Richard T. Fitzgerald

Richard T. Fitzgerald
State of California · Department of Parks and Recreation

M.A. Archaeology

About

34
Publications
10,505
Reads
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347
Citations
Citations since 2016
8 Research Items
134 Citations
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Introduction
The "Maritime Cultural Landscape of Sonoma's Doghole Ports" report is now available from California State Parks Cultural Resources Division. This volume is # 37 in the Publications in Cultural Heritage series. It and many others are available from the State Archaeological Collections Research Facility. The final site report on CA-CCO-18/548 entitled "The Archaeology of Marsh Creek: 7000 Years of Village Life" (#38) and will be coming out later this year.
Additional affiliations
January 1990 - June 1990
San Jose State University
Position
  • Field Director
Description
  • Led excavations of CA-SCL-690 (the Tamien Site) for San Jose State Foundation, under contract with Calif. Dept. Of Transportation.
Education
January 1983 - May 1991
San Jose State University
Field of study
  • Archaeology
September 1974 - May 1977
San Francisco State University
Field of study
  • Anthropology

Publications

Publications (34)
Conference Paper
The search for the precise landing spot of Sir Francis Drake on the western coast of North America has lasted nearly two centuries. The discovery of 16th century Ming Dynasty porcelain and other non-native artifacts at modern-day Point Reyes National Seashore has long been at the center of "Drakes Bay" controversy. This paper presents new archaeome...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents two more radiocarbon dates from LAN-1 the "Tank Site". Building on the first date published in 2015 the new dates confirm the age of the early component at the site yet suggest the existence of probable bioturbation that has potentially obscured the age of the presumably younger Topanga III component. Specific information on the...
Article
Full-text available
Olivella-shell grooved rectangular beads, or N series beads as classified by Bennyhoff and Hughes (1987), are the oldest Olivella wall beads in central California, dating to a narrow time-frame during the mid-Holocene. This bead type, thought to have originated in the southern Santa Barbara Channel islands, has been identified across a wide geograp...
Article
Full-text available
Few items in the archaeological record capture the imagination more than human heads separated from their bodies. Such items are sometimes assumed to indicate warfare practices, where "trophy heads" display power and fighting prowess. Other times, they are interpreted as representing ancestor veneration. Isolated crania are not uncommon in the Earl...
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This paper provides the first radiocarbon date from CA-LAN-1, also known as the Tank Site. This important prehistoric site, long considered the "type site" for the Milling Stone Horizon (MSH), had never previously been radiocarbon dated. Some six decades after the site was first investigated, we provide the date and its specific context, its conven...
Article
Full-text available
The atlatl is one of the oldest and perhaps most universesally used weapons in the New World. Evidence for its use in California is found in nearly every region of the state in the form of engaging spurs. Attachable spurs tend to be the least perishable component of this ancient weapon system. Despite their ubiquity in the archaeological record lit...
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Fluted projectile points are rarely found along the California coast. Only three have been previously documented, one from norhtern California and two from southern California. A fourth found in Orange County is reported here. This isolated artifact made of local material suggests a Clovis presence along the California littoral at the end of the Pl...
Chapter
Full-text available
The discovery of fluted projectile points throughout western California suggests that the region was first widely occupied sometime between 13,200 to 12,800 cal B.P. Yet there is only very sparse evidence of human occupation until about 2000 to 3000 years later, when numerous sites dating between 10,500 and 9000 cal B.P. appear in coastal and woodl...
Article
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Zoomorphic and abstract effiges of the southern California mainland and the Channel Islands have long been thought to date to the late Holocene. However, a comprehensive review of radiocarbon dates from several sites containing effigies, along with the findings from recent investigations, suggest that this representational art form began by at leas...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We use stable isotope analysis to help determine the source locality for Olivella shells used to produce beads recovered from the Windmiller component at CC)-548. We compare isotopic profiles of modern shells collected along the coast to ancient ones. In the process, we discoverd that the Windmiller-period beads, indeed many Northern California bea...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Due to the suite of morturay-related traits that defines the Windmiller culture, most previous archaeological work has emphasized how Windmiller people died rath than how they lived. Other more mundane aspects of Windmiller lifeways, such as lithic technology and subsistence, have been remained largely nknown due to the early excavation dates of mo...
