Richard Hake

Richard Hake
Indiana University Bloomington | IUB · Department of Physics

PhD

About

95
Publications
24,400
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
8,748
Citations
Citations since 2017
0 Research Items
3588 Citations
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500600
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500600
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500600
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500600
Additional affiliations
June 1970 - June 1995
Indiana University Bloomington
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Description
  • Researched superconductivity, magnetism, and education.

Publications

Publications (95)
Article
In this article I (a) note that psychologists have made outstanding contributions to the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, (b) bemoan the failure of psychologists to develop a Psychology Concept Inventory, (c) point to evidence from pre/post testing with the Force Concept Inventory for the approximately 2-SD superiority in average pre- to post-...
Article
The Physics Teacher 50(8), 452 (2012) DOI: http://doi.org/10.1119/1.4758138
Article
Socratic dialogue-inducing (SDI) labs1,2 are based on Arnold Arons' half-century of ethnographic research, listening carefully to students' responses to probing Socratic questions on physics, science, and ways of thinking, and culminating in his landmark Teaching Introductory Physics.3 They utilize ``interactive engagement'' methods4 and are design...
Article
Full-text available
Formative pre/post testing is being successfully employed to improve the effectiveness of courses in undergraduate astronomy, economics, biology, chemistry, economics, geoscience, engineering, and physics. But such testing is still anathema to many members of the psychology-education-psychometric (PEP) community. I argue that this irrational bias i...
Article
The Physics Teacher 46(8), 511 (2008) DOI: http://doi.org/10.1119/1.3001642
Article
Full-text available
Professor Scott Overmyer of Baker College, in a discussion list post, raised four points bearing on a question of interest to those involved in the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL): Can Distance and Classroom Learning Be Increased? My answer: "YES" -judging from the fact that pre/post testing in courses in Newtonian mechanics has demonst...
Article
In a 1998 meta-analysis I showed that “interactive engagement” (IE) courses could yield average normalized pre-to-posttest gains in conceptual understanding of Newtonian mechanics that were about two standard deviations greater than traditional (T) courses. Then in 2002 I wrote a paper based on my meta-analysis entitled “Lessons From the Physics Ed...
Article
Full-text available
Education research in physics at the high school and undergraduate level strongly suggests that interactive engagement enhances students' conceptual understanding much more than traditional Direct Science Instruction (DSI). Similar conclusions can be drawn from K-8 science-education research. Nevertheless, DSI predominates in CA because of the DSI-...
Article
Full-text available
Arnold Boris Arons (1916-2001) Structured Abstract Background: Arnold Arons, along with Robert Karplus, can fairly be called one of the founding fathers of U.S. Physics Education Research, a field that has emerged as a viable sub-discipline of physics in the last two decades. The instructional methods advocated by Arons were influenced by the work...
Article
Full-text available
Some prominent education researchers now work in Pasteur's interdisciplinary, use-inspired, basic-research quadrant doing what they call "Design-Based Research" (DBR). After quoting descriptions of DBR by a few of its advocates, I discuss the insularity that has hidden DBR's from PER's (Physics Education Researchers) and PER's from DBR's. I then at...
Article
Full-text available
Should teachers concentrate on critical thinking, estimation, measurement, and graphing rather than college-clone algorithmic physics in grades K--12? Thus far physics education research o#ers little substantive guidance. Mathematics education research addressed the mathematics analogue of this question in the 1930's. Students in Manchester, New Ha...
Article
Full-text available
Several years ago I reported a survey (Hake 1998a,b,c) of pre/post test data for 62 introductory physics courses enrolling a total of 6542 students. The present article provides a summary of that survey and presents fourteen lessons from the physics-education reform effort that may assist the general upgrading of education and science literacy.
Article
Full-text available
this article is R.R. Hake, "My Conversion To The Arons-Advocated Method Of Science Education," Teaching Education 3(2), 109-111 (1991). Except for the correction of a few minor typos, this web version is identical to the original except for referencing updates at [Ed. note (5/18/00: ..........]. 3. Four recently prepared SDI lab manuals (Newton's F...
Article
Full-text available
This paper summarizes two examples and then gives a prediction. _________________________________________________________________
Article
.. causes have a large effect on performance in physics, but conventional instruction induces only a small change in those beliefs." (b) "Considering the wide differences in the teaching styles of the four professors....(involved in the study)....the basic knowledge gain under conventional instruction is essentially independent of the professor." A...
