Richard Gordon

Richard Gordon
Gulf Specimen Marine Laboratory · Embryogenesis Center

PhD, Email for PDFs: DickGordonCan@protonmail.com
Archaea First Search &destroy of premetastasis breast cancer

About

304
Publications
67,836
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Introduction
Publications: http://tinyurl.com/DickGordon Categories: Diatom Nanotechnology, Embryogenesis, Medical Imaging, Grant System, Origin of Life, Public Health. Copies on request: DickGordonCan@gmail.com
Additional affiliations
August 2013 - present
Gulf Specimen Marine Laboratory
Gulf Specimen Marine Laboratory
Position
  • If you like my work, invite me to give a seminar
February 2011 - present
Gulf Specimen Marine Laboratory
Position
  • Theoretical Biologist
February 2011 - present
Gulf Specimen Marine Laboratories
Gulf Specimen Marine Laboratories
Position
  • Managing Director
Education
September 1963 - June 1967
University of Oregon
Field of study
  • Chemical Physics
September 1960 - June 1963
University of Chicago
Field of study
  • Mathematics

Publications

Publications (304)
Chapter
Full-text available
Those contending for the planned colonization of our solar system have two basic concepts: terraforming Mars or constructing habitable spinning hollow cylinders in near Earth orbits. Mars is further from the sun and therefore quite cold at its surface. Cylinders are subject to high radiation and puncture. We propose the third possibility of habitab...
Chapter
Full-text available
A group of microalgae known as diatoms that are widely distributed among almost all the water bodies including freshwater, oceans, lakes, rivers, waterways and moist soil, contributes about 50% of the atmosphere's oxygen are of interest due to their extensive applications in biomedicine, pharmaceuticals, toxicity testing, diagnostic procedures, nan...
Chapter
Diatoms are the common eukaryotic microalga present in most water bodies. They differ in their three‐dimensional structure, functional as well as mechanical properties. Diatoms also remain the most habitual phytoplankton available for aquatic animals. X‐ray‐based techniques are the common techniques used to analyse the properties of marine frustule...
Article
Full-text available
Algal culturing in photobioreactors for biofuel and other value-added products is a challenge globally specifically due to expensive closed or open photobioreactors associated with the high cost, problems of water loss and contamination. Among the wide varieties of microalgae, diatoms have come out as potential source for crude oil in the form of D...
Chapter
Full-text available
Diatoms are unicellular photosynthetic organisms that live inside a silica-based glass exoskeleton (frustule). This exoskeleton consists of two valves, similar to parts of a petri dish, and girdle bands between the valves. Diatom valves are species-specific structures with a large number of submicrometric and nano-level elements: pores, spines, rim...
Chapter
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In recent years, mesoporous materials have gained increasing attention through their potential and demonstrated applicability in a range of technologies. While to date many commercially used examples are obtained through synthetic routes, nature can provide us with promising alternative porous materials. Through biomineralization, some microorganis...
Chapter
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Diatom frustules feature species‐specific, multilayer, multiscalar, hierarchical porosity, making them a gift for (nano)technological applications. Their precision challenges the present nanofabrication techniques of similar structures, e.g., photonic crystals or diffraction gratings. Understanding the geometry of the pore arrays present in diatom...
Book
Full-text available
The assumption that life originated on Earth has dominated science since the emergence of the theory of evolution. It became the cornerstone of all major scenarios of the origin of life. Presumed habitats of primordial life on Earth include Darwin’s “warm little pond”, clays, and hydrothermal vents. Thus, challenging the dogma of the origin of life...
Chapter
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Organism symmetry via body plan is the balanced arrangement of structural features (internally or externally) that is definable in terms of dimension (2D or 3D) and geometry (contours, surfaces, boundaries). Symmetry is evident at the endpoint of morphogenesis and at each scale, from genes to cells to organism to population or higher taxonomic leve...
Chapter
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We discuss the panspermia hypothesis within the context of recent findings on Milky Way habitability. Galactic habitability is the key to understanding the phenomenon of life within the cosmological framework. It is the middle of the three levels of habitability: planetary system, galactic, and extragalactic. Incorporating the panspermia hypothesis...
Chapter
Full-text available
The number of day/night cycles available for the origin of life on Earth is O (100 billion). This would seem more than enough for any hypothesized mechanism requiring an alternation of day/light or correlated environmental parameters for any model of origin of life. Thus, the concerns of “not enough time” seem unwarranted, and panspermia may not ha...
