Richard Stanley Gray

Richard Stanley Gray
University of Saskatchewan | U of S · Agricultural and Resource Economics

Ph.D. Agricultural and Resource Economics

About

125
Publications
19,025
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1,214
Citations
Citations since 2016
27 Research Items
656 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150

Publications

Publications (125)
Article
Full-text available
Until 2006, the Australian Wheat Board played a central role in providing numerous industry goods, including a comprehensive system of quality assurance. We examine the evolution of the wheat quality management system in Australia in the post single-desk era to gauge what lessons might apply to Canada that is reviewing its current wheat industry re...
Article
One year into the largest economic and health event of the past 70 years, this paper considers how agricultural supply chains and agricultural transportation have been impacted by the COVID‐19 pandemic. Written as an update to Gray (2020), we are able to show that agricultural transportation systems have proven to be extremely robust and were able...
Article
Full-text available
A growing pool of genomic knowledge and remarkable reductions in the cost of genetic sequencing is revolutionizing the identification of plant pathogens and phytosanitary risks. This article examines available technologies of plant testing for genetics, residues, and contamination that can be imposed at port locations for the trade of bulk commodit...
Chapter
Full-text available
The challenges facing global agriculture via population increase, climate change and dietary choices are unprecedented and urgent. In the context of declining public funding for research and development in agriculture (ag R&D), we highlight the historically high returns on such investments and outline an economic rationale to continue government in...
Article
en In 2017, the federal government initiated national consultations for two new crop royalty systems that could be used to support additional crop breeding. In this study, we examine wheat growers’ attitudes towards breeding research and assess their inclination to contribute more to wheat variety development through checkoffs or enhanced royalties...
Article
In this short paper, I assess how COVID-19-related disruptions in transportation services, as well as new demands for transportation services, could impact Canadian agricultural supply chains. The brief analysis reveals that agricultural access to bulk ocean freight, rail movement, and trucking has generally improved in the pandemic, bolstered by t...
Preprint
In Canada, Australia, the U.S., New Zealand and a number of other countries a range of public and producer-controlled research organizations (PCROs) in the agricultural sector are charged with the challenging task of investing millions of dollars in R&D and market promotion projects. The organizations investigated in this dissertation are different...
Article
en This study investigates the relationship between technologies that firms expect to achieve after cross‐licensing (CL) and their incentives for signing CL agreements in a multiproduct‐firm setting. Results indicate that if markets are bounded substantial technological improvements that result in removal of firms’ current products from the market...
Conference Paper
Producer controlled research organizations (PCR)s) are charged with the task of investing hundreds of millions of dollars into research and development and promotion projects. In a series of interviews with the managers and directors of some of the key PCROs in Australia, the US, and Canada we observed that PCROs do not tend to separate management...
Article
We examine the effect of wheat stocks on the relationship between port and inland wheat prices in western Canada after the dissolution of the Canadian Wheat Board in 2012. Standard statistical tests find no evidence that the port price is cointegrated with inland prices. We argue that large harvests in 2013–2014 and 2014–2015 are responsible for th...
Technical Report
Executive Summary • The recent 150% increase in the production of soybean in Canada is largely due to the remarkable increase of soybean production in Manitoba and Saskatchewan, which are also north of all other North American production areas. These provinces also typically produce soybeans lower in terms of both oil and protein content. Because...
Article
Resumo In Canada, average grain freight rates are regulated via the Maximum Revenue Entitlement (MRE), while on the US side of the border grain rates are subject to very little oversight. We use this natural experiment to explore how the MRE regulation has impacted freight rates and the distribution of rents in the wheat supply chain since 2012. On...
Article
Full-text available
Recent discoveries of genetically modified (GM) wheat growing in farm fields across several U.S. states have renewed public worries about GM wheat contamination if GM wheat is commercialised. There would appear to be a need for research designed to identify reactive risk mitigation strategies to maintain the sustainability of grain supply chains (S...
Article
In Hotelling’s linear town model characteristics are implicitly assumed to be related in such a way that preferences for them can be mapped into a one-dimensional town. This results in perfectly correlated willingness to pay levels. Many differentiated products, however, embody characteristics that are functionally at least somewhat unrelated to ot...
Article
In 2016, the Minister of Transport released a review of the Canada Transportation Act that recommended the eventual removal of the Maximum Revenue Entitlement (MRE) governing the movement of grain by rail. The MRE is sometimes referred to as a revenue cap, but the MRE sets a maximum average allowable freight rate over all tonnes of grain moved. The...
Article
Full-text available
Vast distances in the Canadian grain handling system means that the supply chain is highly reliant on rail transportation. After years of relative stability, the grain supply chain has recently undergone many signifi cant changes, including deregulation in grain handling. However, the consequences emerging from some of these changes were unexpected....