Article
This article is intended to assist (a) instructors in selecting and implementing IE methods, and (b) physics-education researchers in assessing and utilizing the raw data of the survey. Test scores, instuctional methods, materials used, institutions, and instructors for each of the survey courses are tabulated and referenced. Suggestions for the mi...
Article
Full-text available
A survey of pre/post-test data using the Halloun–Hestenes Mechanics Diagnostic test or more recent Force Concept Inventory is reported for 62 introductory physics courses enrolling a total number of students N6542. A consistent analysis over diverse student populations in high schools, colleges, and universities is obtained if a rough measure of th...
Article
This paper summarizes the results of a survey of 62 introductory physics courses enrolling a total number of students N=6542 using the Halloun-Hestenes conceptual Mechanics Diagnostic or more recent Force Concept Inventory test, and, where data is available, the problem-solving Mechanics Baseline test.
Article
Scitation is the online home of leading journals and conference proceedings from AIP Publishing and AIP Member Societies
Article
Scitation is the online home of leading journals and conference proceedings from AIP Publishing and AIP Member Societies
Article
Experiments on high TcRBa2Cu3O7 − δ (R = rare earth; δ ≈ 0.1) compounds have revealed a variety of interesting effects that involve the 4f electrons of the R ions. Schottky anomalies due to the partial lifting of the degeneracy of the Hund's rules ground state multiplets of the R ions by the crystalline electric field (CEF) are found in the low tem...
Article
Ten nonphysical-science professors studied Newton's laws for a 3-week period along with 323 students in a noncalculus-based introductory physics course for science majors. The course contained innovations described in an earlier article [R. R. Hake, Am. J. Phys. 55, 878 (1987)]. Pre- and post-course mechanics exams indicated substantial increase in...
Article
Finely ground powders ofRBa2Cu3O7 − δ (R=Y, Nd, Sm, Eu, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb) have been mixed at dilute 3%-by-volume concentrations into epoxy matrices which were then allowed to harden in applied magnetic fieldsH A=18 kOe. X-ray diffractometry studies and 4.3 K measurements of supercurrent-induced magnetization hysteresisΔM are interpreted as indica...
Article
Upper critical magnetic field initial slopes -dHc2/dT, have been measured for RBa2Cu3O7-delta compounds where R=Y , Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu. If H at the resistive midpoint is defined as Hc2, then -dHc2/dT falls within the range of 0.81 (R=Lu) to 2.86 (R=Eu) T/K. Extrapolations to T=0 K using the standard, three-dimensional, dirty...
Article
Magnetic properties have been investigated for polycrystalline samples of RBa2Cu2O7-delta with R = Y and all the rare earth elements except Pm. The normal-state magnetic susceptibilities of these compounds can be described as chi(T)=chi0+Nmu2eff/[3kb(T - vartheta)], with mueff comparable to the values of free R3+ ions. The superconducting-state mag...
Article
Electrical resistivity ϱ, magnetization M, and specific heat C measurements have been made on polycrystalline RBa2Cu3O7-δ compounds (R=Y or a rare earth element) which, except for R=Ce, Pr and Tb, exhibit superconductivity with Tc≈90 K. Measurements of C(T) below Tc reveal (1) a contribution linear in T and Debye and Einstein lattice contributions...
Article
A six-week noncalculus-based introductory course was designed and taught with the intention of promoting students' conceptual understanding of Newtonian mechanics. Primary emphasis was placed on (1) laboratories structured to induce Socratic dialogue; (2) lectures stressing a qualitative approach to problem solving, and contrasting Newtonian and st...
Article
Upper critical magnetic fields H c2 (T) have been measured resistively for the high‐temperature (T c ≳90 K) superconductors TmBa 2 Cu 3 O 9-δ and YBa 2 Cu 3 O 9-δ in applied magnetic fields H up to 9 T. If H at the resistive midpoint is defined as H c2 , then the upper critical field slopes (dH c2 /dT) T c at the superconducting transition temperat...
Article
The series of rare-earth (R)-barium copper oxides with nominal composition (RBa2)Cu3O9−σ and the prototype compound (YBa2)Cu3O9−σ have been prepared from the R (except Pm), Y, and Cu oxides and Ba carbonate by sintering, followed by arc-melting and annealing in pure oxygen. X-ray diffraction measurements show that, except for R = Ce, Tb, and Lu, th...
Article
Superconductivity with critical transition temperature Tc near 90 K has been found in RBa2Cu3O7-δ compounds where R = Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu, and with Tc=56 K for R = La by electrical resistivity and low field magnetic susceptibility measurements. All compounds (except La) form in the orthorhombic, layered perovskite structure w...
