Richard A. Fariña

Richard A. Fariña
Universidad de la República de Uruguay | UdelaR · Faculty of Sciences

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About

121
Publications
57,758
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Introduction
Richard A. Fariña currently works at the Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la República, Uruguay. Richard does research in Palaeontology, Evolutionary Biology and Zoology. Their current projects include 'Arroyo del Vizcaíno' 'Pleistocene megafauna' and 'Megafauna 3D', among others.
Additional affiliations
November 1978 - present
Universidad de la República de Uruguay
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (121)
Article
With eight species, Panochthus is one of the most abundant and diverse glyptodont genera during the Pleistocene of South America, as well as one of the largest glyptodonts. The relationship between the shape of the tube and its usage as weapons in the species of Panochthus is explored here; moreover, we intend to assess how they evolved among the s...
Article
Full-text available
The extinct ‘Gomphotheriidae’ is the only proboscidean family that colonised South America. The phylogenetic position of the endemic taxa has been through several revisions using morphological comparisons. Morphological studies are enhanced by palaeogenetic analyses, a powerful tool to resolve phylogenetic relationships; however, aDNA preservation...
Article
The earliest widely accepted presence of humans in America dates to approximately 17.5 cal kyr BP, at the end of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Among other evidence, this presence is attested by stone tools and associated cut-marks and other bone surface modifications (BSM), interpreted as the result of the consumption of animals by humans. Claims...
Article
Within the subfamily Scelidotheriinae, Valgipes bucklandi represents one of the least known taxa due to its scarce records and material found so far. This Pleistocene ground sloth had been registered only in Brazil, within the Brazilian Intertropical Region (BIR) in the states of Bahia, Minas Gerais, Piauí, Rio Grande do Norte and, more recently, o...
Article
Mylodontidae (Mammalia, Xenarthra) is a family of ground sloths widely distributed in the South American fossil record, with members also present in Central and North America. Within the Mylodontidae, Lestodon armatus is the largest species, with an estimated body mass of more than three tonnes. This work focuses on the enlarged lower caniniforms o...
Article
In recent years, the increase in studies on the inner ear anatomy of xenarthrans provided new insights regarding some locomotor and phylogenetic aspects. These works have begun to include fossil specimens, although so far, only two extinct representatives of the suborder Folivora (ground sloths) have been analyzed. In the present study, we present...
Article
Full-text available
Penalty kicks are often decisive in football matches. Therefore, any technique that yields an advantage either in scoring or saving them is of great importance. Here we show the influence of a training programme for goalkeepers on the probability of defending penalties in men's football. Virtual training was used through an app that shows the shoot...
Article
Full-text available
The Arroyo del Vizcaíno collection began informally in 1997, when a group of high school students, teachers and other members of the community extracted around 300 bones from the Vizcaíno stream. Efforts were made by the students to prepare, catalogue and identify the remains, as well as to try to keep the remains in their hometown. The collection...
Article
Full-text available
The inhibitory cascade (IC) represents a developmental model that explains the evolution of molar relative sizes, originally described in rodents but later validated in several mammalian groups. The IC comprises signalling molecules produced by the first molar buds that inhibit the development of subsequent molars and molecules from surrounding tis...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we present various activities shared with the community based on scientific knowledge related to the Arroyo del Vizcaíno site in Uruguay. This site, located on the outskirts of the city of Sauce, presents thousands of fossil bones of extinct giant mammals and evidence of pos-sible human presence. Since its discovery, the local comm...
Article
Full-text available
Extinct sloths (Xenarthra, Folivora) are morphologically diverse, despite some similarities among some Pleistocene genera. Cranial and diagnostic postcranial elements (especially limb bones) are taxonomically informative but the axial postcranial skeleton can prove difficult to classify, as in cases with only vertebral remains or when closely relat...
Article
As the ungual phalanges of tetrapods are the first structures that interact with the substrate, studying them is of great importance when wanting to know the locomotor behaviour of different species. In this work, we analyse the ungual phalanges of the third finger from the manus of several Pleistocene sloths: G. robustum, L. armatus, M. jeffersoni...
Article
RESUMEN Esta investigación tiene como objetivo evaluar la influencia entre el uso de un programa de entrenamiento específico para goleros y el aumento de la probabilidad de atajar penales en el fútbol masculino. El programa se basa en entrenar por medios virtuales y físicos la capacidad del golero de elegir correctamente el lado (izquierdo o derech...
Article
Full-text available
Species distribution models (SDMs) are helpful for understanding actual and potential biogeographical traits of organisms. These models have recently started to be applied in the study of fossil xenarthrans. SDMs were generated for 15 South American late Pleistocene xenarthrans: eight Cingulata (Glyptodon clavipes, Doedicurus clavicaudatus, Panocht...