Article
Record grain supplies combined with insufficient grain export capacity in the 2013–14 and 2014–15 crop years resulted in depressed Western Canadian grain prices costing producers several billion dollars. The exceptional size of the crop and the harsh winter weather contributing to this costly event raise an important question as to whether addition...
Article
en Although wheat is the largest field crop in Canada, the intellectual property rights for the self‐pollinated, nongenetically modified crop have been too weak to allow significant royalty flow to plant breeders. The sector heavily relies on resource‐constrained public breeding programs for new variety development. This long‐standing situation cou...
Article
Starting in the 2013-14 crop year, a lack of export capacity resulted in substantial increases in the spread between farm and port FOB prices in western Canada. This created a very difficult situation for the farming community. We calculate that this situation reduced grain farmers’ income over the 2013-14 and 2014-15 crop years by approximately C$...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We explore firm behavior in the evolving Canadian grain handling sector. The current grain supply chain for grain is characterized by regulatory shifts in one portion (rail) and full deregulation in another portion (grain handling). Using several models of market structure, we offer that the current system is likely hovering near a tipping point in...
Article
Full-text available
The regulation of science often differs among countries and leads to a divergence that can create barriers to research, knowledge transfer and product trade. Many types of scientific research are mobile activities that be done in a number of countries for a comparable cost. With technology development firms facing comparable development costs regar...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Wheat contamination issues of recent years harmed the reputation and customer trust of U.S. production and threatened U.S. exports. There would appear to be a need for research designed to identify and validate novel reactive strategies designed to maintain sustainable and competitive grain supply chains. This research attempts to identify cost-eff...
Article
Full-text available
With food safety a growing concern in agriculture, the structure and management of agricultural supply chains has become a significant policy issue. In turn, agricultural supply chains are often analytically complex, characterized by feedback and time sensitive, often random parameters. Modern commodity chains such as wheat handling in Canada are n...
Article
Full-text available
The increasing spate of species substitution and mislabelling in fish markets has become a concern to the public and a challenge to both the food industry and regulators. Species substitution and mislabelling within fish supply chains occurs because of price incentives to misrepresent products for economic gain. Emerging authenticity technologies,...
Article
The development and adoption of zero tillage has profoundly transformed cropping systems in Western Canada. In this paper, we describe key drivers and aspects of this innovation process and quantify the overall economic impacts of adoption and the benefit cost of research development and extension, which accelerated the adoption. Estimating on-site...
Article
Crop research sectors in many countries are facing reduced public support with public breeding programs being gradually replaced by private ones. This paper explores the UK experience with the privatization of wheat breeding that began in 1987. The analysis presented in this paper is based on interviews with sixteen experts currently involved in wh...
Article
The introduction of new generation agricultural products has generated an increased need for efficient and accurate product segregation across a number of Canadian agricultural sectors. As a key component of wheat handling in the Canadian grain industry, grading of wheat for value-added blending has historically been accomplished by visual identifi...
Article
Wheat Research Funding in Australia: The Rise of Public-Private-Producer Partnerships The Australian wheat research system was transformed profoundly by three institutional innovations. First, in 1990 the Grains Research and Development Corporation (GRDC) was created to provide levy-funded R&D. Second, in 1994 the Plant Breeder's Rights Act was pas...
Article
This paper models and estimates exchange rate pass-through and its determinants in Canadian manufacturing industries. The paper predicts theoretically that the exchange rate pass-through should be between one and zero, where it is positively affected by the share of tradable inputs in production costs and the domestic firms’ market share, and negat...
Article
This paper examines the incentives for knowledge sharing in an industry where a public institution and a private firm develop new differentiated crop varieties and sell them to heterogeneous farmers. The decision of the public institution to either share their knowledge, or protect and cross-license their IP with the rival firm, is a strategic choi...
Article
This article investigates whether Canadian whole farm programmes, which fall under the WTO category of Green Box subsidies, are truly production neutral. Theory suggests that with non‐constant risk aversion, risky decisions can be influenced by both the level of expected wealth (i.e. the wealth effect) and the variability of wealth (i.e. the insura...
Chapter
The introduction of intellectual property rights (IPRs) to protect knowledge created from agricultural research, development and extension (RD&E) has, in many instances, created strong incentive for private investment and has helped to address the chronic underfunding of agricultural RD&E. However, the privatisation of RD&E is not without its chall...
Article
This paper builds on the work of BUSCHENA AND GRAY (1999) to look at the effects of mergers in the North American malting industry as ten firms in two separated markets merged into four firms in an integrated market. We explore the sensitivity of our results to the assumption of market power. We show that welfare gains from free trade are not gener...