Chapter
Full-text available
Two classes of superconducting materials, heavy electron superconductors (frequently referred to as “heavy fermion superconductors”)1,2 and superconducting oxides, 3 have attracted a considerable amount of attention in recent years because of their extraordinary superconducting properties which may be associated with an unconventional type of super...
Article
Four uranium compounds - U//3Ir, U//3Os, U//3Si and U//2Ti - have been found to exhibit superconductivity at temperatures less than equivalent to 1. 2 K. The magnetic susceptibility and electrical resistivity of all four compounds have been measured between approximately equals 1 K and room temperature, and specific heat data for U//3Ir and U//3Si...
Article
The compound URu 3 has been found to exhibit superconductivity below 0.15 K. Polycrystalline specimens of URu 3 and two other U‐compound superconductors, UPt 3 and UCo, have been investigated by means of ac magnetic susceptibility measurements in zero and finite magnetic fields. Electrical resistivity, dc magnetic susceptibility, and specific‐heat...
Article
The magnetization M and electrical resistivity ρ have been measured at 0≤H≤135 kG and 1.2≤T≤27 K for the transition metal hcp Zr containing Mn at concentrations 520≤c≤3100 ppm. The primary results are (a) the measurements confirm earlier indications that Mn displays a localized magnetic moment when in solution in hcp Zr and suggest a Kondo temperat...
Article
Apparent superconductive fluctuation conductivity ("paraconductivity") Δσf has been observed in very "dirty" (short electron-mean-free-path), bulk, type-II superconductors in applied magnetic fields H up to twice the zero-temperature upper critical field Hc20. Peaks observed in the isomagnetic field paraconductivity as a function of temperature at...
Article
Weak normal-state negative magnetoresistance, and negative slope d&rgr;/dT in the electrical resistivity &rgr; versus T, have been observed at temperatures 1.2?T?27K and applied magnetic fields H?140kG in very short electron-mean-free-path, superconducting, bcc Ti-base alloys such as Ti92Fe8, Ti86Mn14, Ti92Ru8, Ti84Mo16, Ti92Os8....
Article
Figure 11 shows a schematic H-T phase diagram for a bulk type II superconductor. Below T c the well-known Meissner, mixed, and sheath states are shown. Outside the upper critical field curve H c2 (T) we have shown dots representing the presence of “fluctuation superconductivity” associated with short-lived Cooper pairs. Our previous work1–4 on fluc...
Article
The specific heat is calculated in the transition region for an extreme type-II bulk superconductor [zero-temperature Ginzburg-Landau (GL) coherence length xi(0)~48 Å, dirtiness parameter xi0l~120, GL parameter kappa~67] for various values of applied magnetic field H, and compared with previously published data. Nonlocality is neglected and the qua...
Article
Isothermal measurements of the electrical resistivity ϱ vs. applied magnetic field H for the bulk extreme-type-II superconductivity alloy Ti84 Mo16 yield evidence for the magnetic field quenching of fluctuation superconductivity. For and , the data suggest Δσf∞ (H − Hc2)-1 where Δσf is the extra conductivity due to superconductive fluctuations and...
Article
Measurements of the magnetic-field dependence of the electrical resistivity in bulk specimens of very-short-coherence-distance superconducting alloys suggest the presence of fluctuation superconductivity up to at least 3 TC, and up to 40 kG in the vicinity of 2.5 TC. Present address: 24245 Hatteras St., Woodland Hills, California 91364, USA.
Article
After a brief description of the basic characteristics of type‐I and type‐II superconductors, we outline a unified classical thermodynamic treatment. Some applications of thermodynamic formulae to type‐II behavior are then discussed, closing with a consideration of upper‐critical‐field limits and fluctuation super‐conductivity in bulk extreme‐type‐...
Article
Full-text available
The Lederman (1999; 2001a,b) "Physics First" brigade appears to be appears to be attracting recruits: e.g., two sessions on "Physics First" at the January 2002 AAPT meeting in Philadelphia; recent pro-"Physics First" editorials by AAPT leaders (Chiaverina 2002, Khoury 2001, Hubisz 2001a); a "Physics First" website (Livanis 2000); and "more than a h...
Article
Full-text available
This 12.8 MB compilation of over 700 annotated references and 1000 hot-linked URL's provides a window into the vast literature on Gender Issues in Science/Math Education (GISME). The present listing is an update, expansion, and generalization of the earlier 0.23 MB Gender Issues in Physics/Science Education (GIPSE) by Mallow & Hake (2002). Included...