Article
Full-text available
Situated within 25 km of each other on the central California coast, the Cross Creek (CA-SLO-1797) and Diablo Canyon (CA-SLO-2) sites produced basal components dating 6500-8300 cal B.C. making them two of the oldest human occupations on the California mainlnad. New findings from Diablo Canyon (radiocarbon determinations and faunal analyses are pres...
Article
Full-text available
The Archaeology, Histroy and Museums Division of California State Parks created a database of radiocarbon dates for State-sponsored archaeological projects going back to the 1950's including the first radiocarbon assay from California.
Chapter
Full-text available
Three types of chronometeric data were available from SCL-690: obsidian hydration, radiocarbon assays, and traditional seriation of temporally diagnostic artifacts. The single largest body of artifacts retrieved from the site included shell beads and ornaments, which are useful markers of time. Each of these data is discussed followed by a summary...
Article
Full-text available
Eleven Olivella biplicata spire-lopped shell beads from six sites located 250–365 km inland from the Pacific coast of southern California produced AMS dates between 11,200 and 7860 CAL BP. Olivella shell beads were well-documented items of prestige and media of exchange in Native California, and recovery of these examples from inland contexts indic...
Chapter
Full-text available
This paper presents an overview of data from the Central Coast that are supportive of Roberta Greenwood's finding, and proposes that by at least 10,000 cal B.P. the central California coastline and adjacent valleys were home to a well settled and robust population of shellfish and plant gatherers.
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Full-text available
The Metcalf site is one of the most important Early Holocene sites in Central California, that although recognized as containing a very old component suffered from the lack of discrete strata and chronological control that could accurately date the sparse assembalge found deeply buried in the site. This article describes the efforts to provide a ch...
Article
Full-text available
As stated in our original paper (Jones et al. 2002) the Cross Creek site is not of sufficient antiquity to challenge Clovis for temporal priority in western North America, but it pushes the age of the California Milling Stone culture back 2,000 years earlier than previous estimates. The Milling Stone culture and coastal adapations on the southern C...
Article
Full-text available
Recent excavations tit the Cross Creek site (CA-SLO-1797) on the central coast of California revealed stratigraphically discrete midden component dating between ca. 8350 and 7700 cal B.C., making it the oldest mainland shell midden on the west coast of North America. A large recovery volume revealed an assemblage dominated by grinding implements (h...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Nearly 20 years have passed since site CA-HUM-573 was excavated as part of the benchmark Pilot Ridge Project conducted for the Six Rivers National Forest. The site contined a remarkably well preserved house floor associated with numerous Early Broax Lake Pattern tools. Although relatively dated through obsidian hydration, no absolute date had been...
Book
Findings from an extended survey abd data recovery program conducted on CA-SLO-1797, a subsurface archaeological deposit situated in Edna Valley, San Luis Obispo County, California
Article
Full-text available
For nearly half a century, the Milling Stone Horizon has been recognized as an intergal element of California culture history, but representative components have long been thought to be restricted in the southern portion of the state. Claims to the contrary by D. L. True and a few of his studentsfor the presence of Milling Stone Horizon manifestati...
Article
Full-text available
The north coast is notable for its lack of archaeological sites dating in excess of2.200 years B.P. In contrast, central and southern California coastal sites indicate prehistoric occupation as early as 9,000 years B.P. The paucity of early to mid Holocene archaeological sites along the north coast has been attributed to a pair of competing causes....
Thesis
The purpose of this study is twofold. The first is to examine data from three sites(CA-SCL-65, CA-SCL-178(Hildebrandt 1983) and CA-SCR-177, (Cartier 1984), in the southern San Francisco Bay area in an attemp to identify temporally discrete archaeological components which exemplify a subsistence based primarily on the collection of non-acorn vegetal...

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Projects

Projects (4)
Project
Through analysis of site materials from curated collections of 16th century artifacts establish the true location of the landing of Sir Francis Drake in North America. These analysis include AMS dating, carbon, oxygen, sulfur and strontium isotopic analysis and genetic analysis where applicable as well as standard archaeological methods of zooarchaeology, ceramic studies etc.
Archived project
Project
The overall goal of this project is to date and document the extent of the Milling Stone cultures of California and to explore its culture history and its role in shaping the prehistory of California.