Richard Fletcher

Richard Fletcher
Western Sydney University · School of Business

BA(Syd); MA(Syd);M.COM(UNSW); PhD (UTS)

About

46
Publications
21,323
Reads
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1,397
Citations
Citations since 2017
1 Research Item
622 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023020406080100
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100

Publications

Publications (46)
Article
Purpose This article investigates the relationship between entrepreneurship and ethics under extreme poverty conditions to unearth context-specific nuances faced by entrepreneurs in these conditions. Design/methodology/approach A qualitative case study, research method approach was used to collect data from established firms engaged in some form...
Article
Full-text available
In international business the country-of-origin and psychological distance concepts play crucial roles. Both have been extensively investigated by researchers. However, the notion that they both deal with country-perceptions as seen from the seller and buyer respectively have mostly been overlooked in the extant literature. In this article, the aut...
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to expand knowledge about how middle class consumers in Sub-Saharan African markets behave, focusing on the potential role of social networks and the subsequent interactions that take place between these consumers and firms. Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative research method approach comprising perso...
Article
Purpose – The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors that influence the growing African middle class (middle of pyramid; MOP) consumers' purchase decision making. Design/methodology/approach – A mixed qualitative research method approach comprising in-depth interviews was used to collect data from middle of pyramid consumers in f...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the use of customer relationship management (CRM) at the bottom of the pyramid (BOP). Design/methodology/approach Qualitative interaction research methodology using case studies was used to conduct the research on the application of CRM at the BOP. Findings The key findings show that at the BOP, CRM...
Article
Research into entrepreneurship and business ethics has attracted increasing attention in western developed markets. However, the focus of recent studies into these issues has mostly been in Europe and North America, In the process, the impact of these issues on consumers and entrepreneurs exposed to extreme poverty has been overlooked. Using findin...
Article
Purpose ‐ The purpose of this paper is to argue that firms need to reconsider application of the conventional marketing mix at the bottom of pyramid (BOP) because variables exist that impact differently on the interaction between firms and consumers at the BOP. Design/methodology/approach ‐ A mixture of qualitative data collection methods was used...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine qualitative issues involved in conducting research at the base of the pyramid (BOP). The paper reports on the differences between anticipated issues and the actual issues encountered in the conduct of research at the BOP in Zimbabwe. Design/methodology/approach Qualitative data collection methods com...
Article
Purpose This paper seeks to argue that family purchase decision making at the bottom of the pyramid (BOP) is dynamic, heterogeneous and an evolving process that can be influenced by contextual macro‐environmental constraints. Because established perceptions of family purchase decision making are primarily drawn from western markets, this Zimbabwean...
Article
This paper explores the differences between communicating with consumers in emerging economies compared with those in more developed economies. The nature of emerging markets is discussed in order to highlight differences due to culture, political and legal, economic, infrastructural and educational factors, that may impact on communicating with bu...
Article
Bottom of the Pyramid (BOP) markets provide distinct marketing challenges to firms either serving these markets or intending to enter these markets. BOP markets have often been criticised for having weak supporting infrastructure such as inefficient or non-existence of distribution systems which hinder firms' ability to distribute products to consu...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine base of pyramid (BOP) customer perceptions on the importance of branding as a purchase driver and to investigate firms' marketing programs used to manage brands at the BOP. Design/methodology/approach Qualitative data collection methods comprising in‐depth one‐to‐one consumer interviews, focus groups...
Article
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that different theoretical approaches are required for the internationalisation of SMEs. A comparison is made of existing theories and approaches with the actual behaviour of SMEs. The paper calls into question the relevance for SMEs of established theories of internationalisation derived from large scale...
Article
International marketers face the challenge of understanding the decision making process that consumers in subsistence marketplaces go through when choosing which products to buy. The unique characteristics of these marketplaces pose distinct challenges which researchers need to address in order to understand what motivates consumers in these market...
Article
This article explores a range of internationalisation options in terms of their adequacy in explaining the patterns of internationalisation undertaken by contemporary organizations. It is argued that there is a life cycle in the internationalisation of firms and that existing explanations of internationalisation cater for some, but not all, element...
Article