Article
Full-text available
In reaction to a discussion-list post with the provocative title "Distance Learning: Is There Any?" an online learning specialist countered with a fair question: "Face-To-Face Learning: Is There Any?" perhaps better phrased as "Classroom Learning: Is There Any?" My answer: probably not much for conceptually difficult subjects taught in the traditio...
Article
In the first part of this paper, we briefly describe some of our efforts to determine the type of pairing and pairing mechanisms that are associated with the superconductivity of heavy electron materials by means of H/sub c2/(T) measurements in Gd-doped (U/sub 1-x/Th/sub x/)Beââ alloys. An account of some of our recent work on the new high T/sub c...
Article
BS>Measurements were carried out on the Hall effect, resistivity, and ; magnetoresistivity of Cu, Zr, Ti, and Nb at temperatures between ~1 deg K and ; room temperature and in magnetic fields up to 30 kilogauss. A method for ; computing the energy levels in alloy systems using the augmented plane wave ; approach of Slater was worked out. (W.D.M.);
Article
A method is described of preventing short circuiting of superconducting devices by voltage surges caused by the devices going normal occasionally and destroying ordinary dielectric insulator configurations. The insulator between adjacent layers and between turns of a coil is not subject to breakdown by large voltage surges. The adjacent superconduc...
Article
Electrical resistivity measurements on bulk specimens of very-short-coherence-distance [(lxi0)12~50 Å] type-II superconducting alloys suggest the presence of fluctuation superconductivity at temperatures up to at least 2Tc, where Tc approximates the bulk superconducting transition temperature. Apparent magnetic field quenching of fluctuation superc...
Article
Scitation is the online home of leading journals and conference proceedings from AIP Publishing and AIP Member Societies
Article
Measurements of mixed-state transverse and longitudinal voltages at T=1.2°K, 0<H<39 kG, 0<J<800 A/cm2 on an extremely high-κ type-II alloy superconductor Ti-16 at.% Mo (κ=68, Tc=4.2°K, zero-temperature upper critical field Hc20=63 kG) show that the high-J, nearly J-independent, mixed-state Hall-angle tangent tanθm(H) is much larger than the normal-...
Article
Some thermodynamic relationships which include volume and pressure effects are presented for the case of the ideal bulk type-II superconductor. On the basis of published data, it is assumed that the upper-critical-field transition at (Hc2,Ts) occurs without discontinuities in the entropy and magnetization and without infinite discontinuities in the...
Article
Magnetization measurements in applied magnetic fields 0<H≤55 kG and at temperatures 1.2≤T≤4.2°K have been made on some extremely "dirty" (short electron mean free path) type-II superconducting transition-metal alloys with Gor'kov-Goodman-calculated Ginzburg-Landau κG values in the range 30-100: Ti(16 at.% Mo), V(30 at.% Ti) (10 at.% Cr), Ti(22.5 at...
Article
Full-text available
Approximate zero‐temperature upper‐critical‐field limits H c20 (max), consistent with the recent extreme‐type‐II theory of Werthamer, Helfand, and Hohenberg (WHH), are deduced by assuming (1) an electron mean free path l 0 comparable to the interatomic spacing, (2) a spin‐orbit‐coupling‐induced spin‐flip mean free path l so =2l 0 , with approximate...
Article
Specific-heat measurements at 0≤H≤29kG, 0.33≤TTc≤1, on the extreme (κG‰̂67) type-II superconducting alloy Ti-16 at.% Mo (previously shown to display reversible paramagnetic magnetization in the superconducting mixed state) (1) confirm the second-order nature of the upper-critical-field transition between the paramagnetic mixed and paramagnetic norm...
Article
DOI:https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.15.865
Article
An experimental study of localized moments on "magnetic" impurities (~0.2 at.% of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, or Gd) in the group IV transition elements Ti, Zr, and Hf has been carried out. From magnetic-susceptibility measurements we find a localized moment on Mn of ~3.5 muB in each of the solvents Ti, Zr, and Hf. Chromium forms a moment in Zr (0.2 muB) and i...
Article
The specific heats C of arc-cast specimens of Ti and alloys of Ti with Mn and Co have been measured between 1.2 and 4.5°K. For ~99.92 wt.% pure hcp Ti, the standard C=gammaT+betaT3 relation is closely obeyed, with gamma=3.30+/-0.03mJ/mole(°K)2 and beta-13~thetaD=429+/-7°K. For hcp Ti alloys containing 0.17-1.7 at.% (nominal atomic percent) Mn we ob...