Presentation
Full-text available
Megafauna 3D is a fossil digitization initiative and an educational project that aims to engage general audiences with paleontology by using 3D models and replicas of fossils of the giant mammals that inhabited South America until about 10,000 years and coexisted with humans. The project includes an online viewing platform of 3D models, interactive...
Poster
Full-text available
The anatomy, osteology and biomechanics of the extremities of the terrestrial sloths (Xenarthra, Folivora) have been studied as examples of their particular characteristics not found in other mammals. In this work, we describe the bones of the hind foot of Lestodon armatus Gervais, 1855, the most represented sloth genus in the fossil record of Urug...
Article
Sloths, like other xenarthrans, are an extremely interesting group of mammals that, after a long history of evolution and diversification in South America, became established on islands in the Caribbean and later reached North America during the Great American Biotic Interchange. In all three regions, they were part of the impressive Pleistocene me...
Chapter
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La palabra fósil, que deriva del latín fossilis, fue empleada por Plinio (23-79 dC) para designar los objetos enterrados. En la actualidad, se refiere a evidencias de la vida en el pasado geológico, que presentan una estructura de origen biológico y que se han conservado en las rocas de la corteza. Los restos fósiles constituyen la prueba directa d...
Chapter
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Se presenta una sinopsis de la biodiversidad extinta de Chile de los principales grupos de invertebrados y vertebrados fósiles de Chile
Article
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Ungual phalanges (the most distal bone within a limb) and claws (the overlying corneous sheath) from the third digit of the forefoot of selected Pleistocene ground sloths (Lestodon armatus, Glossotherium robustum, Scelidotherium leptocephalum and Megatherium americanum) are analysed, as well as those of some living xenarthrans for actualistic compa...
Article
Full-text available
Resumen: La temprana presencia de caballos en campos de la actual República Oriental del Uruguay abre la posibilidad de que el proceso por el cual las sociedades autóctonas devinieron ecuestres haya ocurrido con escasa participación de la sociedad colonial. En este artículo se presenta un hallazgo realizado en el sitio del arroyo del Vizcaíno y se...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we focused on the exceptionally large mammals inhabiting the Americas during the Quaternary period and the paramount role of body size in species ecology. We evaluated two main features of Pleistocene food webs: the relationship between body size and (i) trophic position and (ii) vulnerability to predation. Despite the large range of...
Article
Full-text available
Species distribution models (SDMs) for the last interglacial (LIG), the global last glacial maximum (LGM) and the Holocene climatic optimum (HCO) were generated for three extinct South American Pleistocene mylodontid giant sloths, Glossotherium robustum, Lestodon armatus and Mylodon darwinii. They are recorded co-occurring in some localities includ...
Article
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The following information is missing from the Funding section: Grant name: Using Fossil Proteomics for Resolving Phylogenetics of Extinct Mammalian Orders in Ancient Biodiversity Hotspots Principal. Investigator: Dr M Buckley, The University of Manchester, Life Sciences. Grant held at: The University of Manchester, Life Sciences. NERC Reference: NE...
Article
Full-text available
For over 200 years, fossils of bizarre extinct creatures have been described from the Ameri-cas that have ranged from giant ground sloths to the 'native' South American ungulates, groups of mammals that evolved in relative isolation on South America. Ground sloths belong to the South American xenarthrans, a group with modern although morphologicall...
Article
Full-text available
The end of the Pleistocene was marked by the extinction of almost all large land mammals worldwide except in Africa. Although the debate on Pleistocene extinctions has focused on the roles of climate change and humans, the impact of perturbations depends on properties of ecological communities, such as species composition and the organization of ec...
Article
The moment arms of jaw muscles and the hypsodonty index (HI) have been widely used to infer diet preferences in extinct species. Here, we intend to evaluate the use of the masseter moment arm and HI as dietary proxies in herbivorous ungulates and analyse its relations to diet preference, habitat selection and two continuous variables: percentage of...
Article
Full-text available
Glyptodonts are a group of extinct xenarthrans with several anatomical features that make them one of the most bizarre groups of mammals. By the late 19th century, some authors began to analyze the brain of Pleistocene glyptodonts using natural endocranial casts. These studies revealed the small size of the brain of the large Pleistocene forms. How...
Article
Full-text available
Finite element analyses (FEA) were applied to assess the lower jaw biomechanics of cingu-late xenarthrans: 14 species of armadillos as well as one Pleistocene pampathere (11 ex-tant taxa and the extinct forms Vassallia, Eutatus and Macroeuphractus). The principal goal of this work is to comparatively assess the biomechanical capabilities of the man...