'Country of origin' refers to ways in which a buyer perceives doing business with an overseas market in terms of its attractiveness as a source of supply whereas 'psychic distance' refers to ways in which a seller perceives the overseas market in terms of its attractiveness as a place with which to do business. Both are pereceptual constructs. The...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research on internationalisation has mainly focused on the collection and use of information. In this article we examine the role of information internalisation in international business activities of Vietnamese firms. A theoretical model incorporating key antecedents and outcomes of information internalisation is developed. The antecedent...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The paper highlights the need for cultural sensitivity in designing web sites that are likely to be read by different cultural groups within one's own country or by people outside one's own country. Design/methodology/approach The link between culture and communication is established via research and this relates to the web as the web is a...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The purpose of this article is to develop an alternative approach to researching the impact of culture on relationship creation and network formation in Asian markets. Design/methodology/approach A conceptual approach is taken. Findings The paper has argued that in Asian markets culture can be better understood on the basis of cultural gr...
Article
International marketers have been turning increasingly to markets in developing countries as markets in developed countries reach saturation point. Generally they target the wealthy elite and the expanding middle class in such countries. Rarely do they target the masses in these countries who account for 65% of the world's population. It will be ar...
Chapter
The purpose of this chapter is to highlight the cultural differences between emerging and developed markets overseas and the extent to which such cultural differences can impact on market selection for siting an investment, negotiating it, locating investment partners, managing an investment and withdrawal from an investment activity. This will be...
Article
Full-text available
The Banrock Station brand, owned by wine producer BRL Hardy, has been highly successful in the UK and USA, and in the Australian premium wine market. In part, success has arisen from the positive attributes of being a ‘new world’ wine, but the case study shows that it is branding as a ‘green’ wine that supports conservation activities that has give...
Article
This paper explores the differences between communicating with consumers in emerging economies compared with those in more developed economies. The nature of emerging markets is discussed in order to highlight differences that may impact on communication with buyers in those markets. One of the critical differences is that of culture and a comparis...
Article
By means of a case study, this article explores the evolution of international business relationships. Spanning a 40-year period, relationships between an American licensor, an Australian manufacturing firm, and a Thai firm are explored. These relationships (including how they develop, function, and change over time) are studied in the context of b...
Article
Previous research into internationalisation has viewed it as being an export-led phenomenon. Although this is a phenomenon that extends to other activities such as licensing and manufacture overseas, it is usually considered from an ‘outward’ perspective. In this paper it is argued that internationalisation is no longer just an outward-driven activ...
Article
This paper explores the relationship between management characteristics and psychic distance, psychic distance and internationalisation and management characteristics and internationalisation. It is argued that internationalisation takes different forms and that psychic distance will impact differently on each form whether it is outward, inward or...
Article
Countertrade is a global phenomenon that involves interaction between parties in different countries and is driven by reciprocity. The anecdotal literature and the limited descriptive and empirical research to date into countertrade largely ignore these interactions and mostly reflect the perspective of a single country. Such an approach is inadequ...
Article
The purpose of this article is to report the results of an empirical study designed to identify the characteristics of Australian manufacturers with different attitudes towards and intentions to engage in countertrade. The study examines attitudes and intended behaviour towards countertrade in terms of factors which determine the internationalisati...
Article
Traditional approaches towards countertrade view it in terms of the characteristics of isolated actors engaging in different forms of countertrade. An alternative approach for understanding countertrade is provided by the network paradigm. Countertrade, because of its complexity, reciprocity and government involvement, involves connected relationsh...
Article
Full-text available
A firm's competitive advantage can be created through keeping long-term relationships with customers. To achieve a successful long-term relationship, partners have to develop and maintain a high degree of relationship quality. Although the importance and benefits of a high quality relationship is widely recognised, little research has been undertak...
Article
In this study, comparative data of countertrade practices of Japan and Malaysia in terms of country group, size, type and product countertraded, were content analyzed during a nine-year period. The results reveal the two countries' countertrade practices differ in terms of country group involvement and type of countertrade used but are similar in t...
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Full-text available
This paper traces the latest stage in the internationalisation of James N. Kirby Ltd (now Heatcraft Australia Pty. Ltd.), a medium-sized family owned Australian manufacturing firm established almost 80 years ago - namely, its acquisition by a US company as part of the latter's internationalisation strategy. The paper considers the acquisition from...
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT The increasing importance,of Asian markets for future global economy,and international business has been emphasized,by business leaders and management,gurus (Drucker & Nakauchi 1997). China, in particular, has become “the workshop of the world” (Roberts & Kynge 2003) and “the engine behind global trade growth” (Pfanner 2004). The pervasive...
Article
Full-text available
The paper commences with a justification as to why in international marketing it is appropriate to conduct research into business opportunities at the "bottom of the pyramid" in developing countries. The point will be made that whilst most of the focus in developing countries to date has been on the upper and middle classes in these countries, the...

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