Article
The Specific heat C of a well-annealed alloy V-5 at.% Ta, measured at 1.4≤T≤5 ° K in steady magnetic fields, displays sharp, bulk, superconducting transitions at upper critical fields Hc2 a factor a‰ 10 larger than the calorimetrically derived thermodynamic critical fields Hc. The transitions are similar to those observed earlier by Morin et al. 1...
Article
Entropy, free energy, and magnetization are derived from speciflc heat data on a well-annealed bcc V-5 at.% Ta superconducting alloy. The alloy is in the bulk state. The magnetization and its relation with the effective fielddependent energy gap are in accord with the theory of type II superconductors. (T.F.H.)
Article
Using pulsed-magnetic-field techniques, we have studied the magnetic-field-induced superconducting transitions of alloys in the systems Ti-V, Ti-Nb, Ti-Ta, Ti-Mo, Zr-Nb, Hf-Nb, Hf-Ta, U-Nb, and U-Mo. For concentrated alloys the low-current-density resistive critical field ${H}_{r}(J$\lesssim${}10 \mathrm{A}/{\mathrm{cm}}^{2})$ is nearly independent...
Article
Critical current densities J c for restoration of detectable resistance have been measured for super‐conducting Ti‐Mo alloys at 1.2°K in steady magnetic fields up to 30 kG, and for approximate Mo concentrations of 6, 9, and 16 at. %. Cold‐rolling is observed to increase the J c values considerably and, in the case of Ti‐16 at. % Mo, to result in a...
Article
An interpretation is presented of the persistence of superconductivity ; of transition metal alloys at very high magnetic fields. The interpretation is ; based on pulsed-magneticfield data on the low-current-density resistive critical ; fields of concentrated transition metal alloys, the GinsbergLandau-Abrikosov-; Gor'kov theory, and a paramagnetic...
Article
Measurements of the low-temperature negative magnetoresistivities of dilute Ti-Mn and Cu-Mn alloys have been extended to higher magnetic fields by means of pulsed magnetic field techniques. At 4.2°K the observed decreases of resistivity in a transverse magnetic field of 130 kG are approximately 5, 23, and 26% of the zero-field resistivity, respecti...
Article
Electrical resistivities at 1.1 to 35 deg K and magnetoresistivitios at ; 1.1 to 4.2 deg K were measured in dilute, superconducting hcp Ti alloys. ; Resistivity minima occurring between 14 and 18 deg K are observed in ; approximately 99.92% pure Ti, and in Ti-Mn alloys with Mn concentrations between ; 0.02 and 2.0 at.% (nominal atomic percent). Neg...
Article
Zero electrical resistance at unusually high magnetic field strengths has been observed in the bcc alloys Ti-16 a/o (atomic percent) Mo, Nb-12 a/o Zr, and Nb-25 a/o Zr. The maximum high-field zero-resistance current density, J c , in these alloys appears to be a sensitive function of temperature, the degree of cold-working, and the orientation of t...
Article
The specific heats of four bcc Ti-Mo alloys have been measured between 1.1° and 4.3°K, and at atomic fractional Mo concentrations between 0.0625 and 0.0860 (sufficient to stabilize the bcc phase). The normal state molar specific heats can be represented by the usual expression Cn=gammaT+betaT3, where it is commonly assumed that gamma~N(EF), the ene...
Article
The electrical resistivities and the Hall coefficients of a series of body centered cubic Ti-Mo alloys have been measured between 1.1°K and room temperature, in magnetic fields up to 30 kG, and for concentrations of Mo between 7 and 24 atomic per cent. For the lower Mo concentration alloys the resistivities are high (≈ 140 microhm cm), and are slig...
Article
Observations of the difference in critical fields of superconducting Pb ; specimens of different isotopic mass are described. Measurements are made using ; the Meissner effect and a ballistic induction method in the range from 7.2 to ; about 1.4 deg K. The results near T/sub c/ verify the theoretical prediction that ; T/sub c/ = const x M/sup p/, w...
Article
The effect of hydrostatic pressures up to 300 atmospheres on the critical magnetic field of superconducting lead has been measured at a temperature slightly below the critical temperature. The pressures were applied using helium gas as the pressure transmitting fluid. The critical fields of the pressurized specimen and a zero-pressure comparison sp...
Article
DOI:https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRev.104.549

Network

Cited By