Chapter
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We discuss the pristine surface potential for Solar System and Milky Way objects. Surface samples from these objects are likely to give a straightforward record of the environmental conditions and material accumulated during the object's life time. Such samples could be compared with the Earth's fossil record and determine whether panspermia have a...
Chapter
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Based on the chemical properties (isotopic ratios from the fossil sea water sediments and the continents), it is possible to divide the Earth's systems into the basic opposition between the terrigenous and oceanic components. The water/ice environment is considered as a sufficient carrier of panspermia in space due to the characteristic (protecting...
Chapter
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Sir Fred Hoyle made fundamental contributions to nucleosynthesis in stars and may have pioneered the notion that organic matter pervades our Universe. However, his claims for diatoms, bacteria and viruses in space remain unproven, and his approach to being challenged on these matters may have diminished his legacy.
Chapter
Full-text available
Recent years have witnessed a convergence of data and methods that allow us to approximate the shape, size, and functional attributes of biological organisms. This is not only limited to traditional model species: given the ability to culture and visualize a specific organism, we can capture both its structural and functional attributes. We present...
Chapter
Full-text available
The aim of this work was to develop a method to record low-level sounds underwater in order to listen to possible sounds related to the gliding movement of raphid, motile diatoms, inspired by their jerky, high acceleration movements. Different techniques concerning the gathering and handling of diatoms and the possibilities of recording sounds rela...
Chapter
Full-text available
Models for how diatoms move were devised as early as 1753 and up to the present. Most of them have not been pursued to the point of proof or disproof. Elements of some of the oldest models, fanciful and disputed, still help in thinking about this unsolved problem, which has been tackled by a wide variety of scientists, amateur and professional. The...
Article
The purpose of the present work was to compare the quality of low-dose projections from a photon-counting with a flat-panel system, and to evaluate a novel image processing method. Images were acquired of phantoms in both systems at average glandular doses ranging from ∼ 0.15 to 1.4 mGy. Automated detection of low-contrast features and modulation t...
Chapter
Full-text available
Motile diatoms move in the low Reynolds number regime without any apparent organelle for motility. While several possible hypotheses have been proposed, the diatom motility mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, the kinematics of the jerky motion of individual diatoms was investigated at 1.2 millisecond temporal and 9 nm subpixel spatial...
Preprint
Full-text available
The idea of culturing algae in closed systems by sealing the reactor rim tightly with plastic bubble wraps material is being used here to harvest Diafuel TM (Biofuel from diatoms). In this manuscript, microalgae such as diatoms are grown in flask PBR sealed with bubble wrap material of low density, high density and normal polyethylenes and compared...
Article
Full-text available
It is puzzling why life on Earth consisted of prokaryotes for up to 2.5 ± 0.5 billion years (Gy) before the appearance of the first eukaryotes. This period, from LUCA (Last Universal Common Ancestor) to LECA (Last Eucaryotic Common Ancestor), we have named the Lucacene, to suggest all prokaryotic descendants of LUCA before the appearance of LECA. H...
Article
Full-text available
Differentiation waves offer a different perspective on causality in embryogenesis from that of molecular developmental biology. Janus-faced cybernetic logic, with global and local top down/bottom up dynamics, eschews reductionism, is distinct from emergence, and outlines the process theoretically. Most aspects of differentiation waves require furth...
Article
Full-text available
The logic of molecular developmental biology fails to explain embryogenesis. A new approach, Janus-faced control, involving both top-down control by differentiation waves and bottom-up control via the mechanical consequences of cell differentiations, may be needed. This obviates problems inherent in reductionism with an explicit, testable mechanism...
Chapter
Buckling is a ubiquitous phenomenon in living organisms that occurs often throughout their life cycles. For diatoms, buckling occurs as a micro-, meso-, and nanoscale feature of morphogenesis. From silica deposition of valve characters to cytoplasmic structure behavior and position during morphogenesis, buckling is evident as a three-dimensional (3...
Chapter
In diatom valve morphogenesis, the silicalemma is important in silica precipitation and surface topography. General characteristic undulations on the valve surface are a result of cytological processes, including biochemical and biophysical processes. The resultant valve surface topography is biophysically limited because of the boundary induced by...
Article
Full-text available
Biological development is often described as a dynamic, emergent process. This is evident across a variety of phenomena, from the temporal organization of cell types in the embryo to compounding trends that affect large-scale differentiation. To better understand this, we propose combining quantitative investigations of biological development with...