Article
Full-text available
The Australian grain research system has undergone a profound transformation over the past 25 years. This began with the creation of Grains Research Development Corporation, which gave producers a voice within a national research system. In the second phase of development, the GRDC tendered for the development of three for profit public corporation...
Article
Full-text available
As a key component of wheat handling in Canadian grain industry, grading of wheat for value-added blending has historically been accomplished by a visual identification method. As of 2008 in Canada, the visual identification was to be eliminated for all primary classes of wheat and replaced by an alternative wheat declaration system. Given the cost...
Article
The paper examines the economic impact of pricing and access to public basic research-related intellectual property (IP) in the presence of downstream interfirm spillovers using a Salop circle model of monopolistic competition. Depending on the nature and extent of spillovers and with free access to upstream basic research, firm entry can be excess...
Article
Full-text available
In the early 1980s, countries began to allow patenting of biotechnological processes and products, creating technology advancements and rapid development of private industry. Part of the industry development that ensued was a consolidation of small firms and the creation of a few, large life science companies, each owning the requisite intellectual...
Article
Using a sample of organic producers in Saskatchewan, Canada, this study uses a Tobit model to identify the factors that discourage or encourage the complete adoption of organic farming and to assess why farmers differ in the share of total cultivated crop area they allocate to organic practices. In particular, the study evaluates the effect of tran...
Article
Full-text available
The International Consortium on Agricultural Biotechnology Research held its 13th annual conference in Ravello, Italy in June 2009. The theme of the conference was the bioeconomy,and this topic was addressed through research presentations from academia, government, and industry. Numerous presentations from developing countries highlighted the benef...
Article
The development of intellectual property (IP) protection in plant breeding brought much-needed private investment into canola research in the 1980s, but at the same time, fragmented research and IP ownership. In the 1990s, the biotechnology industry tried to address the growing IP fragmentation through a series of mergers and acquisitions. As we sh...
Article
This study measures transaction costs of obtaining credit from Islamic banks. Data were collected from rural households in Iran. The factors affecting transaction costs and the probability of accessing Islamic financial markets are investigated. Similar to conventional financial institutions found in other developing countries, Iranian banks impose...
Article
Under a continental barley marketing system, the Canadian Wheat Board would no longer be the only exporter of barley to the United States. Even though the volume of malting barley exports to the United States would increase, the historic price premium in both Canada and the United States would drop sufficiently to lower total revenue to malting bar...
Article
Risk and uncertainty are key components of decision-making. The theory of the firm has been modified to incorporate risk and uncertainty in various ways. This paper incorporates the notion of survival and loss in the owner's equity with Arrow's theory of risk-bearing. The paper puts forth the argument that risk-averse behavior may be observed becau...
Article
The North American Waterfowl Management Plan seeks to improve wildlife habitat and increase waterfowl numbers through voluntary transactions with farmers to modify their land management practices. The impact of modified land use practices on the incomes of participating farmers and the regional economy are estimated. The compensation offered under...
Article
Full-text available
The paper examine the economic impact of pricing and access to basic research IP. The analysis uses a Sallop circle model of a monopolistically competitive industry to examine the applied research output and firm entry. Under plausible conditions basic research IP spillovers will create rents for the applied research sector, which are dissipated th...
Article
Full-text available
Genetically modified crops have met some consumer opposition domestically and abroad. This opposition has resulted in variety market and policy reactions with a large potential to disrupt trade and to become a focus of international negotiations. In this paper we consider the spillover from adopters to the non-adopters and non-consumers of GM techn...
Article
Full-text available
GM wheat could help achieve a more food-secure world. However, the strong opposition to GM food (including GM wheat), particularly in Europe, will undoubtedly affect the diffusion of GM wheat worldwide, delaying or preventing the world from realizing the potential benefits of this technology in terms of food security. This "braking effect" could de...
Article
Full-text available
Food safety shocks can threaten the health of consumers, create havoc within an industry and result in severe losses to producers. Governments often attempt to enhance food safety by mandating standards and inspection of food products to supplement the voluntary efforts by private firms. This paper assesses a form of collective action that falls be...
Article
Purpose – The paper aims to examine how the theory of institutional economics is used to analyze and explain how the canola industry has developed and changed over the past 30 years, in order to highlight the important role of extra-market institutions in innovation processes. Design/methodology/approach – The theory of transactions and institution...
Article
Full-text available
In response to growing concerns about coronary heart disease (CHD), the Government of Canada has recently taken policy measures to reduce Canadian trans fatty acid (TFA) consumption. The mandatory labelling of trans fat content in foods began in December 2005. The House of Commons also established a task force in November 2004 to develop a set of r...
