosa (BN) is associated with increased mortality. Frequent comorbidities of BN include substance use disorders, affective disorders and personality disorders (PD). These comorbidities may add an additional risk for mortality. Methods: We investigated the influence of these psychiatric comorbidities on all-cause mortality w...
Article
Full-text available
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is found associated with increased mortality. Frequent comorbidities of AN include substance use disorders (SUD), affective disorders (AD) and personality disorders (PD). We investigated the influence of these psychiatric comorbidities on all-cause mortality with demographic and socioeconomic factors considered as confounders...
Data
Table S1. Mental and physical health problems and functional status* of the clozapine and non‐clozapine groups in patients with treatment‐resistant schizophrenia
Article
Full-text available
Background Insight into the effect of clozapine is limited by a lack of controlling for confounding variables in current research. Our objective was to investigate the association between clozapine prescribed at discharge, following an inpatient episode, and risk of readmission into secondary mental health services in patients with schizophrenia an...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Large‐scale epidemiological studies have demonstrated a protective effect of clozapine on mortality in people with schizophrenia. Clozapine is reserved for use in patients with treatment‐resistant schizophrenia (TRS), but evidence of clozapine's effect on mortality exclusively within TRS samples is inconclusive. Hence, we aimed to investi...
Data
jop-2018-3453-File002 – Supplemental material for Predicting parkinsonism side-effects of antipsychotic polypharmacy prescribed in secondary mental healthcare
Article
Full-text available
Background: Computer-modelling approaches have the potential to predict the interactions between different antipsychotics and provide guidance for polypharmacy. Aims: To evaluate the accuracy of the quantitative systems pharmacology platform to predict parkinsonism side-effects in patients prescribed antipsychotic polypharmacy. Methods: Using...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives To investigate the association between long‐term antipsychotic polypharmacy use and mortality; and determine whether this risk varies by cause of death and antipsychotic dose. Methods Using data from a large anonymised mental healthcare database, we identified all adult patients with serious mental illness (SMI) who had been prescribed...
Article
Full-text available
Background Serious mental illness (SMI, including schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and bipolar disorder) is associated with worse general health. However, admissions to general hospitals have received little investigation. We sought to delineate frequencies of and causes for non-psychiatric hospital admissions in SMI and compare with the ge...
Article
Full-text available
The prevalence of negative symptoms (NS) at first episode of early-onset psychosis (EOP), and their effect on psychosis prognosis is unclear. In a sample of 638 children with EOP (aged 10–17 y, 51% male), we assessed (1) the prevalence of NS at first presentation to mental health services and (2) whether NS predicted eventual development of multipl...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine if there was an association between being discharged on antipsychotic polypharmacy (APP) and risk of readmission into secondary mental health care. Methods: Using data from the South London and Maudsley (SLAM) case register, service users with serious mental illness (SMI), discharged between 1st...
Article
Full-text available
Aims: To investigate clustering of all-cause and overdose deaths after a transfer of patients and their care to alternative treatment provider and after the end of opioid substitution therapy (OST) in opioid-dependent individuals in specialist addiction treatment. Design, setting and participants: Mortality data were identified within a sample o...
Article
Objective: In a sample of children and adolescents with first-episode psychosis, we investigated whether multiple treatment failure (MTF, defined as the initiation of a third trial of novel antipsychotic due to nonadherence, adverse effects, or insufficient response) was associated with comorbid autism spectrum disorders. Methods: Data were from t...
Article
Background: dementia is increasingly recognised as life-limiting condition. Although the benefits of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) on cognition and function are well established, their effect on survival is less clear. Objective: to investigate associations between AChEI prescription and mortality in patients with Alzheimer’s dementia (A...
Article
Full-text available
Linkage of routinely collected data from public services has the potential to improve how local health, education and social care are delivered to children. All mental health services, hospital-based child health services, schools and child protection services which serve the same local area could be more efficient if the design, monitoring, target...
Article
Objectives To examine links between clinical and other characteristics of people with Alzheimer's disease living in the community, likelihood of care home or hospital admission, and associated costs. Design Observational data extracted from clinical records using natural language processing and Hospital Episode Statistics. Statistical analyses exa...
Conference Paper
P.7.b. Child and adolescent disorders and treatment − Disorders (clinical) S721 admission and discharge mental state and level of functioning were assessed with Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26), Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI) and Children Global Assessment Scale (CGAS). During the hospitalization level of...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Clozapine is uniquely effective in the management of treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS). However, a substantial proportion of patients discontinue treatment and this carries a poor prognosis. Methods: We investigated the risk factors, reasons and timing of clozapine discontinuation in a two-year retrospective cohort study of 316...