Article
Full-text available
Many organisms including unicellular (diatoms, radiolaria, chrysophytes), higher plants (rice, horsetail) and animals (sponges) use silica as a main part of skeletons. The bioavailable form of silicon is silicic acid and the mechanism of silicic acid penetration into living cells is still an enigma. Macropinocytosis was assumed as a key stage of th...
Article
Full-text available
The Turing reaction-diffusion model and the French Flag Model are widely accepted in the field of development as the best models for explaining embryogenesis. Virtually all current attempts to understand cell differentiation in embryos begin and end with the assumption that some combination of these two models works. The result may become a bias in...
Article
Widespread horizontal gene transfer (HGT) may appear a significant factor that accelerates biological evolution. Here we look at HGT primarily from the point of view of prokaryote clones, which we take as the descendants of a single cell, all of whom have exactly the same nucleotide sequence. Any novelty that emerges as a random mutation, creating...
Preprint
Full-text available
Recent years have witnessed a convergence of data and methods that allow us to approximate the shape, size, and functional attributes of biological organisms. This is not only limited to traditional model species: given the ability to culture and visualize a specific organism, we can capture both its structural and functional attributes. We present...
Article
Full-text available
In code biology we seek a presumably arbitrary, and thus symbolic relationship between two or more entities, such as the relationship of the DNA triplet code to amino acids. Here we review the differentiation code from the code biology point of view. We observe that lineage trees of mosaic organisms can be subsumed as special cases of differentiati...
Chapter
This chapter contains sections titled:IntroductionMechanical PropertiesOptical PropertiesSurface PropertiesToxicity RestrictionsBiofilmsBacterial SymbiontsDemandExponential Growth vs Stationary PhaseCarbon RecyclingPackagingSummaryAcknowledgements
Chapter
This chapter contains sections titled:IntroductionThe Unique Multiscale Structure of the Diatom FrustulesOptical Properties of Diatom FrustulesDiatom PhotobiologyDiatom and Light ApplicationsConclusion AcknowledgementGlossary
Research
We have designed and constructed a Flipping Stage for a light microscope that can view the whole exterior surface of a 2 mm diameter developing axolotl salamander embryo. It works by rapidly inverting the bottom-heavy embryo, imaging it as it rights itself. The images are then montaged to reconstruct the whole 3D surface versus time, for a full 4D...
Article
Earth's atmospheric composition has changed significantly over geologic time. Many redox active atmospheric constituents have left evidence of their presence, while inert constituents such as dinitrogen gas (N2) are more elusive. In this study, we examine two potential biological indicators of atmospheric N2: the morphological and isotopic signatur...
Article
Full-text available
A list of papers and books of the late Lev V. Beloussov was compiled and is available in Word and EndNote Supplements. The breadth of his work is briefly described.
Article
Full-text available
We have designed and constructed a Flipping Stage for a light microscope that can view the whole exterior surface of a 2 mm diameter developing axolotl salamander embryo. It works by rapidly inverting the bottom-heavy embryo, imaging it as it rights itself. The images are then montaged to reconstruct the whole 3D surface versus time, for a full 4D...
Article
We can improve our understanding of biological processes through the use of computational and mathematical modeling. One such morphogenetic process (ommatidia formation in the Drosophila eye imaginal disc) provides us with an opportunity to demonstrate the power of this approach. We use a high-resolution image that catches the spatially- and tempor...
Preprint
Full-text available
One overarching principle of eukaroytic development is the generative spatial emergence and self-organization of cell populations. As cells divide and differentiate, they and their descendants form a spatiotemporally explicit and increasingly compartmentalized complex system. Yet despite this compartmentalization, there is selective functional over...
Preprint
One overarching principle of eukaroytic development is the generative spatial emergence and self-organization of cell populations. As cells divide and differentiate, they and their descendants form a spatiotemporally explicit and increasingly compartmentalized complex system. Yet despite this compartmentalization, there is selective functional over...
Article
Full-text available
The adoption of powerful software tools and computational methods from the software industry by the scientific research community has resulted in a renewed interest in integrative, large-scale biological simulations. These typically involve the development of computational platforms to combine diverse, process-specific models into a coherent whole....
Article
Full-text available
The late Lev V. Beloussov wrote a 2005 textbook The Foundations of General Embryology which is available in Russian. In 2003 he prepared an excellent, annotated translation of the part of his manuscript for this book on distinguishing positional information models from morphogenetic field models of embryogenesis, which is reproduced here verbatim....
Article
One overarching principle of eukaroytic development is the generative spatial emergence and self-organization of cell populations. As cells divide and differentiate, they and their descendents form a spatiotemporal explicit and increasingly compartmentalized complex system. Yet despite this comparmentalization, there is selective functional overlap...