Article
Full-text available
This paper develops empirical models to estimate both interfirm research spillovers and crowding effects in the canola crop research industry. The potential sources of spillover include basic research, human capital/knowledge (as measured through other-firm expenditures), and genetics (as measured through yields of other firms). The model used to e...
Chapter
This book addresses international trade and policy issues concerning agricultural biotechnology. The 16 chapters in this volume are edited and revised versions of papers presented at the 8th International Conference of the International Consortium on Agricultural Biotechnology Research, held in Ravello, Italy, on 8-11 July 2004. Part I includes fou...
Article
The anticipated abatement costs to be incurred by Canada and six of its provinces from the implementation of the Kyoto agreement (reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions generated by fossil fuel burning by 6% from 1990 levels) are estimated using an emissions benefit function. Marginal abatement cost functions are estimated and used for the ana...
Article
This paper discusses U.S. and Canadian farm programs for grains and oilseeds. In spite of the passage of the U.S. FAIR Act in 1996, where subsidies were to be greatly reduced, subsidies reached an all-time high of over $20 billion in 2000. In Canada, just the opposite occurred, as support for the grains and oilseeds sector has dropped sharply since...
Article
The purpose of this note is to illustrate that the health cost externalities related to food consumption are significant and can be large enough to have implications for the economic evaluation of agriculture and food policy. The individual dietary intake of fats can affect the probability of being afflicted with coronary heart disease (CHD). While...
Article
While the public sector has historically played a very significant role in the direct provision of agricultural research, the appropriate role of government in the future is no longer apparent in a world with intellectual property rights (IPRs) and a concentrated privatized biotech research industry. This study develops a search/imperfect competiti...
Article
In this paper, we use a prevalence-based, cost-of-illness approach to estimate the impact of change in dietary fat intake on coronary heart disease (CHD) costs in Canada. To this end, we review the clinical studies that have examined the relationship between fatty acid consumption and serum cholesterol levels. We estimate the increase in consumptio...
Article
Increases in farm foreclosures in the last decade have created pressures for individuals and organisations to seek alternatives to the traditional debt financing of farm land. A model of a Community Based Land Trust (CBLT) was developed by Brown, Gray and Molder as an alternative form of land tenure. The transaction cost economics literature sugges...
Article
Game theory is used to examine the incentives for private firms to fund applied research to improve differentiated crop varieties sold to compete with a public generic variety. We distinguish between applied research, modeled as a stochastic search process, and basic research, which improves applied research productivity. Propositions derived from...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the optimal approval strategy for genetically modified (GM) wheat varieties in Canada and the United States. Without an affordable segregation system, the introduction of GM wheat will create a market for "lemons" that will result in the loss of important export markets. Using a differentiated product trade model for spring whea...
Article
Full-text available
This paper develops an empirical framework for estimating a number of inter-firm and downstream research spillovers in the canola crop research industry. The spillovers include basic research, human capital/ knowledge (as measured through other-firm expenditures), and genetics (as measured through yields of other-firms). The model used to examine s...
Article
This series of six reports entitled: "On-Farm Food Safety and Environmental Farm Plans: Identifying and Classifying Benefits and Costs" was initiated soon after the launch of the Agricultural Policy Framework (APF) in 2002. The APF recognized the importance of food safety and environmental concerns for the future growth of the agriculture and Agri-...
Article
Full-text available
This series of six reports entitled: "On-Farm Food Safety and Environmental Farm Plans: Identifying and Classifying Benefits and Costs" was initiated soon after the launch of the Agricultural Policy Framework (APF) in 2002. The APF recognized the importance of food safety and environmental concerns for the future growth of the agriculture and Agri-...
Article
Full-text available
This series of six reports entitled: "On-Farm Food Safety and Environmental Farm Plans: Identifying and Classifying Benefits and Costs" was initiated soon after the launch of the Agricultural Policy Framework (APF) in 2002. The APF recognized the importance of food safety and environmental concerns for the future growth of the agriculture and Agri-...
Article
Full-text available
The California pistachio industry led an initiative to establish a federal marketing order, which mandates quality standards and an inspection program to assure food safety and consistency in the quality of California pistachios. We develop a stochastic dynamic simulation model of the pistachio market to investigate quantitatively the likely effect...
Article
The influx of private investment into crop research, which has accompanied the establishment of intellectual property rights (IPRs) and the introduction of biotechnology, suggests high rates of return. However, the empirical analysis of the canola research sector shows a decline in the total net return to research during a period of increased inves...
Article
Full-text available
The study uses firm-specific data in the biotech canola industry to empirically examine research spillovers among public and private firms at the level of research output, research sales revenue, and research social revenue. The non-pecuniary spillovers that are examined include basic research, human capital/ knowledge (as measured through other-fi...