Article
Full-text available
The hyoid apparatus in fossil Xenarthrans is rarely preserved. Its largest bone, the stylohyal, is the most frequently found as an isolated element. It is known for some species of Pleistocene ground sloths (Megalonyx jeffersonii, Megatherium americanum, Paramylodon harlani, Nothrotheriops shastensis, Glossotherium robustum and Scelidotherium lepto...
Article
Full-text available
The hyoid apparatus in fossil Xenarthrans is rarely preserved. Its largest bone, the stylohyal, is the most frequently found as an isolated element. It is known for some species of Pleistocene ground sloths (Megalonyx jeffersonii, Megatherium americanum, Paramylodon harlani, Nothrotheriops shastensis, Glossotherium robustum and Scelidotherium lepto...
Article
Full-text available
The diversity of the order Cingulata is much higher in the fossil record than that represented by the extant species. While pampatheres, one of its extinct groups, are superficially similar to armadillos, recent phylogenetic analysis grouped them with glyptodonts in the clade Glyptodonta. We describe here the first digital endocranial cast of a pam...
Article
Full-text available
Modifications on bone surfaces are taphonomic features that allow, among other aspects of environmental reconstruction, the assessment of human presence. The agents that cause such marks are diverse and of both biotic and abiotic origin. Among the former, marks made by human tools are of paramount importance for archaeologists and paleontologists t...
Article
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In Farina et al . [[1][1]], we claimed that a rich fossiliferous locality, Arroyo del Vizcaino (hereafter, AdV), with marked bones that are much older than widely accepted for human presence in the Americas, deserved ‘to be included in the agenda of early American peopling, either as a not
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Discovered in 1997 during a severe drought, the Arroyo del Vizcaíno site is a richly fossiliferous Pleistocene locality usually covered by waters in a stream near the town of Sauce, Uruguay. Some of the bones show marks with features consistent with those made by human tools. Radiocarbon dates yielded an unexpectedly old age, ca. 30,000 years befor...
Article
Full-text available
The South American Pleistocene mammal fauna includes great-sized animals that have intrigued scientists for over two centuries. Here we intend to update the knowledge on its palaeoecology and provide new evidence regarding two approaches: energetics and population density and relative abundance of fossils per taxa. To determine whether an imbalance...
Article
Full-text available
Current palaeoclimatic reconstructions for the Río de la Plata region during the latest Pleistocene (30,000 to 10,000 years BP) propose dry conditions, with rainfall at the Last Glacial Maximum amounting to one-third of today's precipitation. Despite the consequential low primary productivity inferred, an impressive megafauna existed in the area at...
Article
Full-text available
Human-megafauna interaction in the Americas has great scientific and ethical interest because of its implications on Pleistocene extinction. The Arroyo del Vizcaíno site near Sauce, Uruguay has already yielded over 1000 bones belonging to at least 27 individuals, mostly of the giant sloth Lestodon. The assemblage shows some taphonomic features sugg...
Book
More than 10,000 years ago spectacularly large mammals roamed the pampas and jungles of South America. This book tells the story of these great beasts during and just after the Pleistocene, the geological epoch marked by the great ice ages. Megafauna describes the history and way of life of these animals, their comings and goings, and what befell t...
Article
Full-text available
Approximately 70% of penalty kicks in men’s professional football are scored, hence being decisive in increasing the chances of winning, since matches have only 2.5 goals on average. This study assesses the improving chances for the goalkeeper to save penalty kicks, using actual shot speeds in computer simulation and considering actual and experime...
Article
Full-text available
Among the Tardigrada (Mammalia, Xenarthra), terrestrial sloths were very abundant in the South American fauna during the Cenozoic and were especially well represented in the Lujanian (late Pleistocene–early Holocene) fauna. The last systematic revision of the Pleistocene genus Lestodon from Argentina, Bolivia and Uruguay recognized two species: L....
Article
Full-text available
Biogeochemical techniques have become most useful in the determination of the dietary niches of fossil mammalian species and in the reconstruction of past communities. Stable isotopes analyses (13C and 15N) were applied to study the diet of the mylodontids Lestodon and Glossotherium and other Late Pleistocene megamammals. Only the samples for these...
Article
Full-text available
Coastal exposures of the Santa Cruz Formation (late–early Miocene, southern Patagonia, Argentina) between the Coyle and Gallegos rivers have been a fertile ground for recovery of Miocene vertebrates for more than 100 years. The formation contains an exceptionally rich mammal fauna, which documents a vertebrate assemblage very different from any liv...
Article
Full-text available
During his two years in South America Charles Darwin became fascinated not only with the lush vegetation of Brazil, but also with the gigantic Pleistocene mammals that he found in the drier areas of Uruguay, and in the pampas and Patagonian coast of Argentina. These findings included various ground sloths and glyptodonts among xenarthrans, and hoof...