Preprint
Full-text available
We can improve our understanding of biological processes through the use of computational and mathematical modeling. One such morphogenetic process (ommatidia formation in the Drosophila eye imaginal disc) provides us with an opportunity to demonstrate the power of this approach. We use a high-resolution image that catches the spatially- and tempor...
Preprint
Full-text available
Biological development is often described as a dynamic, emergent process. Yet beyond the observation of gene expression in individual cells, it is hard to conceptualize large-scale patterns that confirm this description. We provide an example of combining theoretical insights with a data science approach. The availability of quantitative data allow...
Article
Full-text available
There are two basic forms of animal development: mosaic (as found in roundworms and sea squirts) and regulative (as found in amphibians and mammals). How might one distinguish between each type of development? Using a four-dimensional spatial representation (x,y,z,t), major features of the developmental process are revealed. To establish the role o...
Chapter
Diatoms are single cells that can be regarded as nature's unique nanofabrication factories. They are "nanobioreactors" producing an extraordinary diversity of patterns and structures on their silica shells that can be used for synthesizing fascinating products. The nanostructured surface of diatoms serves as a template for the formation of biomimet...
Article
Full-text available
The ubiquitous diatoms, single-celled algae with porous silica frustule (shell) morphology and features spanning multiple length scales, offer a promising foundation to convert knowledge of biological structures into novel design techniques. Diatom frustules are often found in nature with distinct deformation patterns suggesting the involvement of...
Chapter
Full-text available
We consider the possibility that embryogenesis may be modeled as the hierarchical construction and implementation of consecutive cybernetic systems and their goal points, and suggest that differentiation waves may provide the regional nested and global communication within the embryo needed to support such a viewpoint. Each cybernetic system in the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The evolution of Earth’s atmosphere has been governed by biological evolution. Dinitrogen (N2) has been a major constituent of Earth’s atmosphere throughout the planet’s history, yet only a few constraints exist for the partial pressure of N2 (pN2). In this study we evaluate two new potential proxies for pN2: the physical spacing between heterocyst...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Abstract- Diatoms are unicellular brown algae with silica walls. They synthesize and store oil in the form of lipid droplets. Much of the crude oil we use comes from fossil diatoms. Extracting oil from living diatoms, as from any other algae, is a cumbersome and cost ineffective process requiring heavy input of energy. We constructed a resonating m...
Chapter
Full-text available
A cellular automaton model, Morphozoic, is presented. Morphozoic may be used to investigate the computational power of morphogenetic fields to foster the development of structures and cell differentiation. The term morphogenetic field is used here to describe a generalized abstraction: a cell signals information about its state to its environment a...
Book
The greatest mystery of life is how a single fertilized egg develops into a fully functioning, sometimes conscious multicellular organism. Embryogenesis Explained offers a new theory of how embryos build themselves, and combines simple physics with the most recent biochemical and genetic breakthroughs, based on the authors' prediction and then disc...
Article
Full-text available
Diatoms are nature’s nanobot because they can be described as cells in a glass house. The three dimensional nanobio-engineered frustules of diatoms have vast applications in nanomaterials and bio-photonics. The amorphous silica of diatom frustules is not a good semiconductor, but when coated with titanium dioxide (TiO2) the semiconducting efficienc...
Book
Full-text available
The greatest mystery of life is how a single fertilized egg develops into a fully functioning, sometimes conscious multicellular organism. Embryogenesis Explained offers a new theory of how embryos build themselves, and combines simple physics with the most recent biochemical and genetic breakthroughs, based on the authors' prediction and then disc...
Article
Full-text available
Embryonic development proceeds through a series of differentiation events. The mosaic version of this process (binary cell divisions) can be analyzed by comparing early development of Ciona intestinalis and Caenorhabditis elegans . To do this, we reorganize lineage trees into differentiation trees using the graph theory ordering of relative cell vo...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we will introduce a method for calculating and visualizing the information content of embryogenesis called the information isometry technique. We treat cell lineage trees as directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) that can be subject to reordering using various criteria. When we compare alternative orderings of these graphs, they reveal subtl...
Article
Full-text available
The cell state splitter is a membraneless organelle at the apical end of each epithelial cell in a developing embryo. It consists of a microfilament ring and an intermediate filament ring subtending a microtubule mat. The microtubules and microfilament ring are in mechanical opposition as in a tensegrity structure. The cell state splitter is bistab...