Conference Paper
Background: Neurodevelopmental disorders increase the risk of developing a psychotic disorder in childhood and are associated with poor clinical outcomes. However, little is known about the effect of neurodevelopmental co-morbidity on the response to antipsychotic medications. Using clinical data from a large electronic case register of child and a...
Conference Paper
Background: The severity of negative symptoms (NS) at the onset of illness have been consistently associated with poor outcomes in adult onset psychosis. Less is known about the impact of NS on later clinical outcomes in child and adolescent onset psychosis. Furthermore, very little is known about the effect of NS at first presentation on the respo...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: The predictors of long-term antipsychotic polypharmacy (APP) initiation are poorly understood. Existing research has been hampered by residual confounding, failure to exclude cross-titration, and difficulties in separating the timing of predictors and APP administration. Materials and methods: Using data from the South London and M...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The South London and Maudsley National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust Biomedical Research Centre (SLaM BRC) Case Register and its Clinical Record Interactive Search (CRIS) application were developed in 2008, generating a research repository of real-time, anonymised, structured and open-text data derived from the electronic health rec...
Article
Full-text available
We sought to test the hypothesis that the rs1344706 A allele will be associated with worse clinical outcome in first-episode psychosis. A data linkage was set up between a large systematic study of first-episode psychosis and an electronic health-record case register at the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust—a large provider of secondar...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The South London and Maudsley National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust Biomedical Research Centre (SLaM BRC) Case Register and its Clinical Record Interactive Search (CRIS) application were developed in 2008, generating a research repository of real-time, anonymised, structured and open-text data derived from the electronic health rec...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives To identify negative symptoms in the clinical records of a large sample of patients with schizophrenia using natural language processing and assess their relationship with clinical outcomes. Design Observational study using an anonymised electronic health record case register. Setting South London and Maudsley NHS Trust (SLaM), a large p...
Article
Full-text available
Personality disorder (PD) is associated with important health outcomes in the general population. However, the length of diagnostic interviews poses a significant barrier to obtaining large scale, population-based data on PD. A brief screen for the identification of people at high risk of PD in the general population could be extremely valuable for...
Article
Full-text available
Antipsychotic prescription information is commonly derived from structured fields in clinical health records. However, utilising diverse and comprehensive sources of information is especially important when investigating less frequent patterns of medication prescribing such as antipsychotic polypharmacy (APP). This study describes and evaluates a n...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Approximately one third of adults with psychosis have will fail to respond to their first and second trial of antipsychotic medication. These individuals are at high risk of developing profound and lifelong psychiatric disability. Currently, one in five people who are diagnosed with a psychotic disorder will present with their first episode before...
Article
Opioid misusers have recognized high mortality but the influence of psychiatric comorbidity in excess cause-specific mortality is unclear. Opioid use disorder (OUD) patients were identified in the South London and Maudsley Case Register. Deaths were identified through database linkage to the national mortality dataset. Standard mortality ratios wer...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Observational research using data from electronic health records (EHR) is a rapidly growing area, which promises both increased sample size and data richness - therefore unprecedented study power. However, in many medical domains, large amounts of potentially valuable data are contained within the free text clinical narrative. Manually reviewing fr...
Article
Full-text available
Observational research using data from electronic health records (EHR) is a rapidly growing area, which promises both increased sample size and data richness - therefore unprecedented study power. However, in many medical domains, large amounts of potentially valuable data are contained within the free text clinical narrative. Manually reviewing fr...
Article
Full-text available
Background Lower levels of cognitive function have been found to be associated with higher mortality in older people, particularly in dementia, but the association in people with other mental disorders is still inconclusive. Methods and Findings Data were analysed from a large mental health case register serving a geographic catchment of 1.23 mill...
Article
Full-text available
Clozapine can cause severe adverse effects yet it is associated with reduced mortality risk. We test the hypothesis this association is due to increased clinical monitoring and investigate risk of premature mortality from natural causes. We identified 14 754 individuals (879 deaths) with serious mental illness (SMI) including schizophrenia, schizoa...
Article
Full-text available
Background Suicide completion is a tragic outcome in secondary mental healthcare. However, the extent to which demographic and clinical characteristics, suicide method and service use-related factors vary across psychiatric diagnoses remains poorly understood, particularly regarding differences between `schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD)¿ and `...
Article
Full-text available
To examine the impact of co-morbid personality disorder (PD), on inpatient and community-based service use and risk of involuntary hospitalization, amongst patients with severe mental illness (SMI). We identified SMI cases (schizophrenia, schizoaffective and bipolar disorder) with and without co-morbid PD, and PD cases, aged ≥18 years, in a large s...